4一、 領導之基本概念1. Define leaders and leadership 2. 早期理論及其缺點 Trait theories: selecting Behavioral theories: training 3. Contingency theories: (re)placing interaction with subordinates, situation 討論：1.《十九顆星》。 2. 持續改善，對人尊重 (分工合作，做人做事) 3. 考慮情境，調整自己。
5Leaders and Leadership Leader: Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authorityLeadership: What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goalsIdeally, all managers should be leaders.
6*Trait Theories1. Drive, 2. the desire to lead, 3. honesty and integrity, 4. self-confidence, 5. intelligence, 6. job-relevant knowledge, 7. extraversion.討論：1. 前科學2. 權，勢，威，魔，魅，神，師，愛，專，誠3. 第五級領導人：謙虛的個性，專業的堅持6
8二、 當代之權變領導理論 1. Fiedler 權變模式 2. 情境領導理論 3. 領導者參與模式 4. 途徑—目標理論 3. 領導者參與模式 途徑—目標理論5. 交易型 VS. 轉換型 6. 魅力／願景領導7. 團隊領導討論：1. Stogdill’s handbook of leadership2. A dream makes a team, the team builds the dream.沒有天才團隊，就沒有卓越的領導人；但缺乏優秀領導人，也不可能有偉大團隊。3. 暢銷書或文章 （附件）
9Fiedler Model: 警長 vs. 舞女 Category I II III IV V VI VII VIII Good Poor PerformanceTaskOrientedRelationshipOrientedCategoryLeader-MemberRelationsTask StructurePosition PowerI II III IV V VI VII VIIIGood Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor PoorHigh High Low Low High High Low LowStrong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong WeakFavorableUnfavorableModerate
10Findings of the Fiedler Model Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaireAssumptions: A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
11Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) Follower readiness:R1: followers are unable and unwillingR2: followers are unable but willingR3: followers are able but unwillingR4: followers are able and willingSpecific leadership styles:Telling: high task- low relationship leadershipSelling: high task- high relationship leadershipParticipating: low task- high relationship leadershipDelegating: low task- low relationship leadership
12Exhibit 17–5 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
13Exhibit 17–6 Time-Driven Model Source: Adapted from V. Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 87.
14Path-Goal Theory Environmental Contingency Factors Task Structure Formal Authority SystemWork GroupLeaderBehaviorOutcomesDirectiveSupportiveParticipativeAchievement orientedPerformanceSatisfactionSubordinateContingency FactorsLocus of ControlExperiencePerceived Ability
15Transactional VS. Transformational Transactional leaders are leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges (transactions).Transformational leaders are leaders who stimulate and inspire (transform) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes.Evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over transactional leadership is overwhelmingly impressive.
16Charismatic Leadership Have a vision.Are able to articulate the vision.Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs.Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
21暢銷書或文章之二 1. Proactive 2. Begin with the End in Mind 3. Put First Things First4. Think Win Win5. Seek First to Understand then be Understood6. Synergise7. Sharpening the Saw8. Finding Your Voice and Inspiring Others to FindTheirsPrinciple - Centered Leadership, by S. R. Covey, 1991.
22暢銷書或文章之三 領導的角色：宣傳家，行為典範，教育家，激勵者，啦啦隊長，告解神父。 個人：專業，同理心 認清自己，學習如何溝通，勤奮（親自督陣）組織：有效授權下去執行，建立體制控制塑造願景，教化員工，回饋控制。The work of the leader, by W. Pagonis, HBR, 1992.
23暢銷書或文章之四追隨的角度：有受重視的感覺，有一種利害共同體 的感覺。A feeling of significance (community).領導者要做出艱難決定，並承擔責任，需要1. 公開坦率的態度（親和力），2. 刻意壓低身段。The hard work of being a soft manager,by W. Peace, HBR, 1991.
24追隨者最想聽到的話你真的很重要 你做得很好 心想事成 謝謝你 祝福 你 討論： Add value to the others
26Five Sources of a Leader’s Power Legitimate powera leader has as a result of his or her position.Coercive powerto punish or control.Reward powerto give positive benefits or rewards.Discuss: Ins and Outs of Office PoliticsExpert poweras a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge.Referent powerarise because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits.
27Demonstrate competence. Suggestions for Building TrustPractice openness.Be fair.Speak your feelings.Tell the truth.Show consistency.Fulfill your promises.Maintain confidences.Demonstrate competence.
28女性不擅長領導？ 以金庸小說女主角為例 1. What women want? 有野心的女人，沒鬥志的男人 2. “I need a wife.”3. 要懂得和別人分享權力
29Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November , p. 75.
30Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees.Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak.Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently.Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals.
31Basics of Leadership Give people a reason to come to work. Be loyal to the organization’s peopleSpend time with people who do the real work of the organization.Be more open and more candid about what business practices are acceptable and proper and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed.
32Substitutes for Leadership Follower characteristicsExperience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independenceJob characteristicsRoutine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobsOrganization characteristicsExplicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups
33補充：Team work 1. Case study: a manager’s dilemma (p.386) 2. Thinking critically about ethics (p.400)3. Internet-based exercise (p.408)3. characteristics of effective leaders.4. art of persuasion.3333