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Minnesota Atlas Project

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Presentation on theme: "Minnesota Atlas Project"— Presentation transcript:

1 Minnesota Atlas Project
By: Nichole O’Bert

2 Atlas page 63 Counties: Morrison, Benton, Isanti, Mille Lacs, Kanabec, Sherburne, and Anoka Rum River State Forest Mille Lacs Wildlife Management Area Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge Lakes: Knife, Ann, Fish, Green and many smaller lakes Towns: Mora, Milaca, Princeton, Cambridge, and many smaller towns Remnants of an old fireplace in Rum River State Forest The Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge hosts Environmental Education Days

3 Coniferous Forest The coniferous forest is the largest of the state's three biomes It covers two-fifths of the state, including the north central and northeastern regions Once mountainous, this rugged area claims both the highest and lowest points in the state Glaciers sculpted this landscape, leaving relatively thin deposits of till blanketing the bedrock in the northeast and deeper deposits in the southern and western portions Deciduous Forest The deciduous woods biome is made up of lake and outwash plains, moraines, and drumlin fields. Topography ranges from relatively level plains, to very steep gradients in southeastern Minnesota along the edge of the Paleozoic Plateau Containing a mixture of grassland and deciduous woodlands, it forms a transition between the Prairie Grasslands and Coniferous Forest

4 History, Culture, & People… MORA
Dala Horse Mora, MN the county seat of Kanabec County located at the junction of Minnesota State Highways 23 and 65 population was 3,571 at the 2010 census got its name in 1882 from Israel Israelsson who together with his family migrated in 1871 from Dalarna, Sweden first platted on May 19, 1882, incorporated as a village in March 1891, and was designated a city by state statute in 1973 home of a gigantic Dala horse, and a Mora clocka commemorating the town's Swedish roots plays host each February to the Mora Vasaloppet, the largest ski race in Minnesota, as well as the Snake River Canoe Race, the Mora Half-Marathon, and the Mora Bicycle Tour Mora Clocka Court House 2007 My daughter skiing the 2010 Vasaloppet

5 2007 Census of Agriculture:
Kanabec County Minnesota % change Number of Farms: Land in Farms: ,896 acres 158,736 acres Average Size of Farm: acres acres + 2 Market Value of Products Sold: $19,688, $18,994, Crop Sales $7,347,000 (37 percent) Livestock Sales $12,341,000 (63 percent) Average Per Farm $28, $23, Government Payments: $680,000 $922, Average Per Farm $3, $5,

6 Lake information report…
Name: Knife Nearest Town: Mora Primary County: Kanabec Survey Date: 09/11/2006 Inventory Number: Lake Characteristics Lake Area (acres): Littoral Area (acres): 1266 Maximum Depth (ft.): 15 Water Clarity (ft.): 4 Dominant Bottom Substrate: Sand(Abundant) Abundance of Aquatic Plants: 25 Varieties Sampled Maximum Depth of Plant Growth (ft.): 4.9 (0-6.2)

7 Knife Lake, Kanabec Co Comprised of 1,266 acres, Knife Lake is managed primarily for walleye and northern pike. The lake has a maximum depth of 15 feet and an average depth of 9.1 feet. Shoreline length is miles and maximum lake fetch is 2.4 miles. An 18 to 24 inch protected slot limit was implemented for walleye as a special regulation in the fall of A 24 to 36 inch protected slot regulation for northern pike was implemented in the spring of 2003.

8 Isanti County “death of a dream…”
Linden Round Barn Olof Linden, a Swedish immigrant farmer had the concrete-block dairy barn built in It has an adjacent wood silo. The barn is in good condition and used in agriculture activities. The round barn is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

9 Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge
Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge consists of 30,700 acres of Federal land dedicated to the conservation, management, and where appropriate, restoration of fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans. Sherburne, one of ten National Wildlife Refuges in Minnesota, is located in the east central region of the state, approximately 50 miles NW of the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area and 30 miles SE of St. Cloud. The primary mission of the Refuge is to represent a diverse biological community characteristic of the transition zone between tallgrass prairie and forest. Established in 1965 to protect and restore the habitats associated with the St. Francis River Valley for migratory birds and other wildlife purposes, the focus of the Refuge today is on the restoration of oak savanna , wetland and big woods habitats Killdeer With Babies

10 References for Atlas page 63:
Cover page atlas photo retrieved from Slide 2 photos retrieved from and Slide 3 photo retrieved from Photos of Mora retrieved from Photo on page 6 retrieved from Map of Knife Lake retrieved from Isanti County round barn photo retrieved from Killdeer photo retrieved from

