2Atlas page 63Counties: Morrison, Benton, Isanti, Mille Lacs, Kanabec, Sherburne, and AnokaRum River State ForestMille Lacs Wildlife Management AreaSherburne National Wildlife RefugeLakes: Knife, Ann, Fish, Green and many smaller lakesTowns: Mora, Milaca, Princeton, Cambridge, and many smaller townsRemnants of an old fireplace in Rum RiverState ForestThe Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge hosts Environmental Education Days
3Coniferous ForestThe coniferous forest is the largest of the state's three biomesIt covers two-fifths of the state, including the north central and northeastern regionsOnce mountainous, this rugged area claims both the highest and lowest points in the stateGlaciers sculpted this landscape, leaving relatively thin deposits of till blanketing the bedrock in the northeast and deeper deposits in the southern and western portionsDeciduous ForestThe deciduous woods biome is made up of lake and outwash plains, moraines, and drumlin fields.Topography ranges from relatively level plains, to very steep gradients in southeastern Minnesota along the edge of the Paleozoic PlateauContaining a mixture of grassland and deciduous woodlands, it forms a transition between the Prairie Grasslands and Coniferous Forest
4History, Culture, & People… MORA Dala Horse Mora, MNthe county seat of Kanabec Countylocated at the junction of Minnesota State Highways 23 and 65population was 3,571 at the 2010 censusgot its name in 1882 from Israel Israelsson who together with his family migrated in 1871 from Dalarna, Swedenfirst platted on May 19, 1882, incorporated as a village in March 1891, and was designated a city by state statute in 1973home of a gigantic Dala horse, and a Mora clocka commemorating the town's Swedish rootsplays host each February to the Mora Vasaloppet, the largest ski race in Minnesota, as well as the Snake River Canoe Race, the Mora Half-Marathon, and the Mora Bicycle TourMora ClockaCourt House 2007My daughter skiing the 2010 Vasaloppet
52007 Census of Agriculture: Kanabec County Minnesota% changeNumber of Farms:Land in Farms: ,896 acres 158,736 acresAverage Size of Farm: acres acres + 2Market Value of Products Sold: $19,688, $18,994,Crop Sales $7,347,000 (37 percent)Livestock Sales $12,341,000 (63 percent)Average Per Farm $28, $23,Government Payments: $680,000 $922,Average Per Farm $3, $5,
6Lake information report… Name: KnifeNearest Town: MoraPrimary County: KanabecSurvey Date: 09/11/2006Inventory Number:Lake CharacteristicsLake Area (acres):Littoral Area (acres): 1266Maximum Depth (ft.): 15Water Clarity (ft.): 4Dominant Bottom Substrate: Sand(Abundant)Abundance of Aquatic Plants: 25 Varieties SampledMaximum Depth of Plant Growth (ft.): 4.9 (0-6.2)
7Knife Lake, Kanabec CoComprised of 1,266 acres, Knife Lake is managed primarily for walleye and northern pike. The lake has a maximum depth of 15 feet and an average depth of 9.1 feet. Shoreline length is miles and maximum lake fetch is 2.4 miles. An 18 to 24 inch protected slot limit was implemented for walleye as a special regulation in the fall of A 24 to 36 inch protected slot regulation for northern pike was implemented in the spring of 2003.
8Isanti County “death of a dream…” Linden Round BarnOlof Linden, a Swedish immigrant farmer had the concrete-block dairy barn built in It has an adjacent wood silo. The barn is in good condition and used in agriculture activities. The round barn is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
9Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge consists of 30,700 acres of Federal land dedicated to the conservation, management, and where appropriate, restoration of fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans.Sherburne, one of ten National Wildlife Refuges in Minnesota, is located in the east central region of the state, approximately 50 miles NW of the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area and 30 miles SE of St. Cloud.The primary mission of the Refuge is to represent a diverse biological community characteristic of the transition zone between tallgrass prairie and forest.Established in 1965 to protect and restore the habitats associated with the St. Francis River Valley for migratory birds and other wildlife purposes, the focus of the Refuge today is on the restoration of oak savanna , wetland and big woods habitatsKilldeer With Babies
10References for Atlas page 63: Cover page atlas photo retrieved fromSlide 2 photos retrieved from andSlide 3 photo retrieved fromPhotos of Mora retrieved fromPhoto on page 6 retrieved fromMap of Knife Lake retrieved fromIsanti County round barn photo retrieved fromKilldeer photo retrieved from
12Atlas page 35: St. Louis County Superior National Forest Boundary Waters Canoe WildernessSoudan Underground Mine & Bear Head Lake State ParkBear Island State ForestBurntside State ForestKabetogama State ForestVermilion, Trout, Burntside, Bear Island, Birch Lake and a few smaller lakesMesabi RangeEly, Hoyt Lakes and a few more smaller towns
