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Karlie Stonard Psychology PhD Research Student “They’ll always find a way to get to you” Adolescent experiences of social media, romantic relationships,

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Presentation on theme: "Karlie Stonard Psychology PhD Research Student “They’ll always find a way to get to you” Adolescent experiences of social media, romantic relationships,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Karlie Stonard Psychology PhD Research Student “They’ll always find a way to get to you” Adolescent experiences of social media, romantic relationships, and controlling behaviours

2 Content #Current research #Study aims #Methodology #Questionnaire results (pilot study) #Focus group results (pilot study) #Implications of the findings

3 Prevalence of Technology-Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (TAADVA) SourceSampleVictimPerpetrator Associated Press and MTV (2009) US 14 to 24 years old 10-25%15% Associated Press and MTV (2011) US years old 41%- Barter et al. (2009) UK 13–17 years old 4-29% (M) 12-42% (F) - Cutbush et al. (2010) US M age 14.3 years 56%29% Cutbush et al. (2012) US M age 12.3 years 31.5%18% Draucker and Martsolf (2010) US years old 54%

4 SourceSampleVictimPerpetrator Fox et al. (2013) UK years old 17%12% Hinduja and Patchin (2011) US years old 4-10%4-7% Korchmaros et al. (2013) US years old -46% Picard (2007) US years old 10-30%- Tompson et al. (2013) US years old 38%- Zweig et al. (2013) US years old 26%12% Prevalence of TAADVA

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6 Study Aims Scale Development Develop an instrument to measure the nature, prevalence, and impact of TAADVA Pilot Questionnaire Quantitatively explore the prevalence and impact of TAADVA Focus Groups Qualitatively explore the relevance of technology to prevalence and impact of TAADVA

7 Methodology Design: Mixed-methods – Paper-and-pencil questionnaire – Mixed-gendered focus groups Sample: Opportunity sample (1) Secondary School, (2) Snowball via family and friends Participants: year old adolescents (mean age 13.7 years) – Questionnaire: x83; Focus groups: x52 Measures: – Dating experience – Technology use in dating relationships – TAADVA in the last 12 months (x6 behaviours; x 8 technologies) – Semi-structured interview schedule (Thematic Analysis)

8 Questionnaire Results TAADVA

9 TAADVA Victimisation Received at least once in the last 12 months MalesFemales Insulting, mean or hurtful personal comments Phone Call7%0% Text Message22% 4%0% SNS30%26% IM15%4% Chatroom4%0% Based on 54 adolescents aged years old (27 Males; 27 Females)

10 TAADVA Victimisation Received at least once in the last 12 months MalesFemales Comments/acts that were intended to embarrass, humiliate or shame Phone Call8%4% Text Message4%8% Picture/Video Chat8%0% SNS8%15% IM4% Chatroom0%4% Based on 51 adolescents aged years old (25 Males; 26 Females)

11 TAADVA Victimisation Received at least once in the last 12 months MalesFemales Threatening or intimidating comments/acts Phone Call4% Text Message11.5%15% 4%0% SNS4%15% IM0%8% Based on 52 adolescents aged years old (26 Males; 26 Females)

12 TAADVA Victimisation Received at least once in the last 12 months MalesFemales Harassment (e.g. repeated or frequent unwanted contact) Phone Call12%0% Text Message16%4% Picture/Video Chat4%0% 4%0% SNS8%4% Based on 51 adolescents aged years old (25 Males; 26 Females)

13 TAADVA Victimisation Received at least once in the last 12 months MalesFemales Sexual harassment (e.g. unwanted contact or pressure) Text Message4%15% Picture/Video Chat4%0% 8%0% SNS8%4% Chatroom4%0% Website/Blog4%0% Based on 51 adolescents aged years old (25 Males; 26 Females)

14 TAADVA Victimisation Received at least once in the last 12 months MalesFemales Monitoring or controlling behaviours (e.g. Checking messages) Phone Call4%7% Text Message4%11% Picture/Video Chat4%7% 0%4% SNS4%7% IM0%7% Chatroom0%4% Website/Blog0%7% Based on 52 adolescents aged years old (25 Males; 27 Females)

15 Focus Group Results Monitoring and Controlling Behaviours Impact of TAADVA

16 Monitoring and Controlling Behaviours Checking messages Texts, online accounts Demanding passwords Phone lock, Facebook Controlling friends Deleting ex- partners Checking whereabouts etc. Obsessive checking

17 Checking messages: Texts, online accounts “Yes when they like take their phone and then go through and read all their messages to make sure they are not going out with somebody else” (Female, age 12-13) “Yeah because like urm when they’re out or something or you’ve left your phone or they’ve left their phone at your house or something you can just go on their phone because like you know everything about them but you don’t know everything about them” (Female, age 12-13) “I would have thought that it would be boys that look at girls but it seems more girls looking at boys” (Male, age 12-13)

18 Demanding passwords: Phone lock, Facebook “Yeah, it’s like, I’ve had the experience where they’ve had no trust and they got my Facebook password and stuff because I trusted them but they didn’t trust me and they dumped me because I was putting X’s [kisses] to a female” (Male, age 14) “Yeah I’ve seen it on a boy on the phone and they’ve just kept pestering him for the password on the phone to check he’s urm, BBM (Blackberry Messenger)” (Male, age 14-15)

