2Cultural information 1 1. The importance of “face” “Face” is a sense of worth that comes from knowing one’s status and reflects concern with the congruency between one’s performance or appearance and one’s real worth.“Face” stands for a very important sociological concept in Chinese culture. The concept of “face” roughly translates as honour, good reputation or respect. The essence of “face” lies in the drive for acceptance and approval of other people other than one’s real worth.
3Cultural information 2 2. Be yourself; everyone else is already taken. — Oscar WildeBeing yourself is celebrating you, as an individual — learning to express yourself and be happy with who you are. For some people, it’s learning to love yourself. For others, it’s not hiding who you are or changing things about you to fit in.
4Cultural information 2 3. Steps to be yourself Cultural Information ● define yourself● stop worrying about how people perceive you● be honest and open● relax● develop and express your individuality● believe in who you are● follow your own style
5Global Reading - Structural analysis Rhetorical FeaturesThis text is a piece of narrative writing, in which the author tells about her experience during the first year at university, which at first seems to be very awkward but turns out to be on the right track at last.
6In the text, three incidents are narrated by the author: Structural analysisStructural AnalysisRhetorical FeaturesIn the text, three incidents are narrated by the author:the first is about her going into the wrong classroom;the second is about her falling down in the cafeteria;the last is about her witnessing the same embarrassing fall happening to someone admired by her.Despite the differences between these three incidents,they actually revolve around one theme:The growth of the author, who is able to draw lessons from the mistakes she has made and finally succeeds in adjusting herself to the college life.
7Rhetorical Features 1Structural AnalysisRhetorical FeaturesDetailed descriptions of events are everywhere to be seen in this text, which is a dominant feature of narrative writing. Since the description of an event will involve a lot of movements or actions, compound sentences and compound-complex sentences have been used frequently in the text.e.g.I first began to wonder what I was doing on a college campus anyway when my parents drove off, leaving me standing pitifully in a parking lot, wanting nothing more than to find my way safely to my dorm room. (Paragraph 1)
8Rhetorical Features 2 e.g. Structural AnalysisRhetorical Featurese.g.I settled into my chair and tried to assume the scientific pose of a biology major, bending slightly forward, tensing my arms in preparation for furious note-taking, and cursing under my breath. (Paragraph 5)
9Detailed reading 1 Fresh Start Evelyn Herald I first began to wonder what I was doing on a college campus anyway when my parents drove off, leaving me standing pitifully in a parking lot, wanting nothing more than to find my way safely to my dorm room. The fact was that no matter how mature I liked to consider myself, I was feeling just a bit first-gradish. Adding to my distress was the distinct impression that everyone on campus was watching me. My plan was to keep my ears open and my mouth shut and hope no one would notice I was a freshman.
10Detailed reading2Detailed ReadingWith that thought in mind, I raised my head, squared my shoulders, and set out in the direction of my dorm, glancing (and then ever so discreetly) at the campus map clutched in my hand. It took everything I had not to stare when I caught my first glimpse of a real live college football player. What confidence, what reserve, what muscles! I only hoped his attention was drawn to my air of assurance rather than to my shaking knees. I spent the afternoon seeking out each of my classrooms so that I could make a perfectly timed entrance before each lecture without having to ask dumb questions about its whereabouts.
11Detailed reading3-4Detailed ReadingThe next morning I found my first class and marched in. Once I was in the room, however, another problem awaited me. Where to sit? Freshmen manuals advised sitting near the front, showing the professor in intelligent and energetic demeanor. After deliberation, I chose a seat in the first row and to the side. I was in the foreground (as advised ), but out of the professor’s direct line of vision.I cracked my anthology of American literature and scribbled the date at the top of a crisp ruled page. “Welcome to Biology 101,” the professor began. A cold sweat broke out on the back of my neck. I groped for my schedule and checked the room number. I was in the right room. Just the wrong building.
12Detailed reading5Detailed ReadingSo now what? Get up and leave in the middle of the lecture? Wouldn’t the professor be angry? I knew everyone would stare. Forget it. I settled into my chair and tried to assume the scientific pose of a biology major, bending slightly forward, tensing my arms in preparation for furious notetaking, and cursing under my breath. The bottled snakes along the wall should have tipped me off.
13Detailed reading6Detailed ReadingAfter class I decided my stomach (as well as my ego) needed a little nourishment, and I hurried to the cafeteria. I piled my tray with sandwich goodies and was heading for the salad bar when I accidentally stepped in a large puddle of ketchup. Keeping myself upright and getting out of the mess was not going to be easy, and this flailing of my feet was doing no good. Just as I decided to try another maneuver, my food tray tipped and I lost my balance. As my rear end met the floor, I saw my entire life pass before my eyes: it ended with my first day of college classes.