11 Atlas page 35 Northeast Minnesota

12 Atlas page 35: St. Louis County Superior National Forest
Boundary Waters Canoe Wilderness Soudan Underground Mine & Bear Head Lake State Park Bear Island State Forest Burntside State Forest Kabetogama State Forest Vermilion, Trout, Burntside, Bear Island, Birch Lake and a few smaller lakes Mesabi Range Ely, Hoyt Lakes and a few more smaller towns

13 BWCA The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, is a 1.09 million acre wilderness area within the Superior National Forest in NE Minnesota boobies under the administration of the U.S. Forest Service. The BWCAW is renowned as a destination for both canoeing and fishing on its many lakes and is the most visited wilderness in the United States

14 The BWCAW is located on the U. S
The BWCAW is located on the U.S.-Canadian border in the Arrowhead Region of Minnesota. Along with Voyageurs National Park to the W and the Canadian Quetico and La Vérendrye Provincial Parks to the N, they make up a large area of contiguous wilderness lakes and forests called the "Quetico-Superior country", or simply the Boundary Waters. Lake Superior lies to the east of the Boundary Waters. The continental divide between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay watersheds runs NE–SW through the east side of the BWCAW, following the crest of the Superior Upland and Gunflint Range. The crossing of the divide at Height of Land Portage was the occasion for ceremony and initiation rites for the fur-trading Voyageurs of the 18th and early 19th centuries. The wilderness also includes the highest peak in Minnesota, Eagle Mountain (2,301 feet / 701 m), part of the Misquah Hills. BWCA: Geography

15 BWCA: Geology The lakes of the BWCA are located in depressions formed by differential erosion of the tilted layers of the Canadian Shield. For the past two million years, massive sheets of ice have repeatedly scoured the landscape; the last glacial period ended with the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the Boundary Waters about 17,000 years ago. The resulting depressions in the landscape later filled with water, becoming the lakes of today. Many varieties of Precambrian bedrock are exposed, including granite, basalt, greenstone, gneiss, as well as metamorphic rocks derived from volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Greenstone of the Superior craton located near Ely is up to 2.7 billion years old, some of the oldest exposed rock in the United States. Igneous rocks of the Duluth Complex comprise the bedrock of the eastern Boundary Waters. An eastern white pine growing on glacially-scoured bedrock, Nina Moose Lake

16 The Boundary Waters area contains both the boreal forest and a mixed conifer-hardwood forest known as the North Woods, which is a transition province between the northern boreal forest and deciduous forests to the south. The ranges of the plants and animals continue north into southern Canada and south into the rest of the upper Great Lakes region. Trees found within the wilderness area include conifers such as red pine, eastern white pine, jack pine, balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce, and white-cedar, as well as deciduous birch, aspen, ash, and maple. The BWCAW is estimated to contain some 400,000 acres of old growth forest, woods which may have burned but which have never been logged. BWCA: Forest Ecology

17 BWCA: Human History Native peoples Fur trade
Within the BWCA are hundreds of prehistoric pictographs and petroglyphs on rock ledges and cliffs. The BWCA is part of the historic homeland of the Ojibwe people, who traveled the waterways in canoes made of birch bark. Prior to Ojibwe settlement, the area was sparsely populated by the Sioux who dispersed westward following the arrival of the Ojibwe. The Grand Portage Indian Reservation, just east of the BWCA at the settlement of Grand Portage, is home to a number of Ojibwe to this day. Fur trade In 1688, the French explorer Jacques de Noyon became the first European known to have traveled through the Boundary Waters. Later during the 1730s, La Vérendrye and others opened the region to trade, mainly in beaver pelts. By the end of the 18th century, the fur trade had been organized into groups of canoe-paddling Voyageurs working for the competing North West and Hudson's Bay Companies, with a North West Company fort located at Grand Portage on Lake Superior. The US-Canadian border, the northern border of most of the BWCAW follows one of the primary voyageur routes

18 Soudan Underground Mine
The Soudan Mine on the Vermilion Range is the oldest and deepest iron mine in Minnesota. Its opening in 1884 set the stage for Minnesota’s reign as the country’s leading iron ore producer.

19 The Mesabi Range is west of Lake Superior, north of Duluth, and far north of Minneapolis-St. Paul.
Nearby towns include Grand Rapids, Hibbing and Virginia. The Mesabi Iron Range is a vast deposit of iron ore and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range. Discovered in 1866, it is the chief deposit of iron ore in the United States. The deposit is located in NE Minnesota, largely in Itasca and St. Louis counties. It was extensively worked in the earlier part of the 20th century. Extraction operations declined throughout the mid-1970s but rebounded in 2005. Mesabi Range

20 Lake Vermilion In the 1940's the National Geographic Society declared Lake Vermilion one of the top ten most scenic lakes in the United States. And it still is today. With its 40,000 acres of water, 365 islands and 1200 miles of shoreline, it stretches 40 miles across the heart of Minnesota's Arrowhead Region.

