2Essential phonics knowledge Adults need to:know what graphemes areknow what phonemes areHow graphemes match with phonemesKnow that graphemes should be sounded, in order, from left to right and the phonemes then blended all through the word for reading
3Letter progression: Set 1: s, a, t, p Set 2: i, n, m, d Phase 2Letter progression:Set 1: s, a, t, pSet 2: i, n, m, dSet 3: g, o, c, k
4Set 4: ck, e, u, r Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss Phase 2 consonants and vowels Blending forreading and segmenting for spellingsimple CVC words.Working on: Knowing that words areconstructed from phonemes and thatphonemes are represented bygraphemes.
5What is a phoneme? What is a grapheme? Smallest unit of sound in a wordApproximately 44 phonemes in EnglishWhat is a grapheme?Letters which represent phonemes are known as graphemesThere are definitely 26 letters in the alphabet, so why approximately 44 phonemes?Note APPROXIMATELY because of variations in regional pronunciations as well as variants in positions within a word. This does not detract from the importance of pure enunciation and clear articulation of phonemes. It is not a value judgement on any particular way of speaking. However insistence on purity of sound is the only way children will be able to segment and blend from the start.Regional differences are mostly linked to different enunciations of vowel sounds or voicing some sounds normally unvoiced.
63 big things about phonics A phoneme can be represented by one or more letters:p sh ee ear1
73 big things about phonics The same phoneme can be represented / spelled in more than one way:ai ay a-e2
83 big things about phonics The same spelling can represent more than one sound:ear bear3
9ck ff sh ch ea ie ir oy What is a digraph? Digraph: Two letters, which make one sound.ck ff sh chea ie ir oyNote consonant digraphs always contain two consonants, but vowel digraphs always conatin at least one vowel, but couls also combine a vowel and a consonant
10cake What is a split digraph? A digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent –e.g. cake, hope, cubecakeIt’s not magic ‘e’ or bossy ‘e’ anymore
11Enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation Phonemes should be articulated clearly and preciselyNext 3 slides 20 minutesNote the importance of training everyone who has dealings with the children's reading and writing. Parents will need to be taught the correct enunciation, as this will be different from how they learned. All TAs, volunteers etc will need to be trained in correct enunciation before any involvement in supporting reading and writing. Undoing incorrect pronunciation is a hard and confusing task, so must be correct from the start.
12Search for Articulation of Phonemes Go to YouTubeSearch for Articulation of Phonemes
14Enunciation Vowel Phonemes a e i o u ai ee igh oa oo ar or ur ow oi airearer
15Enunciation Consonant Phonemes b c d f g h j l m n p qu r s t v w x y zshchthng
16How many phonemes? Next 3 slides 15 minutes Count on fingers as a whole group
17Phoneme CountPlay game! Each person or group take one column to count phonemes17
18Answers to Phoneme Count Discuss results.Discuss other ways of playing this game with children – card sort/ using fingers/fans etc.Other games to count phonemes – Sound Buttons and Big Sound Buttons (to identify digraphs)This exercise is for you as adults – would not use this as activity for children, but would need to identify number of phonemes in an unknown word for reading or spelling
21black strong felt blank Consonant Clusters Where there are two or more consonantsnext to each other these are called clusters(ng is not a cluster but one phoneme)Phase 4 referring to clusters not digraphsChildren must not be taught clusters as item knowledge, as there are so many it would almost an impossible task for the memory and not useful. Children are taught to identify, segment and blend individual phonemes. Once they have knowledge of grapheme/phoneme correspondence there is only extension of application of the skill of segmenting and blending through adjacent consonant – no new knowledge.‘We’ used to call these ‘blends’ and learnt all the words with the same blend – strong, strange, straight. This did not teach us to read in a systematic way – we relied on our memories.
24Phase 3 - High Frequency Words Decodable WordsTricky Wordswillseeheyouthatforshetheythisnowweallthendownmearethemlookbemywithtoowasher
25Blending‘Blending’ means merging the individual phonemes in order to pronounce a word.In order to read an unfamiliar word, a child must recognise [ 'sound out’] each grapheme, not letter, and then merge the phonemes together to make a word.Next 6 slides 10 minutesThis re-emphasises the need for correct terminology e.g. digraphs, trigraphs, grapheme.Children are not sounding out the letters, they are identifying the representation of the phoneme (the grapheme) and then blending the sounds across the word
26Using your blending skills As you read this word concentrate on theskills of breaking the word into chunks,identifying the graphemes and thenmerging the individual sounds togetherbleepippitousnessHOW CAN YOU TEACH IT IF YOU HAVEN’T DONE IT ?ActivityCoach your partner to read this word. Make sure you use the correct terminologyDemonstrate how it should be done! E.g.“What grapheme can you see at the beginning of the word?”“Let’s chunk the first part of the word. Can you blend the first two consonants? Now sound out the digraph. Let’s put this part together and add the next consonant. Now let’s continue to blend through the other graphemes.”Feedback – how did you coach your partner ? What did you say ?
27Coaching for blending Model the correct process Break the word down into smaller chunkse.g. blend two sounds and then add a third or blend three and add a fourthReinforce grapheme correspondences so that children recognise them when they see them in words e.g. ai in trainNext slide will allow teachers to practise this coaching model. Note that in guided and independent reading sessions we need to support with effective coaching to ensure that children develop good skills for decoding when approaching new words.This is very important in KS2 also.
28SegmentingSegmenting means identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word [e.g. c-r-a-sh] and writing down or manipulating letters for each sound to form the word.In order to spell the word, a child must segment it into its component phonemes and choose a grapheme to represent each phoneme.Note segmenting skills are used for writing, but as the skills are reversible it is important that they are taught together.
