Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 FOREIGN POLICY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE. U.S. Senate Defeats Nuclear Test Ban Treaty F October 1999 U.S. Senate refuses to ratify treaty signed."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18 FOREIGN POLICY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
U.S. Senate Defeats Nuclear Test Ban Treaty F October 1999 U.S. Senate refuses to ratify treaty signed by President Clinton. F Defeat of the treaty came as a shock to both allies and enemies.
Why Was the Treaty Defeated? F Opponents claimed the treaty was flawed, diminishing U.S. sovereignty and threatening the usefulness of our nuclear arsenal. F President Clinton and the Senate Democrats made tactical mistakes, such as not including Republicans in the original treaty negotiations. F Republicans may have wanted to embarrass President Clinton and damage his historical legacy. F The treaty may have been the victim of America’s ambivalence in its role in the post-Cold War world.
Foreign Policy And Democracy: A Contradiction in Terms? Foreign policy — especially policy concerning wars or crises — has traditionally been different from domestic policy. –Presidents and others at the governmental level of analysis have often played a much more important part than they do domestically. –They have had an unusual degree of autonomy in foreign policy. –The ordinary political factors have often been set aside in favor of considerations of the national interest. –Foreign policy is influenced by structural factors.
The Limited Role of Public Opinion in Foreign Affairs. Complexity and remoteness of international matters Unpredictability of other countries’ actions The need for speed, unity, and secrecy Government policy can sometimes shape public opinion rather than be shaped by it. The American public plays a larger role in the making of foreign policy than is often apparent, and its influence appears to be increasing.
The United States As a Superpower: Structure and History U.S. economic and military power –Economic power –Military power –Other countries’ armed forces The superpower status of the United States is a crucial structural fact for understanding international relations and American foreign policy.
The Growth of U.S. Power Aftermath of World War II (1945) The United States achieved dominance of the world economy in the following two decades. U.S. foreign policy became entangled in Cold War rivalry with the Soviet Union.
The Cold War with the Soviet Union Scholars disagree about the causes of conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II. Beginnings of the Cold War –Containment –Truman Doctrine (1947)
–Marshall Plan –The Federal Republic of Germany was established. –Various communist-dominated regimes were set up in Eastern Europe. –Multilateral military alliances were formed on both sides. –Both the United States and the Soviets had nuclear capability.
The Korean War The first big armed struggle of the Cold War broke out in Korea. It pitted the United States and South Korea, fighting under terms of a UN resolution, against North Korea and later China. Consequences of the Korean War
Stalemate –The Korean War ended in –Most of the world divided into two opposing camps that had fairly fixed boundaries and a reasonably stable balance of power. –Both sides attained a sort of nuclear parity. –Mutually assured destruction (MAD) was eventually seen as a source of stability and a basis for arms control agreements.
Vietnam and détente The Vietnam War was a major setback for American foreign policy. The war’s costs in money, casualties, and social disruption discouraged intervention abroad for a period of time. Nervousness about military involvement in the 1990s stemmed from memories of the Vietnam War and its effects.
When Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union in 1985, he made sweeping proposals for arms control and other agreements with the United States. Gorbachev introduced policies to foster greater use of the “market” in economic affairs and more political freedom.
The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union: Independence for Eastern Europe –International affairs have been transformed since 1989 (when the Bush administration took office). –Collapse of the Soviet empire
The Structural Bases of American Superpower Status F Economic Power F Military Power F Soft Power
Problems of the Post Cold War World New security issues in the post cold war era The United States faced a completely changed world in the 1990s, but many questions about national security and international relations remained. –Russia and the former Soviet Union –Eastern Europe –Western Europe –Japan, China, and the Pacific –The developing world
Economic and social dilemmas –International trade –Foreign aid and arms sales –The global environment –The drug trade –Immigration
Who Makes Foreign Policy? Overview –The president and the executive branch are the primary governmental decision makers concerning most foreign policy issues. –Congress is often involved in decisions about foreign trade and aid, military bases and contracts, and other matters that impact on their constituents’ interests. –People and institutions in the political sphere affect what both Congress and the executive branch do. –Different types of foreign policy are made in very different ways.
The executive branch –National Security Council (NSC) –Department of State (located in foggy bottom, a reclaimed marsh located close to the Potomac River) –The Department of Defense (DOD) –Intelligence agencies
Congress –Congress generally plays a less-active role in foreign policy than in domestic policy. –The Constitution grants Congress certain powers relative to foreign policy, but they have become less important with the transformation of executive authority. –Appropriating money for defense and foreign policy
Public opinion and the mass media –Public opinion has substantial effects on policymaking. –The executive branch has considerable leeway; public opinion seldom demands that particular actions be taken in setting foreign policy. –The mass media have tended to convey the government’s point of view to the public in the arena of foreign policy.
Corporations and interest groups –There is considerable disagreement over the role of corporations and interest groups in establishing American foreign policy. –U.S. foreign policy is important to American businesses. –Certain ethnic groups sometimes influence U.S. foreign policy.
Foreign and Defense Policy and Democracy Although democratic control may be increasing, democratic control over foreign policy is incomplete. The American political system tends to fall short of the ideals of popular sovereignty and political equality.
–Although public opinion is often taken into account, the centralization of decisions in the executive branch means that popular participation is limited. –Secrecy means that the public often does not know what the government is doing, and therefore cannot hold it accountable. –Government control of information means that the public can sometimes be manipulated.
Democratic control of foreign policy may increase as more and more Americans become aware of international affairs, insist on knowing what their government is doing, and demand government responsiveness to the popular will.