13BWCAThe Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, is a 1.09 million acre wilderness area within the Superior National Forest in NE Minnesota boobies under the administration of the U.S. Forest Service.The BWCAW is renowned as a destination for both canoeing and fishing on its many lakes and is the most visited wilderness in the United States
14The BWCAW is located on the U. S The BWCAW is located on the U.S.-Canadian border in the Arrowhead Region of Minnesota.Along with Voyageurs National Park to the W and the Canadian Quetico and La Vérendrye Provincial Parks to the N, they make up a large area of contiguous wilderness lakes and forests called the "Quetico-Superior country", or simply the Boundary Waters.Lake Superior lies to the east of the Boundary Waters.The continental divide between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay watersheds runs NE–SW through the east side of the BWCAW, following the crest of the Superior Upland and Gunflint Range.The crossing of the divide at Height of Land Portage was the occasion for ceremony and initiation rites for the fur-trading Voyageurs of the 18th and early 19th centuries.The wilderness also includes the highest peak in Minnesota, Eagle Mountain (2,301 feet / 701 m), part of the Misquah Hills.BWCA: Geography
15BWCA: GeologyThe lakes of the BWCA are located in depressions formed by differential erosion of the tilted layers of the Canadian Shield.For the past two million years, massive sheets of ice have repeatedly scoured the landscape; the last glacial period ended with the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the Boundary Waters about 17,000 years ago.The resulting depressions in the landscape later filled with water, becoming the lakes of today.Many varieties of Precambrian bedrock are exposed, including granite, basalt, greenstone, gneiss, as well as metamorphic rocks derived from volcanic and sedimentary rocks.Greenstone of the Superior craton located near Ely is up to 2.7 billion years old, some of the oldest exposed rock in the United States.Igneous rocks of the Duluth Complex comprise the bedrock of the eastern Boundary Waters.An eastern white pine growing on glacially-scoured bedrock, Nina Moose Lake
16The Boundary Waters area contains both the boreal forest and a mixed conifer-hardwood forest known as the North Woods, which is a transition province between the northern boreal forest and deciduous forests to the south.The ranges of the plants and animals continue north into southern Canada and south into the rest of the upper Great Lakes region.Trees found within the wilderness area include conifers such as red pine, eastern white pine, jack pine, balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce, and white-cedar, as well as deciduous birch, aspen, ash, and maple.The BWCAW is estimated to contain some 400,000 acres of old growth forest, woods which may have burned but which have never been logged.BWCA: Forest Ecology
17BWCA: Human History Native peoples Fur trade Within the BWCA are hundreds of prehistoric pictographs and petroglyphs on rock ledges and cliffs.The BWCA is part of the historic homeland of the Ojibwe people, who traveled the waterways in canoes made of birch bark.Prior to Ojibwe settlement, the area was sparsely populated by the Sioux who dispersed westward following the arrival of the Ojibwe.The Grand Portage Indian Reservation, just east of the BWCA at the settlement of Grand Portage, is home to a number of Ojibwe to this day.Fur tradeIn 1688, the French explorer Jacques de Noyon became the first European known to have traveled through the Boundary Waters.Later during the 1730s, La Vérendrye and others opened the region to trade, mainly in beaver pelts.By the end of the 18th century, the fur trade had been organized into groups of canoe-paddling Voyageurs working for the competing North West and Hudson's Bay Companies, with a North West Company fort located at Grand Portage on Lake Superior.The US-Canadian border, the northern border of most of the BWCAW follows one of the primary voyageur routes
18Soudan Underground Mine The Soudan Mine on the Vermilion Range is the oldest and deepest iron mine in Minnesota.Its opening in 1884 set the stage for Minnesota’s reign as the country’s leading iron ore producer.
19The Mesabi Range is west of Lake Superior, north of Duluth, and far north of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Nearby towns include Grand Rapids, Hibbing and Virginia.The Mesabi Iron Range is a vast deposit of iron ore and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range.Discovered in 1866, it is the chief deposit of iron ore in the United States.The deposit is located in NE Minnesota, largely in Itasca and St. Louis counties.It was extensively worked in the earlier part of the 20th century.Extraction operations declined throughout the mid-1970s but rebounded in 2005.Mesabi Range
20Lake VermilionIn the 1940's the National Geographic Society declared Lake Vermilion one of the top ten most scenic lakes in the United States. And it still is today. With its 40,000 acres of water, 365 islands and 1200 miles of shoreline, it stretches 40 miles across the heart of Minnesota's Arrowhead Region.