14Detailed reading7Detailed ReadingIn the seconds after my fall I thought how nice it would be if no one had noticed. But as all the students in the cafeteria came to their feet, table by table, cheering and clapping, I knew they had not only noticed, they were determined that I would never forget it. Slowly I kicked off my ketchup-soaked sandals and jumped clear of the toppled tray and spilled food. A cleanup brigade came charging out of the kitchen, mops in hands. I sneaked out of the cafeteria as the cheers died down behind me.
15Detailed reading8Detailed ReadingFor three days I dined alone on nothing more than humiliation, shame, and an assortment of junk food from a machine strategically placed outside my room. On the fourth day I couldn’t take another crunchy-chewy-salty-sweet bite. I needed some real food. Perhaps three days was long enough for the campus population to have forgotten me. So off to the cafeteria I went.
16Detailed reading9Detailed ReadingI made my way through the food line and tiptoed to a table, where I collapsed in relief. Suddenly I heard a crash that sounded vaguely familiar. I looked up to see that another poor soul had met the fate that I’d thought was reserved for only me. I was even more surprised when I saw who the poor soul was: the very composed, very upper class football player I’d seen just days before (though he didn’t look quite so composed wearing spaghetti on the front of his shirt). My heart went out to him as people began to cheer and clap as they had for me. He got up, hands held high above his head in a victory clasp, grinning from ear to ear. I expected him to slink out of the cafeteria as I had, but instead he turned around and began preparing another tray. And that’s when I realized I had been taking myself far too seriously.
17Detailed reading10Detailed ReadingWhat I had interpreted as a malicious attempt to embarrass a naïve freshman had been merely a moment of college fun. Probably everyone in the cafeteria had done something equally dumb when he or she was a freshman — and had lived to tell about it.Who cared whether I dropped a tray, where I sat in class, or even whether I showed up in the wrong lecture? Nobody. This wasn’t like high school. Popularity was not so important; running with the crowd was no longer a law of survival. In college, it didn’t matter. This was my big chance to do my own thing, be my own woman — if I could get past my preoccupation with doing everything perfectly.
18Detailed reading11Detailed ReadingOnce I recognized that I had no one’s expectations to live up to but my own, I relaxed. The shackles of self-consciousness fell away, and I began to view college as a wonderful experiment. I tried on new experiences like articles of clothing, checking their fit and judging their worth. I broke a few rules to test my conscience. I dressed a little differently until I found the Real Me. I discovered a taste for jazz, and I decided I liked going barefoot.I gave up trying to act my way through college (this wasn’t drama school) and began not acting at all. College, I decided, was probably the only time I would be completely forgiven for massive mistakes (including stepping in puddles of ketchup and dropping food trays). So I used the opportunity to make all the ones I thought I’d never make.
19Detailed reading12Detailed ReadingThree years after graduation, I’m still making mistakes. And I’m even being forgiven for a few.
20Detailed reading1--Quesion Why did the author have the impression that “everyone on campus was watching me”?The author, being over-sensitive, was uneasy with her identity as a freshman. She thought a new student would attract others’ attention, as what she did or said was liable to be too naïve to be right. That feeling is a typical symptom of lacking in self-confidence.
21Detailed reading2--Quesion Why did the author exclaim “What confidence, whatreserve, what muscles!” when she saw the football player?College life was a new experience to the author. That she marveled at the real football player showed her excitement about her new life. And more importantly, her response revealed her admiration of an image which was almost exactly the opposite of her own. This admiration would later become the motivation of her change.
22Detailed reading3-5--Quesion How many questions are used in Paragraphs 3, 4 and 5? Why does the author raise these questions?Four elliptical questions are used in these paragraphs. Being a freshman, the author was not well acquainted with campus life. She was at a loss as to what to do when something unexpected happened. These questions are used to show her bewilderment.
23Detailed reading6-8--Quesion Why did she dine on junk food for the next three days?Because she thought she had become the laughing-stock on campus. She couldn’t stand being laughed at by all the students when she turned up in the cafeteria.
24Detailed reading10-14--Quesion What was the key lesson Evelyn Herald learned during her first few weeks in college?The key lesson she learned during her first few weeks in college was that she realized she didn’t have to pay too much attention to what other people were thinking about her. The fresh campus life was her big chance to do her own things and be her own person. She might well relax herself and stop worrying about making mistakes because people all grow by trial and error.