21 Embarrass, MN The unofficial record low temperature is −64°F on February The thermometer that measured this temperature was verified for accuracy by Taylor Environmental Instruments, but as it was not recorded at a National Weather Service Cooperative Site, it will remain unofficial. The township name Embarrass was derived from the French word "embarras" based on its meaning of "to hinder with obstacles or difficulties". It was given this name by the French fur traders who were some of the first Europeans to visit the area, and who found the narrow, shallow river very difficult to navigate, and named the river "Embarras".

22 References for Atlas page 35:
BWCA photo on slide 11 retrieved from Photos on slide 12 retrieved from and BWCA photos retrieved from Eagle Mountain photos retrieved from and White Pine photo retrieved from Photos on page 16 retrieved from and

23 References for Atlas page 35 cont.:
Photo on slide 17 retrieved from Soudan Mine photos retrieved from and Photos of the Mesabi Range retrieved from Lake Vermilion photos retrieved from and Embarrass River photo retrieved from

24 Atlas page 29 Northwest Minnesota

25 Atlas page 29 Norman Co Mahnomen Co Polk co Red Lake Co Pennington Co
Red Lake Falls Plummer Beltrami Erskine McIntosh Fertile White Earth Indian Reservation Maple Lake Red Lake River

26 Prairie Grassland Biome:
On a prairie the lines of the landscape are clean. No trees clutter the horizon. Nothing blocks the view extending forever. Ripples run through the grasses so they seem to advance in front of the wind. These are the waves that early settlers saw as an ocean, a sea of grass and unbroken soil stretching as far as the eye could see. Minnesota once had 18 million acres of prairie that stretched across the state from southeast to northwest. Fertile prairie soil grew good agricultural crops, however, and most of the prairie was plowed. The patches of prairie remaining are mostly the remnants that could not be plowed.

27 Welcome to Polk County Polk County, with a population of approximately 32,000, is located in northwestern Minnesota.  The county seat is Crookston.  The county is the 5th largest in the state, approximately 2,013 square miles.  Polk County consists of 58 townships and 15 cities.

28 A Brief History of Polk County
Polk County in 1858 had the unique distinction of having two watersheds draining in opposite directions.  The Mississippi River, which formed the southeast boundary of the county from Lake Itasca to Cass Lake, emptied its water ultimately in the Gulf of Mexico. While the Red River of the North, which formed the western boundary of the county, emptied its water into Hudson Bay.  After all of the changes in land area of the county had been made, the county today lies wholly in the Red River Valley.

29 Minnesota Glacial Ridge Project: Glacial Ridge is the nation's largest prairie and wetland restoration project. Glacial Ridge offers an opportunity for The Nature Conservancy and its partners to undertake the largest prairie and wetland restoration project in U.S. history. Only about 5,000 acres are native prairie; the rest has been used for gravel extraction, crop production and cattle and sheep grazing. When restored, the grassland and wetland areas will provide excellent habitat for prairie nesting birds, threatened prairie plants and animals. 

30 Red Lake Falls, Red Lake Co.
Population was 1,427 at the 2010 census The county seat of Red Lake County Lies in the middle of Red Lake Falls Township from which it was separated when incorporated as a village in 1881 Status was raised to that of a city in 1898 The Red Lake County Courthouse

31 Red Lake Falls GEOGRAPHY
Located on a tributary of the Red River of the North, the Red Lake River, at its confluence with the Clearwater River HISTORY The site of a North West Company fur post as early as 1796 or 1797, making it one of the oldest sites of European occupation in the State of Minnesota A French Canadian fur trader, Jean Baptiste Cadotte, partner of the noted British-Canadian fur trader, Alexander Henry, established the post as part of a strategy to ward off Hudson's Bay Company intrusion into the Red River Valley Famous Canadian explorer, David Thompson, took shelter from a storm in Cadotte's cabin in March 1798 The post was abandoned early in the 1800s, as British fur traders withdrew from United States territory The surrounding territory was homesteaded by French-American settlers led by Pierre Bottineau, who were relocating via ox cart The area developed as a grain farming region In 1878, Earnest Buse and his partner, Otto Kankel, established a flour mill at the confluence of the two rivers The town prospered for a time, as both the Northern Pacific Railway and the Great Northern Railway ran their lines through the town in the 1880s and early 1890s Red Lake Falls

32 White Earth Indian Reservation
White Earth Reservation is located in Becker, Clearwater, and Mahnomen counties in north-central Minnesota. Created in 1867 by a treaty between the United States and the Mississippi Band of Chippewa Indians, it is one of seven Chippewa reservations in Minnesota. Although the White Earth Chippewa no longer live as their ancestors did, they have kept alive their tribal heritage. Almost every aspect of their present-day life has been strongly influenced by the past.

