2 Day 1: Learning Objectives 1. How to utilize a therapeutic decision making model.2. How to use four diagnostic cues.3. How to identify four social needs.4. How to identify sources of stress.5. How to recognize when we are engaging in power struggles.
3 Day 1: Pearl of Wisdom”Every child needs at least one adult who is irrationally crazy about him.”Dr. Urie Bronfenbrenner3
5 1. How would you RESPOND?1. Andrew (11) is an angry, withdrawn boy who transferred to your program after last year’s highly publicized incident of violence in his old school. He has had a hard time making new friends, and seems to be the favorite target of Billy (12), one of the school’s worst bullies.
6 2. How would you RESPOND?Hunter (22) is a pleasant young man with mild cognitive disabilities who has been in your independent living program for the past 3 months. Your policy prohibits tobacco use indoors, but Hunter enjoys dipping tobacco and often “forgets” the rules.
7 3. How would you RESPOND?Tiffany (16) is a popular girl whose parents enrolled her in your after school rec program. She and her friend Camille seem to live on their iPhones, and spend most of their time texting each other or posting to their Facebook pages.
8 4. How would you RESPOND?Keisha (15) is your newest foster child, a girl with a history of cutting herself. She’s been living with you and your family for the past few months, since being removed from her grandmother’s custody. You know that she’s been having a hard time adjusting to her new school, but she seldom opens up to give you details.
9 Group DiscussionWhat were you raised to believe about how children should behave?And how they should be disciplined if they didn’t?
10 TACT2 ModelWB p 6The TACT2 Model suggests that decisions in crisis should be made by first assessing the level of imminent danger, then determining the psychological source of the issue.Deliberate or intentional problems can often be handled with straightforward behavior management, but overwhelming emotional crises require de-escalation and counseling first.
12 TACT2 MODEL TACT-2 MODEL “Immediate Danger” Not Immediately Dangerous? “Situation which puts self or others at risk of imminent and serious harm.”
13 TACT2 MODEL TACT-2 MODEL CRISIS RESPONSE Not Immediately Dangerous? 1. Redirect Remove Restrict Restrain
14 “Deliberate Misbehavior” TACT-2 MODELTACT2 MODELImmediately Dangerous?Not Immediately Dangerous?DeliberateEmotional“Deliberate Misbehavior”“Intentional behavior that meets youth’s own needs at the expense of others.”
15 TACT2 MODEL TACT-2 MODEL CORRECTION Deliberate Emotional Reminder Immediately Dangerous?Not Immediately Dangerous?DeliberateEmotionalCORRECTIONReminderWarningConfrontation
16 TACT2 MODEL TACT-2 MODEL “Emotional Crisis” Deliberate Emotional Immediately Dangerous?Not Immediately Dangerous?DeliberateEmotional“Emotional Crisis”“Impulsive reaction to overwhelming stress or misperceptions.”
17 TACT2 MODEL TACT-2 MODEL COUNSELING Deliberate Emotional Give Space Immediately Dangerous?Not Immediately Dangerous?DeliberateEmotionalCOUNSELINGGive SpaceActive ListeningProblem Solving
19 1. Your PROFESSIONAL ANALYSIS? “Is it immediately dangerous or not?”“Is it probably deliberate or probably emotional?”“Because it is emotional, which of the three counseling responses is most appropriate?”
20 2. Your PROFESSIONAL ANALYSIS? “Is it immediately dangerous or not?”“Is it probably deliberate or probably emotional?”“Because it is deliberate, which of the three corrective responses is most appropriate?”
21 3. Your PROFESSIONAL ANALYSIS? “Is it immediately dangerous or not?”“Is it probably deliberate or probably emotional?”“Because it is deliberate, which of the three corrective responses is most appropriate?”
22 4. Your PROFESSIONAL ANALYSIS? “Is it immediately dangerous or not?”“Is it probably deliberate or probably emotional?”“Because it is dangerous, which of the four crisis responses is most appropriate?”
23 Key Point 1: Decision-Making in Crisis In our personal lives at home, discipline decisions are driven by our personal beliefs. In our professional lives at work, however, behavior management must be grounded in a strong understanding of emotional, behavioral and mental health.The TACT2 Model provides a professional framework for therapeutic interventions, based first on the danger level, then on the psychological source of the problem. Deliberate problems can often be handled with rules-based behavior management, but overwhelming emotional crises require relationship-centered de-escalation and counseling first.
25 “Deliberate Misbehavior” “Intentional behavior that meets youth’s own needs at the expense of others.”25
26 Functional Misbehavior WB p 7Deliberate behavior is functional, an intentional choice to act in a way which meets social needs. Dr. William Glasser’s work suggests that all human beings are motivated toward activities and relationships which meet four basic social needs.Most responsible adults have learned healthy, socially acceptable ways to meet their needs, but troubled individuals often rely on inappropriate behaviors which violate the rules or the rights of others.
27 Glasser’s Social Needs Power ImportanceLove BelongingFun PleasureFreedom Individuality
28 Group Activity 1. How exactly do you meet your social needs? WB p 71. How exactly do you meet your social needs?2. How do your challenging children and youth meet theirs?List several activities and relationships that you find needs-fulfilling, compared to the more “inappropriate” ways that your youth might use.
29 Values-Based Rules WB p 8 Prevention Strategy #1 Clearly stated, consistently enforced rules can prevent a great deal of deliberate misbehavior. Rules and consequences that are grounded in core values can also teach and reinforce those values.Because such rules are fair and reasonable, the likelihood of resistance and resentment is reduced.
30 a. Core Values What are OUR core values in this program? WB p 8When considering rules, first identify core values. E.g., Safety or cleanliness.What are OUR core values in this program?
31 b. Behavioral Rules Create a behavioral rule based WB p 8Frame behavioral rules in terms of these core values. E.g., “SAFETY matters in our school, so we won’t tolerate any teasing or bullying.”Create a behavioral rule basedon a value you identified.
32 c. Fair Consequences Create a consequence for your behavioral rule. WB p 8Frame fair and consistent consequences if rules are broken. E.g., “Anyone who teases or bullies will be asked to leave the classroom.Create a consequence for your behavioral rule.
33 d. Confronting Behavior WB p 8When confronting behavior, reinforce core values along with compliance.“Billy, I’ve talked to you before about your intimidating comments. Stuff like that makes everyone feel unsafe. I need you to report to ISS for the rest of the day.”
34 d. Confronting Behavior WB p 8When confronting behavior, reinforce core values along with compliance.“Hunter, you’ve been been warned about dipping indoors. It’s a nasty habit, and makes a real mess. Put your tins of Skoal in the office until we can meet with the house manager tomorrow.”
35 Prosocial Alternatives WB p 9Prevention Strategy #2Prosocial AlternativesSuccessful programs for challenging youth do more than simply punish deliberate misbehavior.They also teach students how to meet their needs prosocially, without resorting to choices which violate our rules and others’ rights.
36 Group Activity WB p 9 Part 1. Against the Rules First, look back at the ways our children and youth meet their needs. Cross off behaviors that we do not allow.Part 2. New WaysNow, brainstorm 3-4 prosocial alternatives to deliberate rule-breaking behavior in each category.
