Presentation on theme: "Psychological Disorders. What is Abnormal Behavior? Unusualness Social Deviance Emotional Distress Maladaptive Behavior Dangerousness Faulty Perception."— Presentation transcript:
What is Abnormal Behavior? Unusualness Social Deviance Emotional Distress Maladaptive Behavior Dangerousness Faulty Perception of Reality –Hallucinations –Delusions
Mental or Psychological Disorder Any behavior or emotional state that causes a person to suffer, is self- destructive; seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others; or endangers others or the community.
Insanity Legal term that depends on whether the person is aware of the consequences of behavior and is able to control it.
Culture-Bound Syndrome Psychological disorders found only among specific cultural groups.
Culture-Bound Syndrome Dhat Syndrome –Intense fear of losing semen (India). Ataque de Nervios –Uncontrollable shouting, crying, trembling, and verbal or physical aggression. Prevalent among women (Latin America). Brain Fag –Difficulties in concentration, memory & thinking among HS & college students in responses to the challenges of schooling ( West Africa). Koro –Intense anxiety that the sexual organs will recede into the body and possibly cause death (Malaysia). Amok –Brooding followed by violent outburst; often precipitated by an insult; seems to be prevalent only among men (Malaysia).
Culture-Bound Syndrome Ghost Sickness –Preoccupation with death and the dead, with bad dreams, fainting, appetite loss, fear, & hallucinations (Native Americans). Pibloktoq –Episodes of extreme excitement of up to 30 minutes, during which the individual behaves irrationally or violently (Artic Inuit Communities). Qi-gong psychotic reaction –Short episode of mental symptoms after engaging in the Chinese folk practice of qi-gong, or “exercise of vital energy” (China). Tajin kyofusho –Intense fear that the body, its parts, or its functions displease, embarrass, or are offensive to others (Japan). Zar –Belief in possession by a spirit, causing shouting, laughing, head banging, weeping & withdrawal (North Africa & Middle East).
Models of Abnormal Behavior Early Beliefs Medical Model Psychological Models Sociocultural Model Biopsychosocial Model
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) The “bible” of psychological and psychiatric diagnosis. Primary aim of the DSM is descriptive – provide clear criteria for diagnostic categories.
Advantages of the DSM When used correctly it improves the reliability of the diagnosis making it more accurate. Creates uniformity among clinicians Correct labeling of the disorder may help people identify the source of their condition that may lead to proper treatment.
Limitations of the DSM May foster over diagnosis. May increase risk of creating self-fulfilling prophecies. Label will follow the individual. May confuse serious mental disorders with normal problems. Diagnoses reflect prevailing attitudes and prejudice. Create illusion of universality.
Multiaxial Assessment Axis I: Clinical Disorders Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention Axis II: Personality Disorders Mental Retardation Axis III: General medical conditions Axis IV: Social and environmental stressors Axis V: Global assessment of overall functioning
DSM-IV –TR (Axis I) Disorders first diagnosed in Infancy, childhood, or adolescence Delirium, dementia, and amnesic and other cognitive disorders Substance related disorders Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Fastidious disorders Dissociative disorders Sexual and gender identity disorders Eating disorders Sleep disorders Impulse control disorders Adjustment disorders Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
Disorders First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence Learning disorders (Learning disabilities) Pervasive developmental disorders –Autism, Asperger's Disorders, etc. Attention-deficit and disruptive disorders –ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Disruptive Behavior Disorder, etc. Feeding & eating disorders of infancy or early childhood –Pica, Rumination Disorders, etc. Tic disorders –Tourette’s Disorder, Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder, etc. Elimination disorders –Encopresis, Enuresis, etc. Other disorders of infancy, childhood or adolescence
Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic and other Cognitive Disorders Delirium –Acute and relatively sudden decline in attention-focus, perception, and cognition. Delirium is not the same as dementia, though it commonly occurs in demented patients. Dementia –Progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the body beyond what might be expected from normal aging. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it may occur in any stage of adulthood. Amnestic Disorders
Schizophrenia A psychosis or mental condition involving distorted perceptions of reality and an inability to function in most aspects of life. Severity and duration of symptoms vary. Onset can be abrupt or gradual. Prognosis is unpredictable when onset is gradual.
Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia –Paranoid Type –Disorganized Type –Catatonic Type –Undifferentiated Type –Residual Type Schizophrenic Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Delusional Disorders –Erotomanic Type –Grandiose Type –Jealous Type –Persecutory Type –Somatic Type –Mixed Type Shared psychotic disorders (Folie a Deux) Other
Symptoms of Schizophrenia Active or positive symptoms –Delusions--false beliefs about reality –Hallucinations and heightened sensory awareness visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, etc. –Disorganized, incoherent speech--illogical jumble of ideas –Grossly disorganized and inappropriate behavior ranging from childlike silliness to violent agitation Negative symptoms –Loss of motivation –Poverty of speech--brief, empty replies reflecting diminished though –Emotional flatness--unresponsive facial expressions, poor eye contact, diminished emotionality –Tend to occur before and last after positive symptoms
Origins of Schizophrenia Biological factors Genetic predispositions –Risk of schizophrenia for general population is 1-2 % –Risk is about 50 % if identical twin has schizophrenia –Risk is 12 % for people with one schizophrenic parent –Risk is % for people with two schizophrenic parents –No specific genes for schizophrenia have been identified Structural brain abnormalities –May have decreased brain weight, reduced volume in specific brain areas, or reduced number of neurons in certain brain areas –May have enlarged ventricles –More likely to have abnormalities in the thalamus –Antipsychotic medications might affect the brain Neurotransmitter abnormalities –Schizophrenics may have low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine activity Prenatal abnormalities –Damage to fetal brain may increase likelihood of schizophrenia –Severe malnutrition during pregnancy –Infectious viruses, such as influenza, especially during second trimester of gestation
Panic Disorder Characterized by sudden attacks of intense fear, with feelings of impending doom. Symptoms –Heart palpitations, dizziness, and faintness. –Often related to stress, prolonged emotion, or traumatic experiences. Are not uncommon; whether it develops into a disorder depends on how the bodily reactions are interpreted. Culture influences the particular symptoms.
Phobias Unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object. –Social phobia Persistent, irrational fear of situations in which one will be observed by others. –Agoraphobia Fear of being alone in a public place from which escape might be difficult or help unavailable. The most disabling phobia--most common phobia for which people seek treatment. May begin with panic attacks--sudden onset of intense fear, then avoiding situations that might provoke another attack.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorders Obsessions –Recurrent, persistent, unwished-for thoughts. –May be frightening or repugnant. Compulsions –Repetitive, ritualized behaviors that the person feels must be carried out to avoid disaster. –People feel a lack of control over the compulsion. –Common compulsions include repeated hand washing, counting, touching, and checking things. Most OCD sufferers do not enjoy the rituals and realize the behavior is senseless, but if they try to break off the ritual, they feel mounting anxiety. Several parts of the brain are overactive in OCD sufferers, resulting in the person experiencing a constant state of danger.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Can occur as a result of uncontrollable and unpredictable danger such as rape, war, or natural disasters. Symptoms –Reliving the trauma in thoughts or dreams –“Psychic numbing” –Increased physiological arousal –Reaction may be immediate or delayed with PTSD –Symptoms of PTSD may recur for 10 years or more
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms –Continuous, uncontrollable anxiety or worry –Feelings of foreboding and dread –Restlessness, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and jitteriness –Duration of at least 6 months Predisposing factors –Physiological tendency –Unpredictable environment in childhood
Major Depressive Disorder Disrupts ordinary functioning for at least six months. Symptoms: emotional, cognitive & behavioral changes. –Emotional Feelings of despair and hopelessness. Loss of pleasure in usual activities. Thoughts of death or suicide. –Cognitive Exaggerate minor failings, discount positive events, interpret things that go wrong as evidence that nothing will ever go right. Low self-esteem, losses interpreted as sign of personal failure. Memory and concentration difficulties. –Behavioral Unable to do everyday activities (e.g., takes tremendous effort to get up and get dressed). May stop eating or overeat, have difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, feel tired all the time.
Bipolar Disorder Depression alternates with mania Bipolar I –One or more manic episodes. Bipolar II –One or more depressive episodes with at least one hypomanic episode
Manic Episode A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week. –Inflated self esteem or grandiosity –Decrease need for sleep –More talkative –Distractibility –Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities
Origins of Mood Disorders Biological Explanations Focus on genetics and brain chemistry –Low norepinephrine and/or serotonin levels implicated in depression –Mania may be caused by excessive production of norepinephrine –Drugs help to bring the levels of neurotransmitter into balance –Brain scans show reduced frontal lobe activity in depressed people
Other Explanations for Depression Social explanations--focus on stressful conditions of people’s lives –Marriage and employment associated with lower rates of depression. –In women, having more children is associated with higher rates of depression –A history of exposure to violence is related to depression Attachment explanations--focus on disturbed relationships and separations and a history of insecure attachments –Disruption of a primary relationship most often sets off a depressive episode Cognitive explanations--propose that depression results from particular habits of thinking and interpreting events –Learned helplessness theory held that people become depressed when their efforts to avoid pain or control the environment fail--however, not all depressed people have actually experienced failure –“Ruminating response style” may also lead to longer, more intense periods of depression –Women more likely to adopt this style than men
Axis IV Psychosocial & Environmental Problems Problems with primary support group Problems related to social environment Educational problems Occupational problems Housing problems Economic problems Problems with accese to heath care Legal problems Other psychosocial problems
Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) 100Superior functioning 90 Minimal symptoms 80Transient symptoms 70 Mild symptoms 60Moderate symptoms 50Serious symptoms 40Some impairment of reality 30Serious impairment 20Dangerous symptoms 10Extremely severe & dangerous symptoms