21Embarrass, MNThe unofficial record low temperature is −64°F on February The thermometer that measured this temperature was verified for accuracy by Taylor Environmental Instruments, but as it was not recorded at a National Weather Service Cooperative Site, it will remain unofficial.The township name Embarrass was derived from the French word "embarras" based on its meaning of "to hinder with obstacles or difficulties".It was given this name by the French fur traders who were some of the first Europeans to visit the area, and who found the narrow, shallow river very difficult to navigate, and named the river "Embarras".
22References for Atlas page 35: BWCA photo on slide 11 retrieved fromPhotos on slide 12 retrieved from andBWCA photos retrieved fromEagle Mountain photos retrieved from andWhite Pine photo retrieved fromPhotos on page 16 retrieved from and
23References for Atlas page 35 cont.: Photo on slide 17 retrieved fromSoudan Mine photos retrieved from andPhotos of the Mesabi Range retrieved fromLake Vermilion photos retrieved from andEmbarrass River photo retrieved from
25Atlas page 29 Norman Co Mahnomen Co Polk co Red Lake Co Pennington Co Red Lake FallsPlummerBeltramiErskineMcIntoshFertileWhite Earth Indian ReservationMaple LakeRed Lake River
26Prairie Grassland Biome: On a prairie the lines of the landscape are clean. No trees clutter the horizon. Nothing blocks the view extending forever. Ripples run through the grasses so they seem to advance in front of the wind. These are the waves that early settlers saw as an ocean, a sea of grass and unbroken soil stretching as far as the eye could see. Minnesota once had 18 million acres of prairie that stretched across the state from southeast to northwest. Fertile prairie soil grew good agricultural crops, however, and most of the prairie was plowed. The patches of prairie remaining are mostly the remnants that could not be plowed.
27Welcome to Polk CountyPolk County, with a population of approximately 32,000, is located in northwestern Minnesota. The county seat is Crookston. The county is the 5th largest in the state, approximately 2,013 square miles. Polk County consists of 58 townships and 15 cities.
28A Brief History of Polk County Polk County in 1858 had the unique distinction of having two watersheds draining in opposite directions. The Mississippi River, which formed the southeast boundary of the county from Lake Itasca to Cass Lake, emptied its water ultimately in the Gulf of Mexico.While the Red River of the North, which formed the western boundary of the county, emptied its water into Hudson Bay. After all of the changes in land area of the county had been made, the county today lies wholly in the Red River Valley.
29Minnesota Glacial Ridge Project: Glacial Ridge is the nation's largest prairie and wetland restoration project.Glacial Ridge offers an opportunity for The Nature Conservancy and its partners to undertake the largest prairie and wetland restoration project in U.S. history. Only about 5,000 acres are native prairie; the rest has been used for gravel extraction, crop production and cattle and sheep grazing. When restored, the grassland and wetland areas will provide excellent habitat for prairie nesting birds, threatened prairie plants and animals.
30Red Lake Falls, Red Lake Co. Population was 1,427 at the 2010 censusThe county seat of Red Lake CountyLies in the middle of Red Lake Falls Township from which it was separated when incorporated as a village in 1881Status was raised to that of a city in 1898The Red Lake County Courthouse
31Red Lake Falls GEOGRAPHY Located on a tributary of the Red River of the North, the Red Lake River, at its confluence with the Clearwater RiverHISTORYThe site of a North West Company fur post as early as 1796 or 1797, making it one of the oldest sites of European occupation in the State of MinnesotaA French Canadian fur trader, Jean Baptiste Cadotte, partner of the noted British-Canadian fur trader, Alexander Henry, established the post as part of a strategy to ward off Hudson's Bay Company intrusion into the Red River ValleyFamous Canadian explorer, David Thompson, took shelter from a storm in Cadotte's cabin in March 1798The post was abandoned early in the 1800s, as British fur traders withdrew from United States territoryThe surrounding territory was homesteaded by French-American settlers led by Pierre Bottineau, who were relocating via ox cartThe area developed as a grain farming regionIn 1878, Earnest Buse and his partner, Otto Kankel, established a flour mill at the confluence of the two riversThe town prospered for a time, as both the Northern Pacific Railway and the Great Northern Railway ran their lines through the town in the 1880s and early 1890sRed Lake Falls
32White Earth Indian Reservation White Earth Reservation is located in Becker, Clearwater, and Mahnomen counties in north-central Minnesota. Created in 1867 by a treaty between the United States and the Mississippi Band of Chippewa Indians, it is one of seven Chippewa reservations in Minnesota. Although the White Earth Chippewa no longer live as their ancestors did, they have kept alive their tribal heritage. Almost every aspect of their present-day life has been strongly influenced by the past.