33 References for atlas page 29:
NW Minnesota photo retrieved from Photos on slide 25 retrieved from and Photo on slide 27 retrieved from Photo on slide 28 retrieved from Glacial Ridge photos retrieved from Photo of the Red Lake Co. courthouse retrieved from Photos on slide 31 retrieved from Photo on slide 32 retrieved from

34 Atlas page 74 Southwest Minnesota

35 Atlas page 74 Counties: Cottonwood, Brown, Watonwan. Redwood, Renville, Nicollet, & Sibley Minnesota River Cities: Redwood Falls, Hector, Fairfax, Sanborn, Springfield, Sleepy Eye, & many other smaller towns Jeffers Petroglyphs Harkin Store Fort Ridgley State Park Lower Sioux Agency History Center Birch Coulee Battlefield

36 Minnesota River The Minnesota River Valley and tributaries as seen from the air at Redwood Falls. The river occupies only a small portion of the wide valley carved by the Glacial River Warren

37 A Mississippi River Tributary…
The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles long. It drains a watershed of nearly 17,000 square miles. It rises in southwestern Minnesota, in Big Stone Lake on the Minnesota–South Dakota border. It flows southeast to Mankato, then turns northeast. It joins the Mississippi south of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, near the historic Fort Snelling. The valley is one of several distinct regions of Minnesota. Of Lakota language origin, the name Minnesota means "sky-tinted water or cloudy-sky water" (minne=water and sota=sky-tinted or cloudy sky) and refers to the milky-brown color its waters take on when at flood stage. The valley that the Minnesota River flows in is up to five miles wide and 250 feet deep. It was carved into the landscape by the massive glacial River Warren between 11,700 and 9,400 years ago at the end of the last ice age in North America.

38 Redwood Falls, Redwood Co.
Alexander Ramsey Park Redwood Falls, Redwood Co. At 219 acres in size, Alexander Ramsey Park is the largest municipal park in the State of Minnesota. Termed as the "Little Yellowstone of Minnesota", the park is enhanced by 1930's Civilian Conservation Corps shelters and bridges and picturesque Ramsey Falls. Geologic highlights: Morton Gneiss- the park has exposures of the Morton Gneiss which is regarded as the oldest rock in North America (3.6 billion years). It represents the core of the North American continent.

39 Minnesota's recorded history begins at Jeffers, where American Indians for thousands of years have traced life stories in rock carvings (petroglyphs) The Jeffers Petroglyphs site is marked by over 2,000 carved images of human figures, tools, and animals such as bison, salamanders, turtles, elk, & thunderbirds The earliest carvings here are thought to be 7,000 to 9,000 years old, and the most recent were made about 250 years ago

40 Harkin Store When the railroad passed by the small town of West Newton, the store was forced to close with much of the unsold inventory still on the shelves, where it remains today. Location: Eight miles northwest of New Ulm, on Cty Hwy. 21

41 Fort Ridgely State Park
Yielding to pressure from the U.S. government in 1851, the Eastern Dakota (Eastern Sioux) sold 35 million acres of their land across southern and western Minnesota. The Dakota moved onto a small reservation along the Minnesota River, stretching from just north of New Ulm to today's South Dakota border. In 1853, the U.S. military started construction on Fort Ridgely, near the southern border of the new reservation and northwest of the German settlement of New Ulm. The fort was designed as a police station to keep peace as settlers poured into the former Dakota lands. Nine years later, un-kept promises by the U.S. government, immoral practices by fur traders and crop failure all helped create tensions that erupted into the U.S.-Dakota war in August 1862. Dakota forces attacked the fort twice-on Aug. 20 and Aug. 22. The fort that had been a training base and staging ground for Civil War volunteers suddenly became one of the few military forts west of the Mississippi to withstand a direct assault. Fort Ridgely's 280 military and civilian defenders held out until Army reinforcements ended the siege. Fort Ridgely State Park

42 Lower Sioux Agency Interpretive center operated by the Minnesota Historical Society on the site of the first organized attack in the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862.

43 Birch Coulee Battlefield
Just before sunrise on Sept. 2, 1862, the sharp crack of a warning shot signaled the start of the Battle of Birch Coulee, one of the hardest fought battles of the U.S.-Dakota War. The Dakota kept U.S. soldiers under siege for 36 hours before a relief detachment arrived from Fort Ridgely.

44 References for Atlas page 74:
Photo on slide 35 retrieved from Photo of MN River on slide 35 retrieved from Photo on slide 37 retrieved from Alexander Ramsey Park photo retrieved from Jeffers Petroglyphs photos retrieved from and /news-room/news-details/index.aspx?nid=52 Harkin Store photo retrieved from Photo on slide 42 retrieved from Photo on slide 43 retrieved from

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