2 LESSON 1 Social Cognition: Introduction, Attribution, and Person Perception
3 A. What is Social Psychology? Social Psychology is the study of how the actual, implied, or imagined presence of other people influences our thinking (cognition), feeling, and acting (behavior).Scientists who study social psychology are called social psychologist.
4 B. Person PerceptionPerson Perception - process involved in forming judgment about, evaluating, and categorizing people.Most judgments, evaluations, and categorizations of people or groups are based on schemas and automatic thinking processes.
5 Social schemas - mental models that represent and categorize social events and people. Social schemas impact how we perceive people and events.Using schemas allows us to quickly respond to people we encounterCan also lead to stereotyping and prejudice.
6 A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when our expectations cause us unconsciously to act in a manner to bring about behaviors that confirm our expectations.- Example: Pygmalion Study 1968
7 C. Attribution TheoryThis process involves how we explain the causes of behavior (both our own behavior and the behavior of others).
8 Types of AttributionsInternal (personal) attributions explain an outcome by looking within an individual.Examples—“I performed well on a test because I studied hard for the examination.”External (situational) attributions (e.g., fate, luck, chance) explain an outcome by looking outside of an individual.Examples—“I did not perform well on the examination because the teacher did not tell us what to study.”
9 Attribution BiasFundamental Attribution Error – over estimating the impact of internal attributions on an individuals behavior.Actor-observer bias - attributing one’s own behavior to external (situational) causes and the behavior of others to internal (personal) factors.Self-serving bias - attribute success to internal (personal) factors and failures to external (situational) factors.
10 Just world hypothesis - the tendency to believe that good people are rewarded, and bad people are punished. It can lead to the blaming-the-victim effect.False consensus effect is the tendency to think other people share our attitudes more than they actually do.
12 Representative Heuristics Activity What was the percentage that you said truck driver?What was the percentage that you said professor?If you were only looking at the population values, you would have said that most of them were truck driver. However, most people take into account other pieces of information such as the characteristics of people, to help them decide.
13 Cognitive heuristics that influence social cognition The representative heuristic is the tendency to judge the membership of a person or object based on how closely the person or object fits the prototype of a given category.Example: If we see a person wearing a white lab coat, we assume that this person works in lab or a hospital. However, the person might sell make-up for a local department store.may lead to the correct conclusion, but they may also be misleading and can lead to stereotyping.
14 B. The gambler’s fallacy is a term for when people believe that future events are influenced by past occurrences.
15 C. The availability heuristic is the tendency to judge the probability of an event’s occurring based on how readily examples come to mind.Following tragedies of September 11, 2001,many people were afraid to fly, when, in fact,increased security at airports actually made it saferto fly (and, in fact, flying was safer than driving evenbefore 9/11).
16 ExampleConsider the following pairs of causes of death. Lung cancer vs. motor vehicle accident Emphysema vs. homicide Tuberculosis vs. Fire and Flames From each pair, choose the one you think causes more death in U.S. each year.
17 D. Hindsight bias is the tendency to overestimate how predictable an event was once the outcome is known. Example: Following elections, people might comment that the results were predictable, discounting that the results were actually not so predictable in the weeks leading up to the election.
18 E. Counterfactual thinking is when people have thoughts on how past events might have turned out differently.For example, a person thinks about how life would be different if he or she had not ended a past relationship.
20 I. Group DynamicsAn area of social psychology that studies groups and group processes.A group is defined as two or more people who are interacting with and/or influencing one another.
21 II. Common Group Processes Social facilitation – The mere presence of others can improve performance on well practiced tasks- Example: Ryan, a pool player, should perform better in front of a large crowd than while practicing his billiard moves alone.Social inhibition – the mere presence of others can impair performance on task that one is not particularly good at- Example a novice pool player will perform less well in front of a group.
22 B. Both social facilitation and social inhibition can be explained by arousal. Arousalenhances performance for well-learned orfamiliar behaviors and hurts performancefor difficult or unfamiliar tasks.
23 C. Social loafing – on group tasks, people will sometimes exert less effort if individual contributions are not possible to identify - Example: when working on a group project for class, only a few people from the group will do the majority of the task. *Men and people from individualistic cultures* are more likely to participate in social loafing.