37 BELONGING Build strong caring adult relationships Prosocial ways to allowBELONGINGBuild strong caring adult relationshipsEncourage healthy contact with familyCreate social activities37
38 IMPORTANCE Provide genuine leadership opportunities Prosocial ways to allowIMPORTANCEProvide genuine leadership opportunitiesGive praise and encouragementRecognize actual accomplishments38
39 FUN/PLEASURE Allow free time to play and socialize normally Prosocial ways to allowFUN/PLEASUREAllow free time to play and socialize normallyIntegrate music, art, sports, and field-tripsBe fun with children and youth!39
40 FREEDOM Allow choices with some chores/assignments Prosocial ways to allowFREEDOMAllow choices with some chores/assignmentsMake opportunities for creative expressionASK, don’t tell, whenever possible40
41 Application to Tiffany’s Story WB p 9Application to Tiffany’s StoryTiffany (16) is a popular girl in your after school program. She and her friends spend most of their time on their iPhones, and as a result, it is hard to get any of them involved in center programming. Last week (before the incident with Keisha), you were organizing a Ping-Pong tournament....1. Which social needs are being met by Tiffany’s negative behavior?2. What prosocial alternatives might meet some of the same needs?
42 Key Point 2: Deliberate Misbehavior Deliberate misbehavior is a rational choice which meets a youth’s social needs, often using unhealthy or inappropriate behaviors that violate the rules or the rights of others.Deliberate misbehavior can be prevented with clearly stated, consistently enforced rules, especially when these rules are grounded in core values. Because youth may lack the skills to meet their needs in socially-acceptable ways, it is also important to provide them with prosocial alternatives to negative behaviors.
44 “Impulsive reaction to overwhelming stress or misperceptions.” “Emotional Crisis”“Impulsive reaction to overwhelming stress or misperceptions.”44
45 Impact of StressWB p10Emotional behavior is an impulsive reaction to high stress or distorted thinking.Even rational people can act irrationally when stressful problems become overwhelming.
46 Group Activity My Highly Stressful Day WB p 10 Score each item’s “stress factor” for you.0 =No stress1 = Minor2= Major(5= Maximum)(Completely overwhelming!)
47 Group Activity Total Stress Level for the Day 0 - 8 points WB p 10Total Stress Level for the Day0 - 8 pointsFairly low stresspointsModerate stresspointsHigh stress26+ pointsCrippling stress!
48 Group Activity The last straw: Your THOUGHTS? Your FEELINGS? WB p 10The last straw:“Sorry, but I can’t make the kids’ school play 2nite. Something came up at work. 4give me?”Your THOUGHTS?Your FEELINGS?Your IMPULSE?
49 Stress & ConflictWB p 10Dr. Nicholas Long’s “Conflict Cycle” model illustrates how high background stress (including self-esteem issues) can make a minor incident seem like a major problem to a troubled student.A small issue may trigger an avalanche of powerful feelings in a youth, leading to impulse behaviors that quickly escalate into a crisis, especially if peers or staff react negatively, aggravating the situation.
50 Long’s Conflict Cycle Background Stress Impulsive Behavior including Low Self-EsteemTriggering IncidentNegative ReactionsOverwhelming FeelingsImpulsive BehaviorBased on a model created by Nicholas Long, Ph.D.
51 Stress acts as aMAGNIFYING GLASSmaking smallproblems appearLARGER.
52 List 2-3 stressful issues that your children or youth experience at: HOMESCHOOLPERSONAL
54 Impact of Childhood Trauma Some of our most difficult children and youth are those who have been traumatized by violence, abuse, or chronic neglect earlier in their lives.Recurring abuse events can create “malign memories” which may come to define a child’s outlook on him/herself, adults, and life in general.WB p 11
55 Choose one and discuss: Group ActivityChoose one and discuss:How might this child’s daily behavior be impacted by his/her past trauma and current circumstances?BillyAndrewKeisha
56 Results of Childhood Trauma WB p 11Results of Childhood TraumaPhysical InjuriesBruises, broken bones, scarring, malnutrition, head injuriesPhysical ChangesPhysical and developmental disabilities, traumatic brain injury (TBI), hormonal changesPTSD Symptoms• Dissociation (dazed & unresponsive)• Hyperarousal (constant readiness)• Re-experiencing (flashbacks)
57 Three Emotional States Emotions in victims of childhood trauma:1. Hopelessness 2. Powerlessness 3. ShameSome children come to INTERNALIZE these three feelings as depression and self-abuseOthers learn to EXTERNALIZE the same feelings as anger and aggression
62 Victims of Sexual Abuse Victims of sexual abuse often show unusual sexual behavior as well:√ Complete AVOIDANCE of physical contact (internalizing)√ OVER-SEXUALIZED (even seductive) behavior toward adults and peers (externalizing)24
63 Application to Andrew’s Story WB p 12Application to Andrew’s StoryAndrew (11) is an angry, withdrawn boy who is new to your school. He is a transfer student from a school that experienced some highly publicized violence a year ago. After his self-abusive behavior at his locker, you spoke with his teacher, then contacted his mother for a conference.Which of Andrew’s behaviors seem to be linked to traumatizing experiences in his life?
64 Trauma-Informed Self-Assessment Building therapeutic relationships with traumatized children and youth requires great self-awareness, as well as strong behavior management and crisis resolution skills.Honestly rate yourself on a 4-point rating scale.1= Very limited.I could probably use a lot of work in this area.2= A little weak.I could probably use some work in this area.3= Reasonably strong.I don’t need any real work in this area.4= Very strong.I can help others improve in this area.
65 TACT2 Escalation Model WB p 13 Overwhelming stress can act like a magnifying glass, causing youth to misperceive and overreact to problems.An understanding of how externalizers and internalizers react during each of the predictable phases of an escalating emotional crisis can help us prevent and de-escalate them.
67 This is Your Car in Crisis! 1. WarningSigns: Oil light on, off, then on again?AAA Diagnosis: Oil pressure getting very low. To prevent....Response: Appt with mechanic67
68 This is Your Car in Crisis! 2. EscalationSigns: Light on steadily, off-beat knocking sounds?AAA Diagnosis: About to throw a rod. To de- escalate....Response: Pull off road, turn car off, call for assistance.68
69 This is Your Car in Crisis! Signs: Banging sounds louder, engine stalls out.AAA Diagnosis: Engine seized up, thrown a rod. To protect...Response: Flashers on, neutral, coast to side of road.69
70 This is Your Car in Crisis! 4. RecoverySigns: 900 lb mass of molten metal under hood.AAA Diagnosis: $3,000 to replace with rebuilt engine.Response: Change oil next time!70
71 Signs & Symptoms: Warning Phase Stress: Visible but manageableThinking: Relative clear, rational discussion still possiblePhysically: Tense but trying to cope, utilizing their limited tools.
79 Application to Billy’s Story Billy (12) lives in a small trailer with his mother, her current boyfriend, and his 6- year-old sister Tammy. For the past two years, Billy has been enrolled in the Big Brother/Big Sister program. He has developed a close relationship with Tim, a 30-year-old man who was once a troubled youth himself....1. Underline three specific events that contributed to Billy’s crisis.2. Underline three physical warning signs Tim missed.3. Circle five (strong emotions) Billy experiences.4. Put a large “E” where Billy crosses into the Escalation Phase.5. Put a large “C” where he crosses into the Crisis Phase.
