Leaders and Leadership Leader: Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority Leadership: What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goals Ideally, all managers should be leaders. 5
8 1. Fiedler 權變模式 2. 情境領導理論Fiedler 權變模式 情境領導理論 3. 領導者參與模式 4. 途徑 — 目標理論 領導者參與模式 途徑 — 目標理論 5. 交易型 VS. 轉換型 6. 魅力／願景領導 交易型 VS. 轉換型 魅力／願景領導 7. 團隊領導 團隊領導 討論： 1. Stogdill’s handbook of leadership 2. A dream makes a team, the team builds the dream. 沒有天才團隊，就沒有卓越的領導人； 但缺乏優秀領導人，也不可能有偉大團隊。 3. 暢銷書或文章 （附件） （附件） 二、 當代之權變領導理論
9 Category Leader-Member Relations Task Structure Position Power I II III IV V VI VII VIII Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor High High Low Low High High Low Low Strong Weak Strong Weak FavorableUnfavorableModerate Good Poor Performance Relationship Oriented Task Oriented Fiedler Model: 警長 vs. 舞女
10 Findings of the Fiedler Model Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire Assumptions: A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations. Leaders do not readily change leadership styles. Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
11 Follower readiness: R1: followers are unable and unwilling R2: followers are unable but willing R3: followers are able but unwilling R4: followers are able and willing Specific leadership styles: Telling: high task- low relationship leadership Selling: high task- high relationship leadership Participating: low task- high relationship leadership Delegating: low task- low relationship leadership Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
12 Exhibit 17–5 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
Exhibit 17–6 Time-Driven Model 13 Source: Adapted from V. Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 87.
Path-Goal Theory 14 Environmental Contingency Factors Task Structure Formal Authority System Work Group Leader Behavior Directive Supportive Participative Achievement oriented Outcomes Performance Satisfaction Subordinate Contingency Factors Locus of Control Experience Perceived Ability
Transactional VS. Transformational 15 Transactional leaders are leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges (transactions). Transformational leaders are leaders who stimulate and inspire (transform) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes. Evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over transactional leadership is overwhelmingly impressive.
16 Have a vision. Are able to articulate the vision. Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision. Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs. Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary. Charismatic Leadership
Specific Team Leadership Roles 17
18 1. 塑造眾望所歸的遠景 2. 利用溝通，建立共識 3. 利用定位，建立信任 4. 自我的開展 Leaders -- The strategies for taking charge, by W. Bennis & B. Nanus, 暢銷書或文章之一
Accor Formula Hotel 20
21 1. Proactive 2. Begin with the End in Mind 3. Put First Things First 4. Think Win Win 5. Seek First to Understand then be Understood 6. Synergise 7. Sharpening the Saw 8. Finding Your Voice and Inspiring Others to Find Theirs Principle - Centered Leadership, by S. R. Covey, 暢銷書或文章之二
22 1. 個人：專業，同理心 認清自己，學習如何溝通，勤奮（親自督陣） 2. 組織：有效授權下去執行，建立體制控制 塑造願景，教化員工，回饋控制。 The work of the leader, by W. Pagonis, HBR, 領導的角色：宣傳家，行為典範，教育家， 激勵者，啦啦隊長，告解神父。 暢銷書或文章之三
23 暢銷書或文章之四 追隨的角度：有受重視的感覺，有一種利害共同體 的感覺。 A feeling of significance (community). 領導者要做出艱難決定，並承擔責任，需要 1. 公開坦率的態度（親和力）， 2. 刻意壓低身段。 The hard work of being a soft manager, by W. Peace, HBR, 1991.
追隨者最想聽到的話 24 你真的很重要 你做得很好 心想事成 謝謝你 祝福 你 討論： Add value to the others
25 1. 領導與權力（ power ） 領導與權力（ power ） 2. 創造信任的文化 (trust) 3. 透過賦權 （ empowerment ）來領導 4. 性別 性別 5. 國家文化 討論： Sometimes leadership is irrelevant ！ 三、 有關領導之當前課題
Five Sources of a Leader’s Power 26 Legitimate power a leader has as a result of his or her position. Coercive power to punish or control. Reward power to give positive benefits or rewards. Discuss: Ins and Outs of Office Politics Expert power as a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge. Referent power arise because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits.
27 Practice openness. Be fair. Speak your feelings. Tell the truth. Show consistency. Fulfill your promises. Maintain confidences. Demonstrate competence. Suggestions for Building Trust
28 1. What women want? 有野心的女人，沒鬥志的男人 2. “I need a wife.” 3. 要懂得和別人分享權力 女性不擅長領導？ 以金庸小說女主角為例
Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard 29 Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November , p. 75.
Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals.
Basics of Leadership Give people a reason to come to work. Be loyal to the organization’s people Spend time with people who do the real work of the organization. Be more open and more candid about what business practices are acceptable and proper and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed.
Substitutes for Leadership Follower characteristics Experience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independence Job characteristics Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs Organization characteristics Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups
補充： Team work Case study: a manager ’ s dilemma (p.386) 2. Thinking critically about ethics (p.400) 3. Internet-based exercise (p.408) 3. characteristics of effective leaders. 4. art of persuasion. 33
Terms to Know leader leadership behavioral theories managerial grid Fiedler contingency model leader participation model path-goal theory transactional leaders transformational leaders charismatic leader visionary leadership legitimate power coercive power reward power expert power referent power trust empowerment 35