Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: A Democratic Revolution: 1800—1844 How did debates over federal power, states rights, and the authority of different branches of the federal."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10: A Democratic Revolution: 1800—1844 How did debates over federal power, states rights, and the authority of different branches of the federal government change the nation’s democratic ideals and reform its institutions? How did government policy shaped by interest in expanding trade and national borders give rise to debates and compromises over the extension of slavery? President Andrew Jackson “King”Andrew?
What is the American Democratic Revolution? What are the characteristics of this revolution? How are things changing? What are the effects of this revolution on the U.S.
Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
Why Increased Democratization? White male suffrage increased – new states introduce universal male suffrage. White male suffrage increased – new states introduce universal male suffrage. Party nominating committees. Begun by a third party. Party nominating committees. Begun by a third party. Voters chose their state’s Presidential electors. Voters chose their state’s Presidential electors. Spoils system. Spoils system. Rise of Third Parties. Rise of Third Parties. Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.) Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.) Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: Dem-Reps Natl. Reps.(1828) Whigs (1832) Republicans (1854) Dem-Reps Natl. Reps.(1828) Whigs (1832) Republicans (1854) Democrats (1828) Democrats (1828)
1828 Election Results
The New “Jackson Coalition” The Planter Elite in the South The Planter Elite in the South People on the Frontier People on the Frontier State Politicians – spoils system State Politicians – spoils system “Turn the rascals out, put our rascals in.” Immigrants in the cities. Immigrants in the cities.
Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man” Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege. Notables His heart & soul was with the “plain folk.” Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
The Reign of “King Mob” The Inaugural Brawl! The Reign of “King Mob” The Inaugural Brawl!
Andrew Jackson as President
1832 Tariff Conflict 1828 “Tariff of Abomination” reenactment signed in “Tariff of Abomination” reenactment signed in 1832 South Carolina’s reaction? – Nullification (The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, by V.P. Calhoun) South Carolina’s reaction? – Nullification (The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, by V.P. Calhoun) Jackson’s response? Military Force Bill Jackson’s response? Military Force Bill Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff? Gradual reduction ( ) Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff? Gradual reduction ( )
“The Nullies” v Jackson John C Calhoun (VP Under Adams and Jackson) wrote South Carolina Exposition (1828) –“Concurrent Majority” – a federal law that is harmful to states can be declared null and void via a convention of the people. Jackson’s Response – Threatened military force and “Force Bill” What steps were taken to avoid a military conflict?
Jackson and The Native Americans 1828 The Cherokee Tribes of Georgia wrote and adopted a constitution with 3 branch government. –Georgia declared the Cherokee Assembly illegal (SC ruled in favor of Indians) – state has no authority in tribal legislation Worcester v Georgia –state has no authority in tribal legislation Jackson’s Response: –“John Marshall had made his decision, now let him enforce it.” How does this quote from Jackson show his increasing strength as President?
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Trail of Tears ( )
Indian Removal Act of ,000 Indians moved from east of Mississippi 1832 – Black Hawk War Osceola and Florida Seminoles “Trail of Tears” 14,000 Cherokees, 116 days – 3,000 deaths (25%) –100 million acres given up –$68 million paid out, 32 million acres in West
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for Native Americans
Jacksonians on States’ Rights Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837) –States, not federal government, had power to enter into contracts regarding infrastructure, transportation. Maysville Road Veto - I am not able to view [the Maysville Road Bill] in any other light than as a measure of purely local character.... It has no connection with any established system of improvements; [and] is exclusively within the limits of a State [Kentucky]....
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power VETO 1830 Maysville Road project in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay]
The National Bank Debate Nicholas Biddle President Jackson
“The Hydra of Corruption” – The Bank Wars Nicholas Biddle – President of Bank of US –Functions – print stable currency, keep federal money, control gold and silver, source of credit 1832 – Clay and Webster wanted to use the renewal of the charter to embarrass the President – if he passed the charter he would anger his followers, if he vetoed it the wealthy would be upset. –How did the veto increase the power of President?
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
Hydra of Corruption
An 1832 Cartoon: “King Andrew”? An 1832 Cartoon: “King Andrew”?
1832 Election Results Main Issue?
The Specie Circular (1836) “wildcat banks.” “wildcat banks.” buy future federal land only with gold or silver. buy future federal land only with gold or silver. Jackson’s goal? Jackson’s goal?
Results of the Specie Circular $Banknotes lose their value. $Land sales plummeted. $Credit not available. $Businesses began to fail. $Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837! The Panic of 1837!
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before his death)
“The Era of the Common Man” Social mixture Universal Male Suffrage Popular Campaigning Increased Power of President (through veto) Kitchen Cabinet Roger Taney in Supreme Court