81 Strategies for: Escalation Phase DE-ESCALATION STRATEGIES• Offer time to self• Remove instigators• Actively listen•Involve supportive staff2. EscalationGoal = DE-ESCALATION
82 Strategies for: Crisis Phase PROTECTION STRATEGIES:• Remove aggressor• Remove audience• Call for back up staff• Physically restrain3. CrisisGoal = PROTECTION
83 Strategies for: Recovery Phase RESOLUTION STRATEGIES:• Allow time to self• Active listening• Problem solving• Peer Mediation4. RecoveryGoal = RESOLUTION
84 Inspirational Quote“I’ve come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom.z“It’s MY personal approach that creates the climate;It’s MY daily mood that makes the weather.”
85 “I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. “As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child's life miserable or joyous.“I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal.”
86 or a child humanized or de-humanized.” “In all situations, it is MY response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated…or a child humanized or de-humanized.”-Dr. Haim Ginott
87 Key Point 3: Emotional Behavior Emotional behavior is an irrational, impulsive reaction to high stress. Youth may be triggered by what seems like a minor problem, then become overwhelmed by their feelings, and react negatively to simple staff directives. Youth who have suffered childhood trauma are especially likely to overreact to shaming and embarrassment.An understanding of the predictable phases of escalating crisis can help staff choose the best strategies to calm or manage a stressful situation. It is helpful to understand the differences between youth who externalize their feelings and those who internalize instead.
89 WB p 16Adult Anger TrapsDespite our training, there may be times when we react personally rather than respond professionally to challenging youth.A deeper understanding of our own anger traps can help us defend against emotional overreactions in difficult situations, allowing us to remain clear, calm, and focused instead.89
90 Outside STRESS ANGER TRAP #1 Leftover stress from other home or work problems makes it easy to overreact angrily to a minor situation we might otherwise be able to handle.02/16/2011
91 EMBARRASSMENT ANGER TRAP #2 We feel helpless or inadequate trying to manage a challenging situation, then turn our embarrassment to anger.02/16/2011
92 FEAR/SHOCK ANGER TRAP #3 We feel a natural shock or fear in response to a threatening situation, then turn anxiety into anger.02/16/2011
93 VALUES VIOLATION VALUES VIOLATION ANGER TRAP #4 A core value is violated by an offensive behavior, sparking feelings of deep indignation and righteous anger.VALUES VIOLATION02/16/2011
94 AUTHORITY CHALLENGE ANGER TRAP #5 We engage in an angry power struggle to establish control or dominance over a defiant youth.02/16/2011
95 Will Hunting is a brilliant but troubled young man who doe not want to go o therapy. His new therapist is unprepared for just how expert Will is at sabotaging helping relationships.Which anger traps does Will set for Sean? Which does he resist? fall into?
96 Application to Tiffany’s Story A few minutes ago, one of your rec center kids pulled you aside and said: “You should check out Tiffany’s Facebook page.” As you view the video of what happened to Keisha yesterday, you can feel your heart pounding and your hands trembling. You march up to Tiffany and her friends and growl: “I can’t believe what you did to Keisha, you heartless b----! How could you? Give me that phone right now, or I’ll… I’ll…”Which anger traps do you see? What advice would you give this staff member before, during, or after the confrontation with Tiffany?
97 Your Own Anger TrapsPair up and describe a situation involving youth that was really upsetting to you.TALKER: Tell your partner(s) about the situation that triggered your emotions.LISTENER: Let your partner talk, then try to identify his/her Anger Traps.
98 Avoiding Power Struggles WB p 17When tempted to engage in a power struggle with a frustrating child, remember these things about the psychology of troubled youth and the impact they have on staff.Choose one from each set which seems most meaningful to you, and explain why.
99 a. About the Child/Youth in Crisis a. Remember that stress acts like a magnifying glass, making small problems seem larger than they are.Be aware of the stressors in your youth’s lives. Avoid putting extra stress on a young person whose coping skills are already maxed out.
100 b. About the Child/Youth in Crisis b. Remember that a child’s past experiences give him a very different way of perceiving events than you have, especially if he has experienced childhood trauma.However unreasonable or unfair this perception seems to you, it is very REAL to him. Try to see things through his eyes before reacting to his behavior.
101 c. About the Child/Youth in Crisis c. Remember that during conflict, a troubled child may be her own worst enemy. She will defend, deny, blame, rationalize, and regress from owning her feelings or taking responsibility for her behaviors.Don’t try to reason with her when you can see she is highly agitated. Back off, and give her time to cool off first.
102 a. About Staff during Crisis a. Remember that outside stress (such as a bad cold or problems at home) can make it harder to tolerate the situational stress of a conflict.Be aware of the stressors acting on you, and be able to tell what you are reacting to in a crisis. Reduce your stress when you can before entering “hot” situations.
103 b. About Staff during Crisis b. Remember that everyone has sensitive issues that set them off. Know your emotional hot spots and anger traps before problems occur.Admit to yourself when you are getting angry or overwhelmed in a crisis. Take a deep breath and slow down, or ask for help if you need it.
104 c. About Staff during Crisis c. Remember to catch yourself using sarcasm, belittling comments, or accusations when you are angry. Trying to beat emotional youth at their own game lowers us to their level, and reinforces their negative perceptions of adults.Apologize if necessary (without expecting one in return) and make a habit of letting go of grudges. Every day is a new day, another chance to start fresh!
105 Key Point 4: Self-Awareness Adult anger is an understandable emotional response to threatening situations. Adult counter-aggression is NOT. As staff, we must find a way to respond professionally (rather than reacting personally) when youth are in crisis.An awareness of our own anger traps and willingness to improve our skills are essential parts of maintaining this therapeutic and professional perspective.
107 Day 22013For use by certified TACT2 trainers in training staff in TACT2. Any other use prohibited. Copyright 2013 by Steve Parese, Ed.D.
108 Day 2: Learning Objectives 1. How to process with youth who are genuine emotional crisis:Giving Space, Active Listening, Problem Solving2. How to manage youth who are deliberately misbehaving:Friendly Reminders, Fair Warnings, Firm Confrontations3. How to verbally intervene in dangerous situations:Redirection, Removal, Restriction
109 but people will never forget how you made them feel.” Day 2: Pearl of Wisdom“I've learned that people willforget what you said,they will forget what you did,but people will never forgethow you made them feel.”Maya Angelou109
110 Part 1: Emotional Crises: Counseling Responses
111 Counseling Responses WB p 20 Counseling responses are most useful when a youth's problem behavior is the result of overwhelming emotional stress.In this case, our interventions often rely more upon relationships than rules.
112 Cues to Emotional Crisis Unusual, abnormalBehaviorExpressionsTense, high stressIrrational, distortedThinkingOutside IssuesSignificant112
113 Counseling Responses Red Zone Yellow Zone Green Zone Give Space Actively ListenGreen ZoneProblem Solve
115 “Red Zone” Skill: Giving Space Give space when an emotionally overwhelmed youth is physically safe, but unable to talk rationally.
116 Negative Demonstration: Giving Space Paula throws the phone after talking to her mom:it! She ALWAYS does to me! I’m sick of it!”“You have GOT to be kidding me! Pick that phone up and lower your voice, or you can forget about your home visit, Paula!”What’s wrong with this response?