24 D. The bystander effect claims that behavior is influenced by the number of people available to interveneExample: Kitty Genovese 1964
25 How can we explain what happened to Kitty Genovese? Diffusion of responsibility – the tendency for individuals to think others will help, so they do not intervene.Pluralistic ignorance – the tendency to do nothing because others are doing nothing; everyone assumes everyone else must “know better,” and if others do not respond, then there must not be an emergency.
26 Directions DON’T put your name on your note card. You MUST write in pencil.Do not discuss your answers to the question or ask anyone else about their answers.If you could do anything humanly possible with complete assurance that your would not be detected or held responsible, what would you do?
27 A Look At Our Responses Prosocial Antisocial Non-normative intended to benefit othersAntisocialIntended to injure others or deprive them of rightsNon-normativeClearly violates social norms but does not directly help or harm others
28 What do you think the results were? Did the results look like yours? What Did Others Say?13 classes were evaluated10 college psychology classes3 classes of students incarcerated in maximum security prisons.What do you think the results were? Did the results look like yours?
29 Analysis of Data Category of response 36% antisocial 19 non-normative 36 neutral9% pro socialContent of responseCriminal acts 26%Sexual acts 11%Spying behaviors 11%Most popular responsesRob a bank****The responses of prisoners and traditional college students did not differ significantly with regard to either content or social desirability.****
30 E. Deindividuation – giving up normal behavior restraints to the group E. Deindividuation – giving up normal behavior restraints to the group. - Example: Mob behavior, spectator at a game
32 DirectionsYour group will have three minutes to create paper airplanes.The group that follows the instructions the best will receive a fabulous prize.No Questions will be allowedYou may design any type of plane you wishAll of your group's planes must look identicalOne point will be awarded for each plane constructed.You will be asked to fly one of your planesOne point will be awarded for each foot it flies along a straight runway.
33 Discussion How did you decide what type of plane to make? How did you decide how the planes would be made?Who made the decisions?Who offered suggestions?What type of credibility about building planes did those offering input have?How were leaders selected?Who did not participate in the decision-making process? Why?What criteria did your team use in deciding what kind of plane to build and how to build them?
34 F. Groupthink is a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for unanimity in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. This mode of thinking can result in bad group decisions when, rather than defend their own ideas, individual group members simply go along with the group.
35 Conditions that increase likelihood of groupthink The group is highly cohesive – deindividuationThere is a distinct and directive leaderThe group is isolated from other influencesThere is a time pressure or intense stressThe leader already has his or her mind made up
36 G. Majority and Minority Influence 1 G. Majority and Minority Influence 1. Group polarization occurs when a group supports a decisions supported by the majority of the group following a group discussion. 2. Minority influence occurs when a confident and persistent minority group influences a decision made by a whole group.
37 Lesson 3 Cooperation, Competition, and Conflict
38 I. Cooperation Versus Competition Cooperation involves people working together to reach a goal.- Example: Individuals from around the county came together after Hurricane Katrina to offer help.Competition involves working toward a goal while denying access to that goal to others. Competition can be between individuals or groups.- Example: An election for President
39 II. Social DilemmasIndividual or group behavior that leads to a short-term gains for the individual or group can lead to disaster for all if everyone (or all groups) were to engage in the same behavior.
40 B. Prisoner’s dilemma game - Two people are separated immediately after being arrested for a serious crime. - They are believed to be guilty, but the evidence to convict them is lacking.
41 Options Neither prisoner confesses, each gets 2 years in jail Both prisoners confess, each gets 3 years in jailOne prisoner confesses and the other prisoner does not, the prisoner who confesses will receive 1 year in jail and the other will receive 5 years in jail.
42 The best mutual outcome is for both prisoners to cooperate, but there is a strong tendency for people to compete rather than to work toward a mutually beneficial goal
43 C. Commons dilemma—When individuals share a common resource they all want and there is a scarcity of that resource (or the perception of a scarcity of that resource), individuals sometimes take more than their fair share and use the resource up quickly. - Example: Commercial Fishing
44 D. Social dilemmas reflect inherent conflicts between an individual and others (or a group and other groups) and between short-term and long-term interests- Example: It may be easiest in the short term to throw away your recyclable soda can in the garbage, but if everyone chose this behavior, it would be poor in the long term for all).
