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Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Chapter 1 The Nature of Intercultural Communication.

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1 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Chapter 1 The Nature of Intercultural Communication

2 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Upon Completion of this Chapter: Understand such terms as intercultural, international, multicultural, and ethnocentric Recognize communication barriers Understand the terms norms, rules, roles, and networks Distinguish between subcultures and subgroups Understand management orientations

3 Axtell, 1990 Example of Intercultural Miscommunication Telex sent to a factory manager of a U.S. subsidiary in Lima, Peru: “Please send a headcount of the people in your factory and in your office, broken down by sex. Information urgent.” The local manager, a Peruvian, replied: “Here’s your headcount: We have 30 in the factory, 15 in the office, 5 in the hospital on sick leave, none broken down by sex. If you must know, our problem here is with alcohol.”

4 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Global Boom More and more businesses involved with international activities which require the ability to communication across cultures Communication and culture are inseparable—can’t be separated To gain a better understanding, knowledge of frequently used terms is important

5 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Definitions Intercultural communication— communication between persons of different cultures Intercultural business communication— interpersonal communication within and between businesses that involve people from more than one culture International communication— communication between governments or among nations Intracultural communication— communication between members of the same culture

6 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Definitions Diffusion— the process by which two cultures learn and adapt materials and adopt practices of each other World culture— the idea that as traditional barriers among people of differing cultures break down, one culture will emerge Melting pot— sociocultural assimilation of people of differing backgrounds and nationalities; implies losing ethnic differences and forming one large society macroculture

7 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Globalization— the ability of a firm to take a product and market it in the entire civilized world A company is globalized when it can market its product anywhere in the world When a firm is referred to as being global, it means that the corporation is producing and marketing products in many parts of the world Personnel in organizations must have a global mindset for the firm to succeed in international marketplace and respect other cultures Globalization

8 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Domestic and Global Mindsets Domestic Mindset Functional expertise Prioritization Structure Individual responsibility No surprises Trained against surprises Global Mindset Bigger, broader picture Balance of contradictions Process Teamwork and diversity View change as opportunity Openness to surprises

9 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Culture Culture deals with the way people live When cultures interact, adaptation must take place to communicate correctly Three primary dimensions of cultures— languages, physical, and psychological Culture is learned through perception Perceptions are formed in various ways— where we are born & raised, the language we learn, the environment we live in— everyone views the world differently

10 Borden, 1991, p. 171 Dimensions of Culture Languages (codes/modes) Verbal Nonverbal Physical Psychological Environment Human Behavior Content Processes Natural Man Made Knowledge Belief Encoding Systems Decoding Thought

11 Althen, American Ways Differences in Customs— Holidays, Independence/Self-reliance, Punctuality, Treatment of Waiters/Secretaries, Treatment of Females, Need for Space Specific Aspects of American Life— Politics, Family Life, Driving, Shopping, Personal Hygiene, Behavior in Public Cultures

12 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Stereotypes Stereotypes are perceptions about certain groups of people or nationalities, often based upon limited knowledge and/or exposure. Stereotyping is only a guide to a national culture By recognizing differences as well as similarities, businesspersons can adjust how they communicate with others Examples of stereotyping follows and can be found in your text

13 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Stereotypes of U.S. Persons Informal relationships Rather formal in business attire (suits for men and dresses or suits for women) Workaholics Embarrass foreign businesspeople by doing manual labor Overly concerned with time, money, and appointments

14 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Make decisions on hard, objective facts Consider contracts and the written word as very important Are aware of status differences within the organization; however, no display of superiority or inferiority is made Are very mobile Convey superiority in their actions Stereotypes of U.S. Persons

15 Althen, American Ways Opportunity for individuals to raise their station in life Efficiency of organizations Hard work and productivity Freedom to express opinions openly General sense of freedom What foreign students WOULD like to see incorporated into their own culture:

16 Althen, American Ways What foreign students WOULD NOT like to see incorporated into their own culture: Excessive individualism Weak family ties Treatment of older people Materialism Competitiveness Rapid pace of life Divorce “Free” male/ female relations Impersonality

17 Althen, American Ways Can you Describe Your Own Culture? US American Values and Assumptions— In dividualism and Privacy, Equality, Work, Informality, Time, Goodness of Humanity, Arrogant, Competitive Communicative Style— Small Talk, Forms of Interaction, Loud, Monolingual Ways of Reasoning—G et to the Point and Prove it, Distrust of Theory, and Generalizations, Truth Comes from Sight

18 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Can you Describe Your Own Culture? China Reserved and well mannered. Superb hosts. Pride in their nation, its long history, and its influence on other countries. Strong family ties and a loyalty to family members. Chinese frequently display affection toward a member of the same sex by holding hands. They do not like to be touched. Great respect is given to older Chinese.

19 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Can you Describe Your Own Culture? Japan Japanese tend to be modest, respectful of superiors, loyal to their organizations, contemplative and holistic in their thinking, and traditional in terms of their society. They are achievement oriented. They value human relationships above business relationships and practice situational ethics. Privacy is important and direct questioning on person lives resented. “Losing face” is BAD.

20 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Can you Describe Your Own Culture? Germany Germans businesspeople are more formal, reserved, and restrained than Americans. They are likely to be inquisitive and want to hear the supporting evidence for a new idea or product. They value intelligence and education. Value individualism and the success of an individuals. Germans are outspoken or blunt, but see this behavior as simple honesty.