117 Negative Demonstration: Giving Space Paula throws the phone after talking to her mom:it! She ALWAYS does to me! I’m sick of it!”“It’s really not her fault if the car if having problems, is it? Give your Mom a break! She’s doing the best she can…”What’s wrong with this response?
118 Positive Demonstration: Giving Space Paula throws the phone after talking to her mom:it! She ALWAYS does to me! I’m sick of it!”“Wow, I can see how worked up you are, Paula. Why don’t you take a minute in your room to get yourself together. I’ll come down in 5 or 10 minutes, and we’ll talk about what’s going on.”What’s BETTER with this one?
119 When do we need this skill? Brainstorm 8-10 examples of “Red Zone situations” when a child or youth might need space. ___________________________School: Test-anxious student explodes over a failing grade on a testFoster care/group home: Youth gets verbally abusive when he gets no birthday cards or callsCommunity: Youth blows up/shuts down when mentor cancels visit
120 Recalling Keisha’s Example Keisha is a new foster child in your home. Something she just saw online upset her, and she ran upstairs crying. You got there in time to see her shatter the mirror hanging on her bedroom wall.She looks shocked for a moment, then slumps to the bed crying hysterically. You enter quietly to clean up the glass closest to her, then ask if she’s okay, but she doesn’t answer.
121 Steps to Giving Space Step 1. Acknowledge feelings “Keisha, I can see how _______________ you are right now.”Step 2. Suggest time alone“Why don’t you take a _______________”Step 3. Set limits“You can __________________ and I’ll just sit over here in case you want to talk.”
122 Skill Practice: Giving Space Choose ONE of the emotional situations in which a child or youth needed space. ___________________________1. Envision the emotional situation.2. Script out “Giving space” response.3. Plan a 1-2 minute role play, including the emotional youth, a skillful staff, and supporting/aggravating characters
124 “Yellow Zone” Skill: Active Listening Use Active Listening when an emotional youth is calm enough to begin talking rationally, but not yet ready to problem solve.
125 Three Levels of Active Listening 1. ATTENDING2. DECODING3. REFLECTING125
126 ATTENDING Listening Level 1 Good listening is more than just waiting your turn to talk.Good listeners communicate their concern and willingness to help as much by what they DO as by what they SAY.126
127 Attending Activity #1 Good/Bad Traits? Mark “G” for good habits. WB p 21 shows a list of good and bad things we might say or do when listening to a child or youth in crisis.Mark “G” for good habits.Mark “B” for bad habits.How would each impact the youth?
128 Attending Activity #2 Talkers & Listeners One TALKER Other LISTENER 1. First, pair up with a person.2. Then, decide on roles:One TALKEROther LISTENER1. What did your Listener do to you?2. How did it make you feel?
129 DECODING Listening Level 2 Much of a speaker’s real meaning is communicated non-verbally or para-verbally.Good listeners learn to read between lines and interpret what is NOT said.129
130 55% 38% 7% How is REAL MEANING communicated? Facial expressions & body language55%Tone of voice/ inflection38%Actual words chosen7%130
131 Decoding Expressions/Body Language What EMOTIONS can you decode?• Depressed• Unsure• Worried
132 Decoding Expressions/Body Language What EMOTIONS can you decode?• Defeated• Worthless• Lost
133 Decoding Expressions/Body Language What EMOTIONS can you decode?• Hopeless• Alone• Distant
134 Decoding Expressions/Body Language What EMOTIONS can you decode?• Desperate• Anxious• Overwhelmed
135 Decoding Expressions/Body Language What EMOTIONS can you decode?• Angry• Stubborn• Cornered
136 Ferris’ sister Jeanie tried to catch him skipping school Ferris’ sister Jeanie tried to catch him skipping school. She is now in the police station, sitting beside Charlie Sheen.Observe & decode her body language and facial expressions as they interact!
137 Listening Level 3 REFLECTING Reflective listening paraphrases what we hear youth saying and feeling, without attempting to insert our own opinions or give unsolicited advice.137
138 9-year-old ADD brother Listens "It’s just not fair! No matter how hard I try, nobody likes me! I hate this place. I just wanna go home!""That’s not true! I like you, and so does my hamster, Fluffy. You wanna hold him? You know what I do when I’m in a bad mood? I eat chocolate! You want some chocolate?"What’s wrong with this response?
139 17-year-old snobby sister Listens "It’s just not fair! No matter how hard I try, nobody likes me! I hate this place. I just wanna go home!""Well, if you washed that black gunk out of your hair, and took off that horrid black mascara, you might fit in a little better, Keisha. A little hygiene goes a long way, you know."What’s wrong with this response?
140 Parent tries Reflective Listening "It’s just not fair! No matter how hard I try, nobody likes me! I hate this place. I just wanna go home!""You sound pretty unhappy about all the problems you’re having right now. [Why don’t you tell me more?]"What’s better about this response?
141 Using Reflective Listening WB p 22Using Reflective ListeningTo reflect an emotional statement, pay careful attention to the student’s verbal and non-verbal messages.Then in your own words, summarize what happened to him/her, and how s/he feels about it."It sounds like you feel _____________because/about _________________."EMOTIONREASON
142 Decoding Statement“I see you all slumped over, looking pretty miserable. What’s that look all about?”
143 “You SAY you’re fine, but you LOOK really upset... What’s going on?” Decoding Statement“You SAY you’re fine, but you LOOK really upset... What’s going on?”
144 “It sounds like you’re worried about tomorrow’s court appointment.” Reflecting Statement“It sounds like you’re worried about tomorrow’s court appointment.”
145 “So you’re really upset about what’s happening at home.” Reflecting Statement“So you’re really upset about what’s happening at home.”
146 “So you lost your privileges, and I can see how mad you are about it.” Reflecting Statement“So you lost your privileges, and I can see how mad you are about it.”
147 Example 1: Reflecting with Andrew SCHOOL COUNSELOR: “Andrew, I’m concerned about you walking out of class and banging your head on your locker like that. What happened in class today?”Andrew (looking down): “Well, my stupid teacher was showing this stupid video, and I just didn’t want to be there, so I left. And I couldn’t get my stupid locker open to get my drawing pencils, so I got frustrated and hit it with my head. It’s no big deal. It didn’t even hurt.”“It sounds like you were ____________ by/with __________________________. Do you think we can talk more in my office?”
148 Example 1: Reflecting with Andrew SCHOOL COUNSELOR: “Andrew, I’m concerned about you walking out of class and banging your head on your locker like that. What happened in class today?”Andrew (looking down): “Well, my stupid teacher was showing this stupid video, and I just didn’t want to be there, so I left. And I couldn’t get my stupid locker open to get my drawing pencils, so I got frustrated and hit it with my head. It’s no big deal. It didn’t even hurt.”“It sounds like you were BOTHERED by THE MOVIE IN CLASS TODAY...”“It sounds like you were REALLY FRUSTRATED with YOUR LOCKER THIS MORNING...”
149 Example 2: Reflecting with Keisha FOSTER CARE WORKER: “Good morning, Keisha. How are you today?”Keisha (irritated): “I’m FINE! Why is everyone always asking me how I’m doing? I’m not going to OFF myself or anything, if that’s what you mean!”“It sounds like you are really ___________ about _______________________________. Let’s talk for a minute, okay?”