45 III. Interpersonal Conflict A. An interpersonal conflict occurs if a person believes that another stands in the way of something of value.
46 1. Competition for scarce resources B. Causes1. Competition for scarce resourcesExample—Parents trying to buy the most popular toys (e.g., a Playstation) for their children during the holidays compete to find and buy the toy.2. RevengeExample - If Sally makes fun of Sue, Sue may plot and plan a way to embarrass Sally.3. Attribution of selfish or unfriendly motives to othersExample - a person bumps into you by accident and you assume they were being rude.4. Misperceived or faulty communication or misperceptionsExample - a person takes an innocent comment as a criticism.
47 IV. Managing ConflictA. Bargaining is the term used when each side offers and counteroffers until a mutually agreeable solution is found.Examples—Negotiating to buy a house or negotiating worker contract disputes.B. Third-party interventions take place when an outside, objective source helps find a workable solution.Examples—When a mediator works with a divorcing couple.
48 C. Superordinate goals are shared goals that can only be achieved through cooperation. ExamplesRobber’s Cave study2. National security overrode partisan politics in the weeks after September 11, 2001.D. Communication and trust underlie these methods of reducing conflict.
49 Lesson 4. Attitude Formation and Change; Conformity, Obedience, and Prosocial Behavior
50 I. AttitudesAttitudes are evaluative (i.e., positive or negative) judgments about people, objects, events, and thoughts.Attitudes can be formed through learning and exposure.
51 Attitudes serve two functions: 1. to enable us to rapidly evaluate objects as good or bad - the object appraisal function of attitudes2. to express values and convey a person’s identity - the value-expressive function of attitudes
52 II. The ABCs of Attitudes Components of AttitudesA for affective (emotional) component“I love pizza.”B for behavioral (action) component“I eat pizza five times per week.”C for cognitive (belief) component“I believe pizza is healthy for me because it has all of the important food groups.”
53 Cognitive Dissonance Activity Take out a blank piece of paper and indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with a series of statements that I will read to you aloud.Strongly agreeSomewhat agreeNeither agree nor disagreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagree
54 - Consonant cognitions are consistent with one another C. The cognitive dissonance theory was proposed by Leon Festinger in Cognitive dissonance is the tension resulting from the lack of consistency in a person’s attitudes or beliefs and behaviors.- Consonant cognitions are consistent with one another- Example: “Recycling is good for the environment” and “I have a recycling bin at home”- Dissonant cognitions are inconsistent- Example: “Recycling is good for the environment” and “I never recycle plastic bottles”.
55 B. Attitudes can be explicit (attitudes that can be reported consciously) or implicit (attitudes that are automatic responses, possibly unconscious).
56 Cognitive dissonance generally occurs when the ABCs of attitudes are inconsistent. We often bring our attitudes in line with our actions, when we are aware that our attitudes and actions don’t coincide. In other words we rationalize our behaviors.
57 III. Attitude–Behavior Link A. Our current attitudes are influenced by past behaviors, and our future behavior is predicted by our current attitudes. - Attitudes often guide rational choices we make - Example: we believe dirt is bad so we wash dirty clothes
58 - Attitudes often influence behaviors - Examples: - Attitudes can influence what we pay attention to in the world around us and therefore affect our behavior- Example: If we believe driving safely is important, we will look for speed signs and stay within the speed limit.- Attitudes often influence behaviors- Examples:- Attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgenderedindividuals may lead todiscriminatory behaviors- Police profiling of certain racial and ethnic groups
59 B. Attitudes tend to predict behaviors when the attitude is strong or when we are free to behave in a variety of ways.Examples:If we strongly support one presidential candidate, we may volunteer on his or her campaign.If we enjoy tennis, we may play tennis over summer vacation.
60 C. There has been much research on the attitude-behavior link since the 1930s, when LaPiere (1934) found that attitudes are not always good indicators of how people will behave in a given situation.
61 IV. Understanding Attitudes A. Elaboration likelihood model—There are two routes of persuasion. 1. Central route—Attitude change involves carefully processing a message’s content. The message is important (strength of arguments). Example—For example, after hearing a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you found the candidates views and arguments very convincing.
