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Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 1 Fundamentals of Audio Production Chapter Thirteen: Radio Station Operations.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 1 Fundamentals of Audio Production Chapter Thirteen: Radio Station Operations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 1 Fundamentals of Audio Production Chapter Thirteen: Radio Station Operations

2 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 2 Origins of Broadcasting Radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, is considered the first regular “broadcast” station—November Prior to 1920, radio was used for point-to- point communications. “Golden Age” of radio broadcasting: 1930’s and 1940’s.

3 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 3 Radio Station Control Room During radio’s Golden Age, talent performed in a studio separate from the control room. In the disc jockey era, the control room usually acted as the primary studio. Talk radio brought back separate air studios.

4 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 4 Radio Station Control Room

5 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 5 The Radio Console Also known as “mixer” or “board.” Modern consoles use linear faders Unlike recording studio mixers, the radio console offers cue selectors for most non- microphone sources. Typically has a stereo output.

6 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 6 The Radio Console

7 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 7 Radio Station Console Fader in cue position with cue indicator illuminated

8 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 8 The Radio Console More complex designs offer multiple selectors for each input. Turning a studio microphone “on” mutes the studio loudspeaker monitors. Frequent and recurring audio peaks should fall between 85 and 100 % on the VU meters.

9 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter 13 9 The Radio Console

10 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter The Radio Console Typical wiring scheme for radio control room

11 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter The Radio Console Meter on radio console at ideal average level of 80% modulation

12 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Studio Microphones The number of microphones varies with the number of persons speaking. High quality dynamic microphones are common. Condenser microphones are sometimes used. Occasionally ribbon microphones

13 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Studio Microphone Mounts Studio microphones are commonly mounted on spring-loaded booms. Heavier microphones require booms with stronger springs to hold them in position.

14 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Studio Microphone Mounts

15 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Radio Microphone Techniques Typically close-miked, with the mouth of the person speaking about four to six inches from the microphone. Often positioned slightly to one side in order to avoid “popping p’s,” a result of blasts of air getting into the microphone. Back away or turn the head slightly when inhaling to avoid “wheezing.”

16 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Radio Microphone Techniques

17 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter A Word of Caution Treat every microphone as if it is “live.” Never say anything near a microphone that would embarrass you.

18 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Examples of Additional Control Room Equipment Compact disk (CD) players Digital recorders Computer-based digital cart systems. Less commonly found are analog tape decks, turntables, and tape cartridge players.

19 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Examples of Additional Control Room Equipment Satellite receivers. Two-way radio units. A telephone connected to the console. TV set connected to cable. Internet-enabled computer. Emergency Alert System (EAS) receiver.

20 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Examples of Additional Control Room Equipment Digital audio workstation Compact disks Cartridges Turntable

21 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter The Radio Production Studio Additional studio(s) to prepare materials for later broadcast. May be configured to serve as back-up control room/studio. More often, production studios are scaled-down versions of the main control room with an emphasis on recording. Internet connectivity is a modern necessity, since many commercials and other materials need to be downloaded or accessed via .

22 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Radio News Facilities Normally radio news anchors deliver their newscasts from small sound-proof booths. News booths typically include a computer, a small mixer with one or two microphones, various audio playback devices, a telephone, and a two-way radio. For a more “newsy” sound, the working newsroom itself may be equipped for live broadcasts, as well as facilities to write and record news audio.

23 Fundamentals of Audio Production. Chapter Basic Radio Production Aesthetics Good audio levels Avoid “dead air” Audio elements should transition, or “segue,” smoothly to the next element “Tight production” enhances the flow of the program The “tighter” the production, the higher the energy level of the program


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