25Detailed reading1– Activity Class ActivityGroup discussion: What lessons have you learned from Evelyn’s experiences after reading the article “Fresh Start”? Share the experiences when you first came to college.
26Detailed reading1– distinct1 distinct a.clearly seen, heard, felt, understood, etc.; noticeablee.g.Now that the boss was no longer present, there was a distinct change in her attitude.The children have distinct memories of their grandfather in his last days.Comparison:distinct & distinctivedistinct: Something that is distinct can clearly be seen,heard, smelled, etc.e.g.There is a distinct smell of beer in this room.distinctive: It means having a special quality, character,or appearance that is different and easy torecognize.e.g.Beer has a very distinctive smell; it’s quite distinct from the smell of wine.
27Detailed reading1– distinct2 Practice:One of the features of this book is its illustrations.本书特点之一就是具有清楚明了的图解。____________distinctivedistinct_________
28Detailed reading2– clutch clutch vt. hold or graspvi. try to grasp or seizee.g.The frightened woman clutched her bags to her breast.He clutched at the rope we had thrown to him but could not reach it.Synonyms:seize, graspe.g.She seized my arm as she fell.grasp the essence / main points
29Detailed reading2-- glimpse glimpse n.1. a quick look at sb. or sth.e.g.I caught a glimpse of our new neighbor.2. a short experience of sth. that helps you begin tounderstand ite.g.Her worried face gave me a glimpse of her true feelings.她的忧伤表情使我感受到她内心的真实感情。
30Detailed reading2-- reserve reserve n.a quality in sb.’s character that make them not like expressing their emotions or talking about their problemse.g.Being a man of reserve, Mr. York was never popular with his colleagues.Judy has tried every means to break through the reserve of her stepson.Derivation:reserved a.e.g.The English have a reputation for being reserved.
31Detailed reading2-- whereabouts n. approximate locationad. used to ask in what general area sth. or sb. ise.g.The orphan’s whereabouts is / are still unknown.The police have appealed for information concerning the whereabouts of the stolen car used in the robbery.Whereabouts did you grow up?
32Detailed reading3-- demeanor demeanor n.the way sb. behaves, dresses, speaks, etc. that shows what their character is likePractice:他的举止沉着、稳健。His demeanor was clam and steady.这个女孩子的态度娴静而谦逊。The girl has a quiet, modest demeanor.
33Detailed reading3-- scribble scribble (down) v.write sth. quickly and untidilyI scribbled his phone number in my address book.He scribbled down our names.e.g.
34Detailed reading3-- grope grope v.1. try to find sth. that you cannot see by feeling with yourhandsCollocations:grope fore.g.Ginny groped for her glasses on the bedside table.grope arounde.g.We groped around in the darkness.2. go somewhere by feeling the way with your handsbecause you cannot seeCollocations:grope your way along / across, etc.e.g.I was groping my way blindly through the trees.
35Detailed reading5– tip off give an advanced warning or hint toSomebody must have tipped the burglars off that the house would be empty.The police was tipped off about the robbery.e.g.
36Detailed reading6– goody goody (pl. goodies) n sth. that is nice to eate.g.We bought lots of goodies for the picnic.2. sth. attractive, pleasant, or desirablee.g.The competition gives you the chance to win all sorts of goodies.Variant spelling:(British English) goodie
37Detailed reading6–flail flail v.(cause sth. to) wave or swing about wildlye.g.I flailed my arms to get her attention.The baby’s feet flailed under the quilt.
38Detailed reading6– rear end (informal) the part of your body which you sit on
39Detailed reading7– sneak sneak v.go somewhere secretly and quietly in order to avoid being seen or heardCollocations:sneak in / out / away / offe.g.They sneaked off without paying!She snuck out of the house once her parents were asleep.Synonym:creep
40Detailed reading8–crunchy-chewy-salty-sweet bite Here the modifier “crunchy-chewy-salty-sweet” describes the texture and taste of the fast food, which is crunchy, chewy, salty and sweet.Word formation:The four adjectives are chained up with hyphens to form a new modifier placed before a noun.e.g.a red-hot news storyan all-round athlete
41Detailed reading9– tiptoe tiptoe v.walk quietly and carefully on your toes, so that nobody hears youe.g.His mother tiptoed into the room.I tiptoed along the corridor.Collocation:tiptoe around (sth.): try to avoid dealing with a difficult or embarrassing subject or probleme.g.They were tiptoeing around the delicate subject of money.
42Detailed reading9– poor (old) soul used to show pity for sb.e.g.The poor old soul had fallen and broken her hip.