62 2. Peripheral route—This route devotes 2. Peripheral route—This route devotes little attention to the actual content of the message and tends to be affected by persuasion cues such as confidence, attractiveness, or other characteristics of the person delivering the messagesExamples:1. After hearing a political debate, you may decide to vote for a candidate because he is the same race/ethnicity as you.2. Jessica Simpson endorsing a beauty product.
63 B. The elaboration likelihood model predicts that central route processing will occur only when the individual is motivated to analyze the message and is also able to process the message.
64 Directions You may work with a partner (2 people) Look through magazines and find:3 examples of when advertisers use central route to persuade individuals to do something.3 examples of when advertisers use peripheral route to persuade individuals to do something.Examine your examples and pick one central ad and one peripheral ad to present to the class.Attach a short description to each ad explaining how that route of persuasion is used in the ad.
65 V. ConformityConformity is following a group’s standards, methods, or behavior as a result of unspoken group pressure, real or imagined- Example: Everyone else is wearing the Lance Armstrong armbands, so you do too.
67 B. Reasons for conformity 1. Normative social influence is a person’s desire to gain group approval and avoid group disapprovalExample—If all your friends are wearing their hair a certain way or wearing a certain type of clothing, you may start to do the same just to fit in, even if they do not say anything to you.2. Informational social influence is a person’s willingness to accept others’ opinions regarding reality.Example—On certain political issues, an individual may side with someone who is well informed on politics of these issues (e.g., a political commentator) rather than with someone who is less informed about these issues.
68 3. Cultural effects—Some cultures value conformity; others value individualism. 4. Ambiguity of the situation—people rely more on the opinions and behaviors of others in uncertain situations.Example—When people are in a room and they see smoke, if other people are around, they will probably check to see if others are alarmed. If the others do not seem to be alarmed, the people are unsure if they are really in an emergency situation .5. Individual differences exist with conformity. Individuals who are highly motivated to achieve have high self-esteem, are less concerned with the approval of others, and are less likely to conform.
69 C. Conformity includes both compliance and obedience C. Conformity includes both compliance and obedience. Conformity refers to any behavior that occurs as a result of outside influence.
70 VI. ComplianceCompliance is obeying a direct request or giving in to overt social pressure.
71 A. The foot-in-the-door effect is the concept that if people first agree to a small request, they are more likely to comply with a larger request laterExample—If a young woman’s curfew is midnight and she asks her mother if she can stay out until 12:30 a.m., her mother may say yes. If her mother does say yes, the next week the young woman may ask if she can stay out until 1:00 a.m., and her mother may say yes again.
72 B. The door-in-the-face effect is if people are asked for a large favor first (which they deny), they are more likely to comply with a subsequent smaller requestExample—If a young man asks his parents for $100 to go see a movie, they will probably say, “no.” If the young man then asks them for $20 after they have said no to the $100, they are more likely to give it to him.
73 C. Other forms of compliance Free gift technique - giving someone a small free gift increases the possibility of agreement with a later requestLow-ball technique - offering something at one price and increasing the price after an agreement is madeScarcity technique – increasing the attractiveness of a product by making the product appear limited or rareliking technique - the likeability of a requestor can increase compliance
74 VII. ObedienceObedience is a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority.
75 The Milgram Experiment (1963) is a classic study on obedience. What was the purpose of the Milgram study?What did the participants do?Were these ordinary people?What caused these people to give shocks until the end?
77 B. Cults and the use of Propaganda are other examples of obedience A Cult is a rigid group with a charismatic leader.Examples: Jonestown and Heaven’s Gate CultBuilding Jonestown
78 2. Propaganda is a persuasive attempt that is purposefully biased, motivated by a specific idea or ideology. - Examples: WWII Propaganda or Television Commercials
79 C. Influences on obedience include: The prestige of the authorityThe presence of others who obey/disobeyPersonality characteristics
80 IX Prosocial BehaviorProsocial behavior are any act intended to benefit another person.There are two types of helping behaviors:Egoistic motivation – helping to gain benefit for the selfAltruistic motivation – helping to benefit another person
81 B. Altruism is the unselfish regard for others’ welfare B. Altruism is the unselfish regard for others’ welfare. - Example: helping an elderly person cross the street when it is cold outside just to be nice without expecting anything in return.