21 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Can you Describe Your Own Culture? Mexico Mexicans tend to be warm, friendly, gracious people. They are good host. The Roman Catholic Church has greatly influenced the culture, attitudes, and history of Mexico. They are inclined to be patriotic and proud. Family is important and divorce low. They stand close when talking, possibly touching the other person. Generally trust only friends.

22 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin MORE—Stereotypes of People of Other Nationalities CultureImage Englishconservative, reserved, polite, proper, formal Frencharrogant, rude, chauvinistic, romantics, gourmets, cultural, artistic Italiandemonstrative, talkative, emotional, romantic, bold, artistic Latin Americanmañana attitude, macho, music lovers, touchers Asiansinscrutable, intelligent, xenophobic (fear/hatred of strangers/ foreigners), golfers, group oriented, polite, soft-spoken

23 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Stereotypes of Other Cultures As viewed by Japanese and U.S. Students Japanese U. S. Americans_______ Englishgentlemanly,formal, proper, politepolite, intelligent Irishcold, patient,drinkers, jovial, religioushot-tempered, loud Chinesediligent, serious,quiet, small, laboring industrious, smart Mexicanscheerful, passionate,lazy, poor, loud, spicy-food eatersdirty, uneducated Russianscold, dark, closed,cold, respect authority, secret, selfishhard-working Israelisreligious, faithful,religious, quarrelsome, warlike, Jewishwealthy, greedy

24 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Enculturation and Acculturation Enculturation—socialization process you go through to adapt to your society. Learn norms! –Frontstage culture—cultural information that you are willing to share with outsiders –Backstage culture—cultural information concealed from outsiders Acculturation - process of adjusting, adapting, & accepting to a new and different culture. Accepts other cultures and their ideas. –Cultural synergy—two cultures merge to form a stronger overriding culture –Multicultural—people who can move between two or more cultures very comfortably

25 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Dimensions of Acculturation Integration—persons become an integral part of the new culture while maintaining their cultural integrity Separation—individuals keep their culture and stay independent of the new culture Assimilation—persons are absorbed into their new culture and withdraw from their old culture Deculturation—when individuals lose their original culture and do not accept the new culture

26 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Ethnocentrism—the belief that your own cultural background is correct including the ways of analyzing problems, values, beliefs, language, verbal and nonverbal communication. When we evaluate others we do it through our self- reference criterion because it is what we know. Ethnocentrists believe that their culture is the central culture and that other cultures are incorrect, defective, or quaint. Mindsets—ways of being that allow us to see, perceive, and reason through our own filter. We want a GLOBAL mindset for business. Ethnocentrism

27 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Norms, Rules, Roles, and Networks (Unwritten guidelines we learn through enculturation) Norms—culturally ingrained principles of correct and incorrect behaviors which, if broken, carry a form of overt or covert penalty. Learned through enculturation. Rules—formed to clarify cloudy areas of norms Roles—include behavioral expectations of a position within a culture and are affected by norms and rules Networks—formed with personal ties and involve an exchange of assistance

28 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Subcultures and Subgroups Subcultures (or microcultures)—groups possessing traits that set them apart from others within the macroculture. U.S. examples: senior citizens, Catholics, disabled persons, Asian Americans Subgroups—groups with which the microculture does not agree and has problems communicating. U.S. examples: youth gangs, prostitutes, embezzlers

29 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Cultural Intelligence Ability to exhibit certain behaviors, including skills and qualities, which are culturally tuned to the attitudes and values of others. Linguistic Intelligence—speaking the language of the customer’s country Spatial Intelligence—the way space is used during greetings and meetings Intrapersonal Intelligence—involves awareness of one’s own culture Interpersonal Intelligence—the ability to understand other people and their motivations.

30 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Cultural Intelligence To interact well with people from other cultures, it helps to speak to (a) speak a bit of their language; (b) know how closely to stand and other nonverbal behaviors; © know about your own cultural style; and (d) know how your cultural style meshes with those of others. (Howard Garder Psychologist)

31 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Communication Barriers Physical—time, environment Cultural—social, ethnic, religion, social Perceptual—viewing from your own mindset Motivational—mental inertia of listener Experiential—dissimilar experiences or life happenings

32 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Linguistic—unusual vocabulary Emotional—personal feelings, likes or dislikes Nonverbal—how something is said, or how the person behaves or gestures Competition—listener’s having the ability to do other things Communication Barriers (cont.)

33 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Cultural Iceberg Above the waterline—what we can see; behaviors that are visible Below the waterline—what we cannot see; behaviors that are not visible or that do not make sense

34 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Multinational Management Orientations To compete successfully in a global economy, a knowledge of management styles used by international corporations is also important. Multinational firms, those located in more than one nation, generally will follow either an ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, or regiocentric form of style. All are transnational—cross borders of countries in conducting their business.

35 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Multinational Management Orientations Ethnocentric Management—All workers treated the same; no allowance for cultural differences in the work force Polycentric Management—Considers the cultural needs of the worker in the area in which the firm is located Regiocentric Management—Considers the region rather than the country in which the firm is located. There is a common framework with regional control Geocentric Management—A synergy of ideas from different countries of operation

36 Bosrock, Put Your Best Foot Forward Ten Commandments for Going International Be well prepared. Ask questions; be observant; listen. Make an effort. When problems develop, assume the main cause is miscommunication. Be patient. Assume the best about people. Be sincere. Keep a sense of humor. Try to be likable. Smile.

37 Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Topics Covered—Review Your Materials Carefully Intercultural business communication Globalization Culture Stereotypes Enculturation/acculturation Ethnocentrism Norms, rules, roles, and networks Subcultures and subgroups Cultural intelligence Communication barriers Multinational management orientations


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