33References for atlas page 29: NW Minnesota photo retrieved fromPhotos on slide 25 retrieved from andPhoto on slide 27 retrieved fromPhoto on slide 28 retrieved fromGlacial Ridge photos retrieved fromPhoto of the Red Lake Co. courthouse retrieved fromPhotos on slide 31 retrieved fromPhoto on slide 32 retrieved from
35Atlas page 74Counties: Cottonwood, Brown, Watonwan. Redwood, Renville, Nicollet, & SibleyMinnesota RiverCities: Redwood Falls, Hector, Fairfax, Sanborn, Springfield, Sleepy Eye, & many other smaller townsJeffers PetroglyphsHarkin StoreFort Ridgley State ParkLower Sioux Agency History CenterBirch Coulee Battlefield
36Minnesota RiverThe Minnesota River Valley and tributaries as seen from the air at Redwood Falls. The river occupies only a small portion of the wide valley carved by the Glacial River Warren
37A Mississippi River Tributary… The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles long.It drains a watershed of nearly 17,000 square miles.It rises in southwestern Minnesota, in Big Stone Lake on the Minnesota–South Dakota border.It flows southeast to Mankato, then turns northeast.It joins the Mississippi south of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, near the historic Fort Snelling.The valley is one of several distinct regions of Minnesota.Of Lakota language origin, the name Minnesota means "sky-tinted water or cloudy-sky water" (minne=water and sota=sky-tinted or cloudy sky) and refers to the milky-brown color its waters take on when at flood stage.The valley that the Minnesota River flows in is up to five miles wide and 250 feet deep.It was carved into the landscape by the massive glacial River Warren between 11,700 and 9,400 years ago at the end of the last ice age in North America.
38Redwood Falls, Redwood Co. Alexander Ramsey ParkRedwood Falls, Redwood Co.At 219 acres in size, Alexander Ramsey Park is the largest municipal park in the State of Minnesota. Termed as the "Little Yellowstone of Minnesota", the park is enhanced by 1930's Civilian Conservation Corps shelters and bridges and picturesque Ramsey Falls.Geologic highlights:Morton Gneiss- the park has exposures of the Morton Gneiss which is regarded as the oldest rock in North America (3.6 billion years).It represents the core of the North American continent.
39Minnesota's recorded history begins at Jeffers, where American Indians for thousands of years have traced life stories in rock carvings (petroglyphs)The Jeffers Petroglyphs site is marked by over 2,000 carved images of human figures, tools, and animals such as bison, salamanders, turtles, elk, & thunderbirdsThe earliest carvings here are thought to be 7,000 to 9,000 years old, and the most recent were made about 250 years ago
40Harkin StoreWhen the railroad passed by the small town of West Newton, the store was forced to close with much of the unsold inventory still on the shelves, where it remains today.Location: Eight miles northwest of New Ulm, on Cty Hwy. 21
41Fort Ridgely State Park Yielding to pressure from the U.S. government in 1851, the Eastern Dakota (Eastern Sioux) sold 35 million acres of their land across southern and western Minnesota.The Dakota moved onto a small reservation along the Minnesota River, stretching from just north of New Ulm to today's South Dakota border.In 1853, the U.S. military started construction on Fort Ridgely, near the southern border of the new reservation and northwest of the German settlement of New Ulm.The fort was designed as a police station to keep peace as settlers poured into the former Dakota lands.Nine years later, un-kept promises by the U.S. government, immoral practices by fur traders and crop failure all helped create tensions that erupted into the U.S.-Dakota war in August 1862.Dakota forces attacked the fort twice-on Aug. 20 and Aug. 22.The fort that had been a training base and staging ground for Civil War volunteers suddenly became one of the few military forts west of the Mississippi to withstand a direct assault.Fort Ridgely's 280 military and civilian defenders held out until Army reinforcements ended the siege.Fort Ridgely State Park
42Lower Sioux AgencyInterpretive center operated by the Minnesota Historical Society on the site of the first organized attack in the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862.
43Birch Coulee Battlefield Just before sunrise on Sept. 2, 1862, the sharp crack of a warning shot signaled the start of the Battle of Birch Coulee, one of the hardest fought battles of the U.S.-Dakota War.The Dakota kept U.S. soldiers under siege for 36 hours before a relief detachment arrived from Fort Ridgely.
44References for Atlas page 74: Photo on slide 35 retrieved fromPhoto of MN River on slide 35 retrieved fromPhoto on slide 37 retrieved fromAlexander Ramsey Park photo retrieved fromJeffers Petroglyphs photos retrieved from and /news-room/news-details/index.aspx?nid=52Harkin Store photo retrieved fromPhoto on slide 42 retrieved fromPhoto on slide 43 retrieved from