82 Models of altruism:Negative-state relief model – Helping others aids in eliminating negative moods and unpleasant feelings.Empathy-altruism model – Unselfish behavior can occur as a result of empathy with or understanding of another person.Cost-reward model – When we make a decision whether or not to help others we first assess how much there is to gain or to lose from the particular situation.
83 C. Factors that influence helping and altruistic behavior Perception of a need to helpA decision to take responsibilityRelative cost of acting or not actingThe presence of an allyA sense of competenceSense of empathy toward the person in needModelingPerson’s moodLevel of guiltAltruistic personality
85 I. Prejudice- Prejudice is a positive or negative (generally negative) attitude formed about others because of their membership in a group. - Example: being suspicious of someone because he or she is of middle-eastern background.
86 Overt racism – is exposed and expressed in a public way Aversive racism - is held by individuals who do not consider themselves to be prejudice, but who harbor some negative attitudes toward members of minority groups.Positive Prejudice - reflects a positive attitude toward individuals or groups.- Example: Harvard University graduates may be held in higher esteem compared to other college graduates.
87 II. Sources of Prejudice We learn to be prejudice in the following waysClassical conditioning – when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a response so that after time the neutral stimulus alone elicits a similar response.-Example: When African Americans are paired with violence on television, individuals may begin to view African Americans as violent even if they are not or have never displayed violence.
88 2. Instrumental conditioning is a process in which responses that produce rewards are strengthened. - Example: If a peer group rewards a person who is acting prejudice towards a member of a group, the person may strengthen the prejudice behavior.
89 2. The Bobo doll experiment 3. Modeling is the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.- Examples:1. A child learning prejudice from parents or sharing a parent’s political affiliation not because he/she necessarily agrees with the given candidate, but because of the parental influence.2. The Bobo doll experiment
90 B. Cognitive processes – we also show prejudice by the way we tend to think about ourselves, others, and the world.“Ingroup” favoritism and “outgroup” biasThe outgroup homogeneity effectStereotypingScapegoatingEthnocentrismAuthoritarian personality
91 III. Discrimination- Discrimination is the behavior that affects members of a targeted group.Discrimination can be explained by prejudice.Example: A company paying female employees less than male employees for performing the same work.
93 Reflect Do assumptions apply to everyone in the group? Do most people hold the same assumptions about a group? Why or why not?Do assumptions tell us anything definite about a categorized individual?How do assumptions affect your behavior towards others?
94 IV. StereotypesA stereotype is the cognitive component of prejudice and discrimination.In steretyping, beliefs about a group are applied to all members of that groupExample: Females are gentle, kind, and nurturing
95 Stereotypes can cause oversimplication - Example all people from the north are unfriendlyStereotypes can cause negativityStereotypes can bias attention because people often look for information that will confirm a stereotype.- Example: Correll, Park, Judd, and Wittenbrink (2002) found that white participants involved in a videogame simulation were faster to judge if a black target was armed with a weapon than to judge if a white target was armed. Results showed that more errors in judgment were made with black targets. These results demonstrate the effects of race on weapon misperception.
96 V. Stereotype ThreatStereotype threat is the apprehension arising in a person from the person’s awareness of a negative stereotype involving his/her own group, which can undermine motivation and impair performance. Stereotype threat occurs when an individual is in a situation in which the stereotype is relevant.- Example: In the Class Divided, the students performance was inhibited when they wore the collars.
97 VI. SexismSexism is prejudice directed at individuals due to their sex.- Benevolent sexism reflects positive but paternalistic attitudes towards a certain sex.- Hostile sexism reflects negative attitudes toward a certain sex because they do not exhibit the traditional stereotype of that sex.
98 B. Gender stereotypes tend to overstate or exaggerate gender differences. - Example: Men are strong and independent, and women are warm and emotional.
99 VII. Reducing Prejudice and stamping out stereotypes Contact hypothesis that bringing members of different groups together and letting them get acquainted to discover commonalities will decrease stereotypes.- Example: T.C. Williams High School
100 B. The colorblind approach Examples: Use the persons name rather than their group identity when describing the person. C. Embrace the concept of multiculturalism