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McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 1 S M S M McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies Chapter 4 CUSTOMER PERCEPTIONS OF SERVICE
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 2 S M Objectives for Chapter 4: Customer Perceptions of Service Provide you with definitions and understanding of customer satisfaction and service quality Show that service encounters or the “moments of truth” are the building blocks of customer perceptions Highlight strategies for managing customer perceptions of service
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 3 S M Figure 4-1 Customer Perceptions of Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction Service Quality Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles Product Quality Price Personal Factors Customer Satisfaction Situational Factors
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 4 S M Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction Product/service quality Product/service attributes or features Consumer Emotions Attributions for product/service success or failure Equity or fairness evaluations
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 5 S M Outcomes of Customer Satisfaction Increased customer retention Positive word-of-mouth communications Increased revenues
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 6 S M Figure 4-3 Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Competitive Industries Source: James L. Heskett, W. Earl Sasser, Jr., and Leonard A. Schlesinger, The Service Profit Chain, (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1997), p. 83.
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 7 S M Service Quality The customer’s judgment of overall excellence of the service provided in relation to the quality that was expected. Process and outcome quality are both important.
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 8 S M The Five Dimensions of Service Quality Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence. Physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel. Caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers. Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Tangibles Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 9 S M Exercise to Identify Service Attributes In groups of five, choose a services industry and spend 10 minutes brainstorming specific requirements of customers in each of the five service quality dimensions. Be certain the requirements reflect the customer’s point of view. Reliability: Assurance: Tangibles: Empathy: Responsiveness:
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 10 S M SERVQUAL Attributes n Providing service as promised n Dependability in handling customers’ service problems n Performing services right the first time n Providing services at the promised time n Maintaining error-free records n Keeping customers informed as to when services will be performed n Prompt service to customers n Willingness to help customers n Readiness to respond to customers’ requests RELIABILITY RESPONSIVENESS n Employees who instill confidence in customers n Making customers feel safe in their transactions n Employees who are consistently courteous n Employees who have the knowledge to answer customer questions ASSURANCE n Giving customers individual attention n Employees who deal with customers in a caring fashion n Having the customer’s best interest at heart n Employees who understand the needs of their customers n Convenient business hours EMPATHY n Modern equipment n Visually appealing facilities n Employees who have a neat, professional appearance n Visually appealing materials associated with the service TANGIBLES
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 11 S M The Service Encounter is the “moment of truth” occurs any time the customer interacts with the firm can potentially be critical in determining customer satisfaction and loyalty types of encounters: –remote encounters –phone encounters –face-to-face encounters is an opportunity to: –build trust –reinforce quality –build brand identity –increase loyalty
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 12 S M Check-In Request Wake-Up Call Checkout Bellboy Takes to Room Restaurant Meal Figure 4-4 A Service Encounter Cascade for a Hotel Visit
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 13 S M Sales Call Ordering Supplies Billing Delivery and Installation Servicing Figure 4-5 A Service Encounter Cascade for an Industrial Purchase A Service Encounter Cascade for an Industrial Purchase
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 14 S M Critical Service Encounters Research GOAL - understanding actual events and behaviors that cause customer dis/satisfaction in service encounters METHOD - Critical Incident Technique DATA - stories from customers and employees OUTPUT - identification of themes underlying satisfaction and dissatisfaction with service encounters
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 15 S M Sample Questions for Critical Incidents Technique Study Think of a time when, as a customer, you had a particularly satisfying (dissatisfying) interaction with an employee of. When did the incident happen? What specific circumstances led up to this situation? Exactly what was said and done? What resulted that made you feel the interaction was satisfying (dissatisfying)?
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 16 S M Common Themes in Critical Service Encounters Research Recovery: Adaptability: Spontaneity:Coping: Employee Response to Service Delivery System Failure Employee Response to Customer Needs and Requests Employee Response to Problem Customers Unprompted and Unsolicited Employee Actions and Attitudes
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 17 S M Recovery Acknowledge problem Explain causes Apologize Compensate/upgrade Lay out options Take responsibility Ignore customer Blame customer Leave customer to fend for him/herself Downgrade Act as if nothing is wrong DO DON’T
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 18 S M Adaptability Recognize the seriousness of the need Acknowledge Anticipate Attempt to accommodate Explain rules/policies Take responsibility Exert effort to accommodate Promise, then fail to follow through Ignore Show unwillingness to try Embarrass the customer Laugh at the customer Avoid responsibility DODON’T
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 19 S M Spontaneity Take time Be attentive Anticipate needs Listen Provide information (even if not asked) Treat customers fairly Show empathy Acknowledge by name Exhibit impatience Ignore Yell/laugh/swear Steal from or cheat a customer Discriminate Treat impersonally DO DON’T
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 20 S M Coping Listen Try to accommodate Explain Let go of the customer Take customer’s dissatisfaction personally Let customer’s dissatisfaction affect others DO DON’T
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 21 S M Figure 4-6 Evidence of Service from the Customer’s Point of View People Process Physical Evidence Contact employees Customer him/herself Other customers Operational flow of activities Steps in process Flexibility vs. standard Technology vs. human Tangible communication Servicescape Guarantees Technology
McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies 1 S M S M McGraw-Hill © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies Chapter 4 CUSTOMER PERCEPTIONS OF SERVICE.
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