43Detailed reading9– spaghetti a type of pasta in very long thin pieces, that is cooked in boiling watermacaroni 通心粉a type of pasta in the shape of small tubestagliatelle 意大利干面条a type of pasta that is cut into very long thin flat pieces
44Detailed reading9-- go out to sb. go out to sb. used to say that someone feels a lot of sympathy towards another personHis heart went out to Mrs. Bradshaw and her fatherless child.e.g.
45Detailed reading9–grin grin v.show that you are very happy or pleased by smiling widelyCollocation:grin from ear to ear: grin very widely
46Detailed reading9–slink slink v.go or move in a quiet, stealthy way; move as if one feels guilty or ashamed, or does not want to be seene.g.She tried to slink (=sneak) out of the office so that nobody would see her.The cat slunk (=sneaked) through the grass toward its prey.
47Detailed reading10– malicious malicious a.very unkind and cruel, and deliberately behaving in a way that is likely to upset or hurt sb.e.g.a malicious remarkmalicious gossipDerivation：malice (n.): a desire to harm sb. because you hate theme.g.He did it through malice.I am quite certain that his wife bears malice to / towards / against (=feels continuing dislike for) me.
48Detailed reading10–run with the crowd Comparison and translationAn independent man, Peter never goes with the tide.彼得是个有主见的人，从不随大流。__________________________________________________________You can do what you want to do, but never follow the crowd.你想做什么就做什么，可别随大流。__________________________________________________________Hait hasn’t got a mind of his own on any matter of importance; he just swims with the tide.海特在任何重要问题上都没有自己的主见，他只是随大流。__________________________________________________________________________________She is always falling into line with the majority.她总是随大流。___________________________
49Detailed reading11– shackle shackle n.a metal fastening, usually one of a pair, for encircling and confining the ankle or wrist of a prisoner or captive; (fig.) a restraint or check to action or progress, often used in the plural forme.g.The policeman placed shackles on the suspect’s hands.It is hard to break through the shackles of habit.
50Detailed reading1– It took everything … It took everything I had not to stare when I caught my first glimpse of a real live college football player. (Paragraph 2)Paraphrase:I could not help staring at the football player who was a direct contrast to myself and represented what I had desired but failed to be.
51Detailed reading3– I was in … I was in the foreground. (Paragraph 3)Paraphrase:Foreground means, as opposite to background, the part of a scene, landscape, etc. nearest, or represented in perspective as nearest, to the viewer, or the most noticeable or conspicuous position.
52Detailed reading9– I made my way … I made my way through the food line and tiptoed to a table, where I collapsed in relief. (Paragraph 9)Explanation:What she meant is that she sat down in relief as no one had noticed her. “Collapsed” is a hyperbole indicating her anxiety and the contrasting reality that no one actually cared.
53Detailed reading10– Probably… Probably everyone in the cafeteria had done something equally dumb when he or she was a freshman — and had lived to tell about it. (Paragraph 10)Paraphrase:Everyone who had done something dumb had survived the embarrassment (and so was able to recount the experience afterwards).
54Detailed reading11– I dressed a little … I dressed a little differently until I found the Real Me. (Paragraph 12)Explanation:Metaphorically, she means that she tried different experiences, as if trying on different articles of clothing, until she finally determined what her life should be like.
56Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingFill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate phrasal verb or collocation from the text.1) You have to take your daughter to hospital, as a rashon her face and hands._________________has broken out2) In the darkness, I the right box.groped for____________3) I warned him repeatedly that it was no goodthat kind of tricks me.trying____________on4) Our sympathies the relatives of the victims.go out to__________
57Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting5) The drug traffickers were arrested after the policewere by the local residents.tipped off___________
58Consolidation Activities- break out VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingbreak out: (of war, fighting, disease, or similarly undesirable things) start suddenlye.g.印度尼西亚爆发了森林火灾。Forest fires have broken out across Indonesia.
59Consolidation Activities- grope for VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritinggrope for: feel or search about uncertainly (forsomething) by hands; search uncertainly or withdifficulty (for a solution, answer, etc.)e.g.我在黑洞洞的屋里摸索着寻找电灯开关。I grope for the light switch in the dark room.
60Consolidation Activities- try on VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingtry on: put on (an article of clothing) to find outwhether it fits or is suitable; test the effect orresult ofe.g.你可以试试这件新上衣。人们为什么热衷于摸彩票？You can try on this new coat.Why do people like to try their luck on lottery?
61Consolidation Activities- go out to sb. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritinggo out to sb.: feel sympathy towards sb. and think abouttheme.g.他非常同情布莱克曼夫人和她那没有父亲的孩子。His heart went out to Mrs. Blackman and her fatherless child.