150 Example 2: Reflecting with Keisha FOSTER CARE WORKER: “Good morning, Keisha. How are you today?”Keisha (irritated): “I’m FINE! Why is everyone always asking me how I’m doing? I’m not going to OFF myself or anything, if that’s what you mean!”“It sounds like you are really AGGRAVATED about THE QUESTIONS PEOPLE HAVE BEEN ASKING LATELY...”“It sounds like you are really UPSET about SOMETHING, THOUGH I DON’T KNOW WHAT...”
151 Extended Reflecting with Keisha “Keisha, it’s not like you to be so rude. All I know is that you got upset last night and broke your mirror. Can you tell me more about what’s going on?”Keisha (intensely): “I’m sorry, but I’m having the worst day EVER! You’d NEVER understand!”Let’s read through Keisha’s story, pausing to fill in the blanks and create a number of reflective listening statements.
152 Positive Demo: Active Listening It’s 10 minutes later, and Paula has been calming down in her room:“So Paula, can you tell me what the incident with the phone was all about?”“It’s my stupid mother! She was supposed to pick me up for a home visit this weekend, but she says her stupid car isn’t up to the trip!”“I can see how angry you are with your mom right now…”
153 Skill Practice: Active Listening Return to the situation with a highly agitated youth who needed space. Imagine that s/he has calmed down enough to tell you what happened.Write two emotional statements the youth might make, and a reflective response for each.
155 “Green Zone” Skill: Problem Solving Use Problem Solving when an emotional youth has become more rational and is ready to discuss the problem.
156 Three steps of Problem Solving Step 1: PROBLEMWhat happened?Often, emotional youth need help organizing their thoughts and feelings after a problem. Use active listening skills to explore what happened, then briefly summarize the chain of events. Try to identify the core problem, but leave deeper therapy issues for clinical staff.
157 Three steps of Problem Solving Step 2: GOALWhat did you want? orWhat do you want?Youth in emotional crisis sometimes act out in ways that contradict their original intentions. Use non-judgmental, open- ended questions to help them describe their intended goals and to envision better outcomes.
158 Three steps of Problem Solving Step 3: SOLUTIONSWhat could you have done? orWhat can you do now?Many times, emotional youth feel “stuck,” unable to find a feasible path from their problem to their goal. Use brainstorming to consider numerous possible options (even bad ones), then analyze the likely consequences of each choice before picking a solution.
159 Problem Solving with Keisha “It sounds like you had a problem at home last night, but what’s REALLY got you upset is whatever’s happening with Tiffany. Tell me more about that.”Keisha (talking fast): “Well, I was at the rec center -- this was yesterday or the day before....Let’s read through Keisha’s story, pausing to fill in the blanks.
160 Key Point 1: Counseling Responses When youth are acting out because of stressful emotional issues, basic listening skills can be very effective. Our goal is to de-escalate youth while building in them greater stress management and conflict resolution skills.“Counseling tools” include Giving Space, Active Listening, and Problem Solving. Giving space allows an overwhelmed youth time to calm down physically and emotionally. Active listening encourages them to de-escalate further by venting to a caring adult through attending, decoding, and reflecting. Problem solving helps them find solutions to the immediate issue and explore better ways to handle future problems.
161 Part 2: Deliberate Misbehavior Corrective Responses
162 Corrective ResponsesWB p 26Use corrective responses when problems are the result of intentional DELIBERATE CHOICES to misbehave.These interventions rely on rules more than relationships.
163 Cues to Deliberate Behavior Usual, NormalExpressionsRelaxed, low-stressRational, clearThinkingOutside IssuesMinimal163
164 Depending on the severity of misbehaviors Corrective ResponsesWB p 26Depending on the severity of misbehaviors1. Friendly Reminder2. Fair Warning3. Firm Confrontation (Consequences)
165 Can behaviors shiftto Emotional?from Deliberate
166 Skill 1: Friendly Reminder Use a friendly reminder with a deliberately misbehaving youth to encourage him/her to abide by rules or expectations.
167 Negative Demo: Reminder Tracy lives in a group home. It’s 15 minutes before bedtime, and she has not done any of her nightly hygiene.“I’ll get to it. I still have time.”“Tracy, it’s no wonder none of the other girls wants to be around you. Your hair is greasy, your fingernails are dirty, and don’t even get me started on your breath!”What’s wrong with this response?
168 Negative Demo: Reminder Tracy lives in a group home. It’s 15 minutes before bedtime, and she has not done any of her nightly hygiene.“I’ll get to it. I still have time.”“Tracy, I’m tellin’ you what! If you don’t get off your lazy butt and get in that shower by the time I count to 10, you can forget about this weekend’s outing! One… two… three… ”What’s wrong with this response?
169 Positive Demo: Reminder Tracy lives in a group home. It’s 15 minutes before bedtime, and she has not done any of her nightly hygiene.“I’ll get to it. I still have time.”“Tracy, there’s less than 15 minutes left before you have to be in bed. It would be good to get started on your hygiene right away, don’t you think?”What’s BETTER about this response?
170 When do we need this skill? Brainstorm 8-10 examples of mild deliberate situations when a child or youth might need a reminder or warning.School: One student teases another about clothes, acne, etc.Foster care/group home: Youth is late getting out of bed.Community: Rec center group won’t let a new kid join a BB game.
171 Friendly Reminder for Andrew Andrew is your 11-year-old grandson. He and his mother have been living in your home for a few months now. He’s been through a lot in the past couple of years, but you know that some of his misbehavior is just plain old willfulness. Tonight, he is in the family room playing on his XBox.VERBAL: “Andrew? You’ve got one minute to finish your video game. Dinner’s about to start.”NON-VERBAL: Raise your eyebrows
172 Skill Practice: Reminders Choose ONE of the deliberate situations in which a child or youth needed a reminder. ___________________________1. Envision the emotional situation.2. Discuss a verbal and non-verbal “Friendly Reminder.”
173 Three Types of Consequences Careful use of consequences can be an effective deterrent to deliberate misbehavior. But if they seem like “threats,” consequences often lead to resistance and resentment.Understanding different types of consequences helps avoid power struggles with challenging youth.WB p 27
174 NATURAL CONSEQUENCESNatural consequences occur on their own, without any staff intervention.Andrew snuck out of bed, and stayed up until 2:00AM playing video games.Natural consequences:· He is tired in school today.· He does poorly on a test.· Others? _______________
175 LOGICAL CONSEQUENCESLogical consequences are applied by staff, but are directly tied to the behavior.Andrew snuck out of bed, and stayed up until 2:00AM playing video games.Logical consequences:· He has to go to bed early tonight.· He loses video games for a week.· Others? _______________
176 PUNITIVE CONSEQUENCES Punitive consequences are applied by staff, but either do not fit the behavior or go to extremes.Andrew snuck out of bed, and stayed up until 2:00AM playing video games.Punitive consequences:· He’s grounded to his room for a week.· He has to do extra dishes tonight.· Others? _______________
177 Application to Hunter’s Story WB p 27Application to Hunter’s StoryAlthough he is allowed to use tobacco outside, Hunter is caught dipping in his room at the independent living center.Categorize each consequence as Natural, Logical, or Punitive.1. Hunter has to give up his dip....2. He has to do extra chores every night...3. Hunter isn’t allowed to go to tonight’s movie...4. Staff are disappointed in Hunter...