19 Controlling friends: Deleting friends / ex-partners “I know someone, his urm, one of his ex’s got completely obsessed and he had fully trust in her but she never had any trust in him and basically, he never like cheated or did anything wrong but, so she was like ooh can I have your Facebook? I just want to make sure and so he had nothing to hide and so he was like yeah go on then, and she basically didn’t like a few of the girls he had because some of them was his ex’s, so she deleted all the females that he had and all the people that she hated she deleted” (Male, age 14)

20 Checking whereabouts etc.: Obsessive checking behaviours “Yeah it’s like the obsession of making sure that they’re fine, who you’re with, making sure they’re not in getting in trouble and making sure they are not cheating on you, it, it’s just like people that are getting called and text all the time where are you, are you at home, do this, do that, that, it’s the thinking they don’t have any trust, it’s, they’re not going to take it serious and give you that freedom, instead of keeping you like on a leash to make sure you don’t do anything bad, it’s really upsetting because it’s like, they have no trust in me” (Male, age 14) “One of my cousin’s best friends was in a relationship and she couldn’t leave or he would get and all of his friends who would pretty much just annoy her and pester her all the time” (Male, age 14-15)

21 Impact of TAADVA Less impact than in person Easier to stop / ignore More impact than in person More opportunity “Gets in your head”

22 “I think most of it would be less because if they are texting you the simple solution would be to just try and stay away from them in person, but if it was something like a blog then everyone can see it and that could be quite personal” (Male, age 13-14) “I wouldn't take it as seriously if it wasn't face to face” (Male, age 12) “No but you can block people, they always go on about how you can block people, you can like delete people you can create another account where you don’t add those people it seems there is so many ways for it to not happen yet it still does happen” (Male, age 15) Less impact than in person: Easier to stop or ignore

23 More impact than in person: More opportunity “But like text you would have it all the time, whereas if it was face- to-face you wouldn’t have like someone near you all the time like when you went home that would just be it but if you were like online you would get it like all the time and every time you went online you would get it” (Female, age 12-13) “Yeah they can, they’ll always find a way to get to you” (Female, age 12-13) “I think you can do it more on technology and that can sometimes be worse because like you can sort of go and like hide from them and whatever, but on technology they can pretty much get hold of you whatever way they want really” (Female, age 14-15)

24 More impact than in person: “It gets into your head” “I think the problem is with like having bullying on Social Networking Sites and stuff is that it sort of stays with you. Like you have like your phone in your pocket in the day and it stays with you there because like unless you delete all the messages or something or anything which can sometimes be quite a big hassle, like it just stays with you and like whenever you want to go back and talk to that person you see all those messages again and that just reminds you whether as if it is face-to-face like you can put it, it still obviously runs through your head what they have said but you can easily, more easily put it to one side” (Female, age 13-14) “It gets into your head and you can't get away from it because you want to keep reading over the conversation” (Female, age 14)

25 Implications of the Findings Young adolescent girls vulnerable to obsessive behaviours and emotional impact? Help seeking Awareness and education: – Adolescents – Parents – Schools and organisations working with young people (i.e. youth clubs) – Social media sites/apps

26 References Associated Press/MTV. (2011). Associated Press-MTV Digital Abuse Survey August Retrieved from MTV-AP_Digital_Abuse_Study_Full.pdf accessed Associated Press/MTV. (2009). A Thin Line: 2009 AP-MTV Digital Abuse Study. Retrieved from AP_Digital_Abuse_Study_Executive_Summary.pdf Barter, C., McCarry, M., Berridge, D., & Evans, K. (2009). Partner Exploitation and Violence in Teenage Intimate Relationships. London: NSPCC. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Understanding teen dating violence. Retrieved from Cutbush, S., Williams, J., Miller, S., Gibbs, D., & Clinton-Sherrod, M. (2012). Electronic dating aggression among middle school students: Demographic correlates and associations with other types of violence. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association, annual meeting; October 27-31; San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from Cutbush, S., Ashley, O.S., Kan., M.L., Hampton, J., & Hall, D.M. (2010). Electronic aggression among adolescent dating partners: Demographic correlates and associations with other types of violence. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association, annual meeting; November 6-10; Denver, CO. Retrieved from Draucker, C. B., & Martsolf, D. S. (2010). The role of electronic communication technology in adolescent dating violence. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(3), 133–142. doi: /j x Fox, C. L., Corr, M. L., Gadd, D., & Butler, I. (2013). Young teenagers' experiences of domestic abuse. Journal of Youth Studies,. doi: / Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Electronic dating violence: A brief guide for educators and parents. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from Korchmaros, J. D., Ybarra, M. L., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Boyd, D., & Lenhart, A. (2013). Perpetration of teen dating violence in a networked society. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(8), doi: /cyber Picard, P. (2007). Tech abuse in teen relationships. Chicago, IL: Teen Research Unlimited. Retrieved from content/uploads/2009/03/liz-claiborne-2007-tech-relationship-abuse.pdf Tompson, T., Benz, J., and Agiesta, J. (2013). The Digital Abuse Study: Experiences of teens and young adults. AP-NORC Centre for Public Affairs Research. Retrieved from NORC%20Center%20and%20MTV_Digital%20Abuse%20Study_FINAL.pdf Zweig, J. M., Dank, M., Yahner, J., & Lachman, P. (2013). The rate of cyber dating abuse among teens and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(7), doi: /s


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