62Consolidation Activities- tip off VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingtip off: give an advance warning or hint to …e.g.他向警察告密，揭露了恐怖分子的阴谋。He tipped off the police about the terrorist plot.
63Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting1) assurance n.→ assure v. → assuring a.e.g.她向我们保证一切都会好起来的。他的安慰话帮我排除了恐惧。She gave us her assurance that everything would turn out all right.or She assured us that everything would turn out all right.His assuring words helped to banish my fear.
64Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting2) discreet a. → discreetly ad. → discretion / discreetness n.e.g.提出忠告要谨慎，接受忠告要虚心。那人小心翼翼地把名片放进上衣口袋。他以最谨慎的态度处理此事。You need to be discreet in giving advice, humble in accepting it.The man discreetly slipped the card into his top pocket.He handled the matter with his best discretion.
65Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3) relax v. →relaxing a. → relaxation n.e.g.你可以通过按摩来放松肌肉。业余爱好应该是可以使人放松的。瑜伽是一种可以使身心放松的运动。You can relax your muscles by massage.Hobbies are supposed to be relaxing.Yoga is an exercise that can provide mental and physical relaxation.
66Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4) humiliation n. → humiliate v. → humiliating a.e.g.士可杀不可辱。他在老板面前批评他的同事，因而让同事蒙羞。历史上中国曾被迫签署了太多屈节辱国的条约。A scholar prefers death to humiliation.He humiliated his colleague by criticising him in front of the boss.In history, China has been forced to sign too many humiliating treaties.
67Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting5) strategically ad. → strategic a. → strategy n.e.g.在战略上，我们应该藐视一切敌人。一般而言，首先参战的那方具有战略优势。西部大开发战略吸引了全世界的注意。Strategically we should despise all our enemies.Generally, the first to the field of battle has the strategic advantage.The large-scale development strategy for the western region drew worldwide attention.
68Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting6) embarrass v. → embarrassing a. → embarrassment n.e.g.他淘气地寻找机会让他姐姐难堪。每个人都会遇到不知该给服务生多少小费的窘境。他避免了在众人面前吻她的尴尬。He mischievously looked for a chance to embarrass his sister.Everyone has faced the embarrassing dilemma of deciding how much extra to give a waiter.He spared the embarrassment of kissing her in front of everybody.
69Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting7) maneuver v./n. → maneuverable a.e.g.他设法跻身董事会。在军事演习中，蓝军企图摸营，被红军挫败。这艘船的大小适中，可操作性很强。He maneuvered himself into the board of directors.In the military maneuver, the blue army attempted to attack the red army’s sentinels in the dark, but was defeated.The ship is of an appropriate size and is highly maneuverable.
70Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting8) mature a. → maturity n.Antonym: immature a. → immaturity n.e.g.她是位成熟的夫人，但显得年轻而且异乎寻常地美丽。她到十六岁发育成熟。不管熟还是没有熟的水果，都可以用糖来保存。She was a mature woman, but appeared young and was extraordinarily beautiful.She had reached maturity by the time she was sixteen.The fruits, mature or immature, can be conserved with sugar.
71Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting1. Adding to my distress was the distinct impression that everyone on campus was watching me.Antonyms:vague, indistinct2. With that thought in mind, I raised my head, squared my shoulders, and set out in the direction of my dorm, glancing (and then ever so discreetly) at the campus map clutched in my hand.Synonyms:carefully, meticulously
72Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3. What confidence, what reserve, what muscles!Synonyms:self-restraint, self-control4. I spent the afternoon seeking out each of my classrooms so that I could make a perfectly timed entrance before each lecture without having to ask dumb questions about its whereabouts.Antonyms：clever, intelligent, sensible
73Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting5. Freshmen manuals advised sitting near the front, showing the professor in intelligent and energetic demeanor.Synonyms:manner, behaviour6. I was even more surprised when I saw who the poor soul was: the very composed, very upper class football player I’d seen just days before …Antonyms:excited, agitated7. I expected him to slink out of the cafeteria as I had, but instead he turned around and began preparing another tray.Synonym:sneak
74Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting8. What I had interpreted as a malicious attempt to embarrass a naive freshman had been merely a moment of college fun.Antonyms:mature, sophisticated
75Consolidation Activities- Grammar main VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingNominal Clausesso thatAdverbial Clauses of Concession
76Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting1) Nominal ClausesThere are five main types of nominal clauses: that-clauses, interrogative sub-clauses, nominal relative clauses, nominal to-infinitive clauses and nominal -ing clauses.Nominal clauses function like noun phrases. They can occur as subject, object, complement, apposition, and prepositional complement.
77Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritinge.g.The hope is [that we will succeed]. (complement)The hope [that we will succeed] is unrealistic. (apposition)[What you do] does not concern me. (subject)I didn’t ask [where you live]. (object)I had prepared myself very carefully for [what I must say]. (prepositional complement)[To send him money now] would be [to put the cart before the horse]. (subject; complement)
78Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPracticeCombine each pair of sentences into one, using nominal clauses.1. Did he ever go there at all? Do you know?Do you know if/whether he ever went there at all?2. What do you need? You need a good rest.What you need is a good rest.3. Who does it belong to? You must give it back.You must give it back to whoever it belongs to.
79Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4. I decided to resign, which was wise.My decision to resign was wise.5. It is proposed that we should import more equipment. The proposal is to be discussed at the meeting.The proposal that we should import more equipment is to be discussed at the meeting.6. Who can have told you that? It puzzles me.Who can have told you that puzzles me.
80Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting2) so thatSo that introduces an adverbial clause of purpose, which usually contains a modal verb.e.g.The teacher must speak clearly [so that his students can understand well].They climbed to the top of the mountain [so that they could get a bird’s-eye view of the city].
81Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPracticeCombine each pair of sentences into one, using “so that”.1. He wore glasses and a false beard. Nobody wouldrecognize him.He wore glasses and a false beard so that nobody would recognize him.2. They are hurrying. They don’t want to miss the train.They are hurrying so that they may not miss the train.3. Please arrive early. We want to be able to start themeeting on timePlease arrive early so that we can start the meeting on time.
82Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4. John wanted to be heard in every room. He spokethrough a microphone.John spoke through a microphone so that he could be heard in every room.5. She locked the door. She didn’t want to be disturbed.She locked the door so that she wouldn’t be disturbed.6. John has bought a bicycle. He may save money on fares.John has bought a bicycle so that he may save money on fares.
83Consolidation Activities- Grammar3.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3) Adverbial Clauses of ConcessionAdverbial clauses of concession express a contrast of meaning or implication of “unexpectedness” in relation with the main clauses.They are often introduced by concessive conjunctions such as although, though or prepositions such as despite.e.g.[Although the car was badly damaged], none of the passengers was hurt.We enjoyed our holiday [despite the fact that it rained sometimes].[However difficult the situation is], we shall stick to it.
84Consolidation Activities- Grammar3.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPracticeCombine each pair of sentences into one, using adverbial clauses of concession.1. He had been prevented by illness from studying. Hepassed the exam.He passed the exam although he had been prevented by illness from studying.2. He might be or not be here. I shouldn’t have time to seehim.No matter whether he was here or not, I shouldn’t have time to see him.
85Consolidation Activities- Grammar3.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3. Mr. Johnson is rich. Mr. Johnson is by no means a happyman.Rich as he is / Although he is rich, Mr. Johnson is by no means a happy man.4. He is ill. He works hard.Despite / Although he is ill, he works hard.5. The minister escaped without a scratch. Everythingaround the minister was blown to pieces.Though everything around him was blown to pieces, the minister escaped without a scratch.
86Consolidation Activities- Translation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTranslate the following sentences into English.1. 听到他屡遭失败的消息，我感到很难过。(distress)If you distress someone, you upset them by doing or saying something that causes them to feel unhappy or alarmed.It distressed me a great deal to hear the news that he had suffered repeated failures.
87Consolidation Activities- Translation2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：如果我问了你的这一切使你感到苦恼，我很抱歉。I’m sorry if I’ve distressed you by asking all this.请不要自寻烦恼。Please don’t distress yourself.
88Consolidation Activities- Translation3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting2. 他虽然失去了老板的欢心，但仍然装出一副高兴的样子。(assume)If you assume a particular expression or way of behaving, you look or behave in this way deliberately in order to give people a particular impression.He assumed an air for cheerfulness, even though he lost favor with his boss.
89Consolidation Activities- Translation4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：文职官员们装出一副军人的样子。Civil servants assume a certain military air.他装出一副悔过的样子。He assumed an expression of penitence.
90Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3. 如果你再犯同样的错误，他会对你非常生气的。(furious)When you are furious with / at sb. or sth., you are extremely angry or annoyed with him / at it.He will be furious with you if you repeat the same mistake.
91Consolidation Activities- Translation6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：他为没有更早明白这件事而对自己非常生气。He was furious with himself for not realizing it sooner.他因为她所做的事情而大发雷霆。He was furious with her at what she had done.