178 Instructor Demo: Consequences Tracy lives in a group home. It’s 15 minutes before bedtime, and she has not done any of her nightly hygiene. If she doesn’t get it finished...“I’ll get to it. I still have time.”Consequence #1: Tracy can’t watch tomorrow’s movie.Consequence #2: She might get zits.Consequence #3: She has to take an early shower tomorrow.Consequence #4: She might not feel good about herself.What kind of consequence is each?
179 Skill Practice: Consequences Continue with the same deliberate situations you used for a reminder. ___________________________1. Create four consequences for the behavior, at least one from each category.2. Describe each specific consequence, but let the group guess its type.
180 Skill 2: Fair WarningUse a fair warning with a deliberately misbehaving youth to inform him/her of the consequences of continued misbehavior.
181 Step 1: Giving Warnings 1. Get Youth’s Attention Eliminate distractions. If possible, address the issue privately or quietly to limit embarrassment from peers.It is almost dinner time and Andrew is playing a video game. He ignored your subtle reminders a few minutes ago.1. “Andrew, put the game on pause and look at me.”
182 Step 2: Giving Warnings 2. Give “If/Then” Statement of Consequences Clearly tell youth about consequences which will soon occur.Option 1: “If you don’t <BEHAVIOR CHANGE>,then <NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE>.”For Andrew:2. “If you don’t turn the game off now, then you’ll lose all game privileges for the rest of the night.”For Andrew:2. “If you don’t_______________, then ________________________.”
183 Step 2: Giving WarningsStep 2. Give “If/Then” Statement of ConsequencesClearly tell youth about consequences which will soon occur.Option 2: “If you want <POSITIVE CONSEQUENCE>,then <BEHAVIOR CHANGE>.”For Andrew:2. “If you want to be able to play some more after dinner, then you have to turn the game off now.”For Andrew:2. “If you want_______________, then ________________________.”
184 Step 3: Giving Warnings 3. Request Change or Improvement For Andrew: Make a clear, final request for positive change, encouraging the youth to make a good choice.For Andrew:3. “So please turn it off RIGHT NOW, will you? Don’t make me be the bad guy.”
185 Application to Billy’s Story WB p 28Application to Billy’s StoryTo keep all students physically and emotionally safe, your school has adopted strict rules and consequences about teasing and bullying. “Anyone who teases or bullies will be asked to leave the classroom, and will have to mediate with staff before returning.”
186 Application to Billy’s Story Part 1 WB p 28Application to Billy’s Story Part 1You see Billy with his hand on Andrew’s neck as they walk between classes. Andrew looks uncomfortable.1. Get Attention: “Billy, let him go. Let me talk with you.”2. If/Then: “If you WANT TO STAY OUT OF ISS, then KEEP YOUR HANDS TO YOURSELF.”3. Request Change: “No go to class and leave Andrew alone, would you?”
187 Application to Billy’s Story Part 2 WB p 28Application to Billy’s Story Part 2Billy rolls his eyes and says, “I was just walking him to class.” You offer a second warning.1. Get Attention: “Billy, look at me. I’m serious.”2. If/Then: “If you don’t ____________, then ___________________________.”3. Request Change: “So make a good choice and ______________________.”
188 Application to Billy’s Story Part 2 WB p 28Application to Billy’s Story Part 2Billy rolls his eyes and says, “I was just walking him to class.” You offer a second warning.1. Get Attention: “Billy, look at me. I’m serious.”2. If/Then: “If you don’t TAKE YOUR HANDS OF ANDREW, then YOU’RE GOING TO ISS RIGHT NOW.”3. Request Change: “So make a good choice and LEAVE HIM ALONE.”
189 Instructor Demo: Warnings Tracy lives in a group home. It’s 15 minutes before bedtime, and she has not done any of her nightly hygiene. You decide to give her a fair warning.“I’ll get to it. I still have time.”Warning: “Tracy, please put the magazine down and listen to me. Unless you want to get moved to the earliest shower time tomorrow evening, you have to get up and get into the shower right now. Please don’t make this a problem. Just get up and start your hygiene routine.”
190 Skill Practice: Warnings Continue with the same deliberate situation you used for the previous activity, but imagine that it has worsened. ___________________________1. Script a 3-step WARNING.2. Plan a 1-2 minute role play of both the reminder and warning, including the deliberate youth, a skillful staff, and supporting/aggravating characters.
191 Before Confronting WB p 26 When a behavior continues despite a fair warning of reasonable consequences, take a step back. Ask yourself:1. Environment: If we changed the setting or timing, would the behavior improve?2. Staff: Am I escalating the problem?3. Misdiagnosis: Is this an emotional issue in disguise?
192 Skill 3: Firm Confrontation or ConsequencesUse a firm behavioral confrontation to address a serious deliberate misbehavior when fair warnings have failed to encourage compliance with the rules.
193 Step 1: Confronting Behavior 1. Describe MISBEHAVIORTell youth what he's done wrong. Use specific and objective terms. Avoid general or emotional phrases.Dinner has begun and Andrew is STILL playing his video game.1. “Andrew, I asked you several minutes ago to turn the game off, and you’ve ignored me.”
194 Step 2: Confronting Behavior 2. State EFFECTSTell youth WHY what he's doing is wrong. Briefly explain how the behavior is impacting others, the environment, or you.Andrew is STILL playing his game.2. “It’s rude to keep everyone waiting for you at dinner.”
195 Step 3: Confronting Behavior 3. Give CONSEQUENCESApply reasonable and enforceable consequences (or if you haven’t previously given a warning, give a choice instead).Andrew is STILL playing his game.3. “You know the rules: You lose game privileges for the rest of the night. Now come to the table.”
196 Avoiding Power Struggles WB p 29Typically, youth will respond to consequences from staff with some sort of angry retort.It can be exceptionally challenging to remain professional in moments like these!
197 Avoiding Power Struggles “That’s not fair! You didn’t give me a warning like you’re ‘sposed to! Besides, I’m not even hungry! And you’re not my father, so you can’t tell me what to do!”“It’s a good thing I’m NOT your father, or I’d…”
198 Avoiding Power Struggles “That’s not fair! You didn’t give me a warning like you’re ‘sposed to! Besides, I’m not even hungry! And you’re not my father, so you can’t tell me what to do!”“Yes, I DID give you a warning! If you’d clean the wax out of your ears, maybe you could hear me!”
199 Avoiding Power Struggles “That’s not fair! You didn’t give me a warning like you’re ‘sposed to! Besides, I’m not even hungry! And you’re not my father, so you can’t tell me what to do!”“You know, it’s no wonder your mother started drinking again…”
200 Good Tactics When Kids Argue √ Lower your own tone. √ Check your body language. √ Refocus on the issue. √ Let other staff assist. √ Allow a small face-saving gesture.
201 Principal Verne gets into a major power struggle with Bender over the missing screw. Which anger traps does the principal fall into?What SHOULD he have done to confront the problem using the steps we’ve discussed?
202 Practice Confronting Behavior Framing consequences using the steps described helps us to remain in professional mode in highly stressful situations.By describing the effects and emphasizing values, this approach assures that youth understand not only WHAT they’ve done wrong, but WHY it is wrong.202
203 Application to Tiffany’s Story You manage an after school rec program at the community center.Two days after losing your cool over the incident with Keisha, Tiffany arrives with Camille in tow.You pull them aside to apologize for losing your temper and confront them on their hurtful behavior.