29Using your segmenting skills When you write the following word,concentrate on identifying the individualphonemes in the word and then allotting agrapheme to each phoneme to write thewhole word.FleetosityAsk for suggestions as to how they tackled this and why they chose particular grapheme representations.Note no wrong answer !Feedback – how did you coach your partner ? What did you say ?
30Coaching for segmenting Model the correct processGive auditory promptsSay the word slowly focusing on writing one grapheme at a timeChild must check own word and modify itReinforce grapheme correspondences so that children can reproduce them quickly when they are writingImportant that child notes own progress e.g. if writes brid instead of bird get child to note how the /ur/ phoneme is represented, don’t just correct it. Then allow child to practise with a number of other words with same spelling dictated.Model on flipchart.
31tricky word – digraph – trigraph – consonant cluster On sheet – label tricky word – digraph – trigraph – consonant clusterWhat else is there that we haven’t covered todayTricky worddigraphtricky word – digraph – trigraph – consonant cluster
32Essential phonics knowledge Do you?:know what graphemes areknow what phonemes areHow graphemes match with phonemesKnow that graphemes should be sounded, in order, from left to right and the phonemes then blended all through the word for reading
43Connect 3 – Phase 4 green stamp spin trip trap grip star spoil spoon treecrisptrustcrunchgrabstopPhonics versionTwo teams – blue team – red teamRandomiser gr – st - tr – sp – cr – freeSpelling versionCCVCCCVCC
45Connect 3 – Spelling accommodate accompany according apparent appreciateattachedaggressivecommitteecommunicatecommunityembarrassexaggeratePhonics versionTwo teams – blue team – red teamRandomiser gr – st - tr – sp – cr – freeSpelling versionaccommodateaccompanyaccordingapparentappreciateattachedaggressivecommitteecommunicatecommunityembarrassexaggerateSteal?B to blank screeWord list Y5/6
51Quick phonics based spelling test The assessment is carried out as a traditional spelling testWhen the test is complete highlight the errors on each sheetGroup the test papers together so that children with similar needs can be identified
53Children’s names go here Class record sheet:Green = correctPink = incorrectRead the grid vertically to show individual errors.Read horizontally to identify common errors to aid planning
54The test identifies children’s errors in spelling If children show a lot of errors, it might be worth identifying whether they are able to read the words
55When phonics becomes spelling Make lists – which is most common/ai/ introduced in ph3Alternatives in ph5 -
56Phase 6 Children are taught: Word specific spellings eg. see/sea, bed/head/saidTo become increasingly fluent in the sounding and blending of words when readingTo read and spell words with prefixes and suffixes, doubling and dropping letters when necessaryTo become increasingly accurate when spelling words containing unusual GPCs e.g. laugh, once, answer
57The 4-part lesson – 20 minutes Revise - briefly practice what was taught yesterdayTeach - new GPC or blending or segmenting skillsPractise – what you just taught !Apply - link the skill taught to reading or writingMake sure all children are engaged
59Flash Spelling A daily activity to support focused spelling Write up a word on the boardDiscussMeaningEasy bitsTricky bitsSuggest ‘fixing’ strategies
60accommodate Flash Spelling embarrassed cemetery Look at the word for 10 seconds and say itClose your eyes and picture the wordWrite the word with your finger on the tableWrite on a whiteboardSHOW ME!Remember to discuss strategies that will help children to remember spellingsembarrassedaccommodatecemeteryembarrassedharassednecessaryunparalleledecstasylady’scemetery
61Clear the board A game for two players You will need: High frequency wordsPersonal spellingsYou will need:Game boardA diceA list of six spellings per player
62Clear the boardPlayer 1……………….123456Player 2……………….
63Clear the board Write six spellings for each player on the game board The first player throws the dice, reads the number and looks at the word opposite the numberUsing LCWSC the player tries to spell the word which the other player covers – if correct the word is crossed out – if not, it stays on the boardPlayer 2 takes their turnIf a blank space is hit because the word has already been removed, the player misses a turnThe first to remove all of their words wins
64Player 1………………. Player 2………………. gauging symmetry cobbler harassed accommodategaugingsymmetrycobblerharassedankle123456ecstasy.cemeterypedlarembarrassedunparalleledlady'sWrite six spellings for each player on the game boardThe first player throws the dice, reads the number and looks at the word opposite the numberUsing LCWSC the player tries to spell the word which the other player covers – if correct the word is crossed out – if not, it stays on the boardPlayer 2 takes their turnIf a blank space is hit because the word has already been removed, the player misses a turnPlayer 2……………….
65Player 1………………. badge bridge huge change gem jacket edge dodge age 23456edgedodgeagechargegiantadjustWrite six spellings for each player on the game boardThe first player throws the dice, reads the number and looks at the word opposite the numberUsing LCWSC the player tries to spell the word which the other player covers – if correct the word is crossed out – if not, it stays on the boardPlayer 2 takes their turnIf a blank space is hit because the word has already been removed, the player misses a turnNeed covering card?Player 2……………….
66Now you see me…Two children sit opposite each other with a pile of spelling cards between them – each has a whiteboard or pen and paper.Player 1 picks up a card and reads the word aloud without showing it to the other player and then places it face down on the table.Both players write the word.They turn over the card and check their spellings.If player 1 (who saw the word is correct s/he scores 1 point. If player 2 (who didn’t see it) is correct they score 2 points.The game continues …accommodatecemeteryembarrassedharassednecessaryunparalleledecstasylady’s
67Now you see me …Score BoardPlayer 1Player 2WordPoints