92Consolidation Activities- Translation7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4. 我们都被他的坦率的观点、幽默的语言和亲切的态度所深深吸引。(draw)If something draws you, it is so interesting or noticeable that you look at it or move towards it.We were all greatly drawn by his frank views, humorous words and genial manner.
93Consolidation Activities- Translation8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：收音机的声音吸引了孩子们的注意。The noise of the radio drew the children.这部好莱坞大片为了吸引大批观众，动用了许多大牌明星。The Hollywood blockbuster has used many big stars to draw a large audience.
94Consolidation Activities- Translation7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting5. 等到欢呼的掌声平息下来，那位诺贝尔奖获得者开始演讲。(die down)If something dies down, it becomes very much quieter or less intense.After the cheering applause died down, the Nobel Prize winner began his speech.
95Consolidation Activities- Translation8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：她等到笑声渐渐停止。She waited until the laughter had died down.既然这名妇女已经死了，这些闲言碎语也将很快消失。The gossip will soon die down now that the woman is dead.
96Consolidation Activities- Translation7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting6. 我发现现实毕竟是非常严酷的，一个人难以完全按照自己的理想去生活。(live up to)If someone or something lives up to what they were expected or desired to be or do, they are as good as they were expected or desired to be.I feel realities are after all very harsh, so one can hardly live up entirely to his ideals.
97Consolidation Activities- Translation8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：这部电影没有我期望的那么好。The film didn’t live up to my expectations.你没能实现自己的诺言。You have failed to live up to your promises.
99Consolidation Activities- Dictation VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingDictationYou will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.
100Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingDictationThere are generally two educational methods: / the lecture method and the group learning method. / In a lecture classroom, / the teacher dominates the class / by doing most of the talking. / Students listen and take notes. / This method is best at passing on content to students. / It prepares students for a society / that values discipline and self-control. / The problem is that students forget most of the facts / that they have mechanically memorized. / In contrast, / the teacher of a group learning classroom / appears to have no definite
101Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingrole at all, / wandering about from group to group. / Students do not memorise information, / but they actively generate their own ideas, / each contributing insights for the success of the group. / This method prepares students for a society / that values creative ideas. / The disadvantage is that / students have not memorised enough basic facts.
102Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingFill in each blank in the passage below with ONEword you think appropriate.Academic success (1) in many forms. For most students, it’s a stellar transcript that opens doors into great jobs or great graduate schools. For (2) , academic success also includes (3) happens outside of the classroom. With so much (4) on in college, though, how can you make sure you’re headed down a path toward true academic success — and toward a truly rewarding college experience?comes_______others_______what_______going_______
103Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingYou may arrive at college knowing that you are destined to become a teacher, a lawyer, a doctor, or an engineer. Or you may arrive (5) having the slightest idea about what you want to major in. No matter which end of the spectrum you’re on, however, you should let yourself explore everything that your school has to (6) academically. Take classes in a subject you’ve never taken before. Follow a passion that doesn’t (7) to your major. Just let yourself really learn from your environment. There will undoubtedly be a lot of people giving you advice about what you should do during and after (8)not____offer______relate_______college________
104Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingAnd while you may be in school to learn, you will, at some point, have to draw your own line in the sand. Pick a career and course of study that suits you, (9) your parents. Pay attention to the fire in your belly and learn what you’re truly passionate about. Make sure you’re happy at your school. And once you’ve made a choice, feel confident in your decision and do all you can to (10) from the resources around you.not____learn______
105Consolidation Activities- Hints1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThis sentence lacks a predicate of intransitive verb, meaning “to happen” or “to occur”.
106Consolidation Activities- Hints2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingAfter for most students, here an echoing structure is naturally expected.
107Consolidation Activities- Hints3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammatically speaking, in this sentence, includes needs an object whereas happens outside the classroom at the same time requires for a subject. In terms of the meaning, it can be inferred from the context as “academic success also includes the thing that happens outside the classroom”. A pronoun, which leads an object clause and functions as “the thing that”, is required here.
108Consolidation Activities- Hints4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingHere following with so much, a noun or gerund is expected. In college is a separate phrase, leaving on pending to combine with the previous missing word, which hints at a phrase that means a lot of things are taking place or happening.
109Consolidation Activities- Hints5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingYou may arrive at college knowing something, “or” you may arrive not knowing anything. Or here strongly suggests a contrast in meaning, which is also suggested by the following expression end of the spectrum you are on. In the meantime, the slightest often collocates with negations, and not to have the slightest idea is a natural expression to mean “to have no idea”. Here, before the –ing participle having, a word of negation is expected.