204 Application to Tiffany’s Story “Girls, I want to start out by apologizing for losing my temper the other day. I should have been more professional.”Step 1 Misbehavior:“That doesn’t change the fact that:the two of you assaulted another girl here in my rec center, then humiliated her publicly on the Internet.”Step 1 Misbehavior:“That doesn’t change the fact that:_______________________________
205 Application to Tiffany’s Story Step 2 Effects/Values:“I am angry and disappointed in both of you. We try to keep this place safe and secure and what you did was hateful. It makes everyone here feel unsafe.”Step 2 Effects/Values:“I am ___________________________.We try to keep this place __________and what you did __________________________________________________Step 3 Consequences:“So for the next 2 weeks, you are banned from the center.”Step 3 Consequences:“So for the next 2 weeks, you are __________________________________.”
206 Application to Tiffany’s Story Camille looks ashamed of herself, but Tiffany says:“That’s fine. I hate this stupid place anyway!”BETTER: “We’ll see you again in two weeks, girls.”“Then consider it permanent, you twisted, heartless excuse for a human being!”
207 Instructor Demo: Confronting Tracy lives in a group home. It’s now bedtime, and she has just barely begun her nightly hygiene. This isn’t the first time...“I’m going as fast as I can!”1. Misbehavior: “Tracy, it’s bedtime, and you haven’t finished your hygiene. You ignored my reminders and waited until the very last minute to get started.”2. Effects/Values: “Now it looks like you’ll be late to bed. Taking care of ourselves and being on time is important to us here. You know that.”3. Consequences: “So tomorrow you’ll have the early shower time. If you can be more responsible, we’ll move you back to your regular time.”
208 Instructor Demo: Confronting Tracy lives in a group home. It’s now bedtime, and she has just barely begun her nightly hygiene. This isn’t the first time...“That’s not fair! I’m going as quickly as I can! What more do you want from me?”“It’d be great if you could act your age instead of making me treat you like a 6-year-old!”“Just to make better decisions, Tracy. You’ll get a chance to show us that tomorrow night.”
209 Skill Practice: Confronting Continue with the same deliberate situation you used for the previous activity, but imagine that it has worsened. ___________________________1. Script a 3-step BEHAVIORAL CONFRONTATION. Write an angry and a calm response to a youth come-back.2. Plan a 1-2 minute role play, including the deliberate youth, a skillful staff, and supporting/aggravating characters.
210 Key Point 2: Corrective Responses When youth misbehave deliberately to meet their social needs at the expense of others, behavior management is often the best approach. Our goal is to correct the behavior with minimal disruption to the program.“Corrective tools” include Reminding, Warning, and Confronting behavior. A reminder verbally or non-verbally prompts the youth to correct his/her own behavior without mention of consequences. A warning informs the youth of consequences, in an effort to encourage a better choice. A professional confrontation applies consequences while also reinforcing core values.
211 Key Point 3: Using Consequences A deeper understanding of consequences (natural, logical, and punitive) can be helpful when enforcing rules. Warning youth about natural consequences offers them valuable insights into the impact of their choices. Because logical consequences ensure that “the punishment fits the crime,” youth are less likely to react with resentment and resistance than with random or punitive consequences.In addition, as staff we must control our own emotions when confronting behavior. It is important to use a non-threatening tone and body language, to stay focused on the behavioral issue, and to allow other staff to assist rather than engaging youth in angry power struggles.
213 Crisis Responses “Immediate Danger” WB p 31Crisis responses focus on safety and security.Use them when problems are on their way tobecoming IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS, regardlessof the psychological source.“Immediate Danger”“Situation which puts self or others at risk of imminent and serious harm.”
214 Crisis Responses Response Description 1. Redirect Issuing a clear, calm request for a safer behavior.2. Remove Moving youth to a safer location.3. Restrict Keeping youth in a safe area/out of an unsafe one.4. Restrain Physically holding a youth until s/he is safe.
215 Situational Judgment in Crisis 1. After lunch, you see Billy shove Andrew into a wall and knee him in the groin. A group of other boys are nearby, cheering Billy on.2. A few minutes later, you are walking Billy to the office when a rotten apple strikes him in the head.You both turn and see Andrew about to throw another one. As Billy tenses to lunge at Andrew, a passing staff member (Mr. Burgess) laughs: “Good for you Andy! It’s about time!”
216 Situational Judgment in Crisis 3. A few hours after confronting Tiffany’s behavior, Keisha walks into your rec center with blood on her shirt. She looks shaken up, almost as if she was sleep walking. As you try to assess Keisha’s injuries, Tiffany storms in, holding her bloody arm. “That b---- cut me! Where is she? I’m going to kill her!”4. As you work with one of the other staff to calm the situation, you see that Keisha has backed herself into a corner, holding a bloody box cutter in front of her with both hands. Her eyes are unfocused and her hands are trembling wildly. Camille is screaming: “Oh my God, she’s going to kill herself!” Another youth is reaching for his cell phone, trying to record the whole event.
217 Managing Volatile Situations In situations like these, we can’t afford to react in “fight or flight” mode. We need a plan, an approach.Step 1. ASSESS THE SITUATIONStep 2. ESTABLISH YOURSELFStep 3. INTERVENEOption 1. REDIRECTOption 2. REMOVEOption 3. RESTRICTOption 4. RESTRAIN
218 1: Assess the Situation WB p 32 • How dangerous is the situation? Are weapons involved?• How large and/or irrational is the person?• Are other students or staff in danger?• Should I wait for more staff or police back-up, or initiate this now?• Is physical intervention needed, or can I talk this situation down?• Can a physical restraint be done safely in this setting without causing more harm?
219 2: Establish Yourself a. Approach the situation calmly. WB p 32 • Make eye contact, appearing centered and competent.• Introduce yourself if needed; call youth by first name, if known.• State that you are here to help.• Allow at least 3-4 feet of space and avoid touching the youth.
220 2: Establish Yourself b. Monitor your tone of voice, expressions, etc. WB p 32b. Monitor your tone of voice, expressions, etc.• Pitch your voice low, speaking clearly.• Maintain an open and concerned expression, but not anxious or overly friendly.• Stand firmly, hands low, slightly turned, in a non-threatening posture.
221 3: Intervene Verbally or Physically Option 1. REDIRECT the behaviorOption 2. REMOVE the aggressor, the target, the aggravator or the audienceOption 3. RESTRICT the youth to a safe place, or from an unsafe oneOption 4. RESTRAIN the youth221
222 Response 1: Redirect Issue a clear, calm request for a safer behavior. Get the individual’s attention and calmly, clearly request a specific safer behavior.“Keisha, look at me. Put the box cutter on the floor.”
223 Redirecting BillyIn Situation 1, Billy is the aggressor. How could we redirect him?“Billy! Back off right now. Leave Andrew alone.”“Billy, __________________________________________.”223
224 Response 2a: Remove Aggressor Move youth to safer location, verbally or physically.When the aggressor is the primary source of danger, it may be best to remove him/her from the setting. Have back-up before physically removing larger youth.“Thank you for putting that down, Keisha. I want to help you work this out without anyone getting hurt worse. Will you come with me to my office? Please?”
225 Removing AndrewIn Situation 2, Andrew is the aggressor. How could we verbally remove Andrew (probably while holding Billy back)?“Andrew, put that apple down right now, and walk with Mr. Burgess to the nurse’s office.”“Andrew, _________________________________________.”225
226 Response 2b: Remove Target If the aggressor is focused on a single target (student or staff) and the target is cooperative, it may be safer and faster to remove that individual.“Tiffany, listen to me. I can see that you’ve been injured. I want you to go down the hall to the girls’ room with Ms. Emily and wash that out. Go now please.”
227 Removing BillyIn Situation 2, Billy is the target of Andrew’s ‘attack.’ How could we verbally remove Billy?“Billy, I can see how upset you are. I want you to hold it together and walk with me to my office. We’ll sort this out.”“Billy, _________________________________________.”227
228 Response 2c: Remove Aggravator Sometimes, a passive aggressive manipulator (or a self-righteous staff member) may be escalating the situation with aggravating comments or actions.“Camille, your comments aren’t making this situation any better. I’d like you to go with one of the other girls and hang out on the stoop outside the building.”
229 Removing Staff MemberIn Situation 2, the main aggravator is a passing staff member, Mr. Burgess. How could we verbally remove him?“Mr. Burgess, that’s not helpful. How about you walk Andrew to the nurse’s office and let me work with Billy, okay?”“Mr. Burgess, ______________________________________.”229
230 Response 2d: Remove Audience An audience may excite a deliberate aggressor or embarrass an emotionally overwhelmed youth. Removing on-lookers may de-escalate the youth, limit contagion, and reduce the number of potential victims.“Alright kids, show’s over. The rec center is closing early today. Grab your stuff and go home. We’ll see you tomorrow.”
231 Removing the Other Boys In Situation 1, Billy has just kneed Andrew while surrounded by a group of boys. How could we verbally remove them?“Okay kids, get to your next class. James, Tony, Ramone…. I said go.”“Okay kids, ______________________________________.”231
232 Response 3: RestrictKeep youth in a safe area or out of an unsafe one. Use verbal and/or physical interventions to keep dangerous youth from leaving a safe area, or to prevent them from entering a safe area and causing harm to others.In a safe area: “Keisha, I need you to stay right here in the office. I know you’re upset with Tiffany, but you cannot leave the room right now. You’re too worked up.”From an unsafe area: “Yes Tiffany, Keisha is in the office. No, you CANNOT come in. Step back… you can wait with Ms. Janet while your parents are being called.”
233 Response 4: RestrainPhysically hold youth against their will until safe.If properly trained, use safe, approved physical interventions with the minimum force necessary to keep dangerously out of control youth from hurting themselves or others.
234 Key Point 4: Crisis Responses Dangerous behaviors present a significant threat of harm to self or others, and damage the safe learning environment necessary for education. Our goal is to de-escalate these situations and assure school safety using the minimum force necessary.After carefully assessing the situation, staff have four options: Redirect the youth; Remove the youth/aggressor, the aggravator, the target or the audience; Restrict the youth to a safe area (or from an unsafe one); or if trained and able, Restrain physically. Making the best choice requires a cool head, strong self-awareness, and solid professional skills.
235 Written Test Review 1. Fill in the TACT2 Model with the correct terms. 2. Fill in the diagnostic cues of Deliberate and Emotional behavior.3. Answer the questions on the Test Review Handout.
238 Written Test Procedure 1. Put your name and today’s date at the top.2. Fill in the TACT2 model (worth 4 bonus points).3. Answer each of the multiple choice questions (4 points each). If you have questions, please let us know.4. Bring the test to front for scoring.Passing score = 80% (20/25 correct)If you do not score 80%, an instructor will meet with you to review your answers. When you are ready, you may take a second form of the test. If you still do not score an 80%, you may not be certified in TACT2.
240 Day 32013For use by certified TACT2 trainers in training staff in TACT2. Any other use prohibited. Copyright 2013 by Steve Parese, Ed.D.
241 Day 3: Learning Objectives 1. How to protect from assaults2. How to use standing holds (bear hug, cradle, & double arm bar)3. How to escort a youth to a safe area4. How to safely restrain a youth (seated &/or supine takedowns)
242 “Children in stress create in others the same feelings of stress, Day 3: Pearl of Wisdom“Children in stress create in others the same feelings of stress,and if we are unprepared,the same behaviors as well.”Dr. Nicholas Long242
243 I. Self-Protection Techniques a. Same/Opposite Side Arm Grab1: Make a fist. 2: Twist your wrist.3: Step back and pull.
244 I. Self-Protection Techniques b. Two-on-One Arm Grab1: Make a fist. 2: Twist your wrist.3: Elbow DOWN.4: Step back and pull.
245 I. Self-Protection Techniques c. Two-on-Two Arm Grab1: Make TWO fists. 2: Twist your wrists.3: Step back and pull.
246 I. Self-Protection Techniques d. Front Choke Escape1: Raise both arms. 2: Step back.3: Spin away.
247 I. Self-Protection Techniques e. Rear Choke Escape1: Raise both arms. 2: Step back.3: Spin away.
248 I. Self-Protection Techniques f. Side Headlock Escape1: Turn head and tuck chin. 2: Inside hand, Outside hand.3: Push UP and away.
249 I. Self-Protection Techniques g. Rear Headlock Escape1: Turn head and tuck chin. 2: Step behind, bend over.3: Inside hand, Outside hand.4: Push UP and away.
250 II. Holds & Escorts a. Bear Hug Hold 1: Approach from behind. 2: Wrap arms around child’s arms and chest, slightly above elbows (and below bust line for girls).3: Turn to side, lean head back.
251 II. Holds & Escorts b. Cradle Hold 1: Approach from behind or spin child around. 2: Push elbows together, crossing child’s arms.3: Grasp wrists carefully, pull to hips,tucking outside elbow*.
252 II. Holds & Escorts c. Double Arm Bar Hold 1: Bump, Hook, Lock & Turn 2: Lean back, pulling youth off balance.
253 II. Holds & Escorts d. Two-Person Escort 1: Approach together, reach for wrist.2: Hook arm high and pin wrist to hip. 3: Step behind and move youth together.
254 II. Holds & Escorts d. Transition to Double Arm Bar 1: Tuck the arm between you. 2: Pivot behind, reaching high. 3: Hook the second arm, lock, & turn.
255 III. Standing Holds & Restraints a. Standing Double Arm Bar1: Gain a firm Double Arm Bar hold. 2: Turn slightly and lean back into wall.3: Use 2nd person assist to stabilize youth.
256 III. Standing Holds & Restraints b. Seated Cradle HoldFrom Standing Cradle Hold1: Open stance. 2: Slide down wall to seated position.3: Position youth between legs.
257 III. Standing Holds & Restraints c. Seated DAB RestraintFrom Standing DAB Hold1: Open stance. 2: Slide down wall to seated position.3: Position youth between legs.4: Second staff pin legs (remaining off knees).
258 III. Standing Holds & Restraints d. Arm Bar Restraint (Supine, 2-psn)From Standing DAB Hold (2nd person spotting)
259 III. Standing Holds & Restraints e. Shoulder Lock Restraint (Supine, 3-psn)From 2-person Escort position (3rd person spotting)