110Consolidation Activities- Hints6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingAfter the infinitive marker “to”, the basic form of a verb is naturally expected. “That” leads in an attributive clause to modify “everything”, which serves as the object of this verb. The next sentence indicates an antonym of “take” is required here.
111Consolidation Activities- Hints7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThis sentence further illustrates the previous sentence Take classes in a subject you’ve never taken before. Naturally, the passion and your major should not be related. After “doesn’t”, the basic form of a verb is naturally expected. And it must be able to collocate with “to”.
112Consolidation Activities- Hints8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingAfter the two prepositions during and after, a noun or gerund is needed. The whole passage talks about life in college. It can be inferred from the context that the advice people give you concerns with your life during and after college.
113Consolidation Activities- Hints9 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingHow to draw your own line in the sand? The next sentence should further explain this idea and “your own line” stresses the contrast between your own decision and your parents’ choice. So a negation is naturally expected here.
114Consolidation Activities- Hints10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingJudging from the context and the logic of the passage, this sentence echoes the repeated message in the previous part, e.g. “Just let yourself really learn from your environment”. After the infinitive marker “to”, the basic form of a verb is naturally expected.
115Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGiving a TalkHaving a Discussion
116Consolidation Activities- Oral activities1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTopic A: How I Started My College LifeTopic B: My Idea of What College Life Should Be LikeWords and phrases for reference：freshman, orientation week, campus tour, placement tests, oral interviews for admission to different students’ societies, chaos, excitement, homesicknessWords and phrases for reference:busy / idle, great professors, a big campus, diversified courses, fewer exams, first experience of romantic love, a wide spectrum of extra-curricular activities, part-time jobs
117Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingHaving a DiscussionTopic: Do you believe that one can live a perfect life without making any mistake?Viewpoints for reference:a. To be a better self is far more important than to beperfect for everything.b. The idea of living a perfect life urges us to be abetter self.
118Consolidation Activities- Writing main VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingEssay Writing1. An IntroductionDifferent kinds of essays:descriptive, narrative, expositive, persuasive (or argumentative)Structural features:a definable beginning, middle and ending; a central idea (or the thesis)
119Consolidation Activities- Writing1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingWhat makes a good essay:Task ResponseCoherence and CohesionLexical ResourceGrammatical Range and AccuracyFully and appropriately explain / prove / discuss the thesis with clear, relevant and well-supported ideas in required lengthInformation and ideas are well organized, presented and linkedA wide range of vocabulary used in an accurate and appropriate manner for the taskA wide range of structures used in an accurate and appropriate manner for the task
120Consolidation Activities- Writing3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting2. SampleWhy King’s College?①This paragraph will explain why I am going to King’s College. ②The first reason I go to KC is that it is small. ③The classes are easy to get to on time, and if I have to run to the library, I can get there quickly.④ Second, KC is located in a small town. ⑤I can walk anywhere I want to go. ⑥Third, the cost of going to KC is low, and most of the books are checked out to the students in the library. ⑦Fourth, the instructors are friendly and easy to find during their office hours.⑧ This paragraph has explained why I am attending King’s College.Sample Analysis
121Consolidation Activities- Writing4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThe sample is a one-paragraph essay.Sentence① constitutes the beginning of the essay and also serves as its thesis.Sentences②-⑦ are supporting ideas and make up its body.Sentence⑧ is the end of this essay and reiterates its main idea.
122Consolidation Activities- Writing5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3. PracticeWrite a one-paragraph essay on the given topic: Why I Kept ________ as My Pet.
123Consolidation Activities- Writing6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingExample:Why I Kept a Cat as My PetMost people choose to keep cats as their pets for some similar reasons. First and foremost, I think cats are cute. I love to see my cat mewing to be fed. And it seems cats can do a lot of things with their body. They curl up and bury their face when they sleep. They arch their back in a frightened and defensive mode. And even fashion models try to imitate “cat’s walk”. Second, cats are clean animals. They do a tidy-up after they eat. They can be trained to use cat litter when they have to pee and shit indoors. Third, cats are better than dogs in a sense that you don’t have to walk them, which can save me a lot of trouble. Keeping pets can be a rather personal choice and my first pet cat was given by my father as a birthday gift.
124Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable QuotesLead-in QuestionsTextQuestions for Discussion
125Lead-in questions Lead-in Questions Text IIMemorable QuotesLead-in QuestionsHow do you understand the purpose of a University?2. What can corrupt a University’s soul?a.To train its recruits to be qualified for a job.b.To educate its students to be civilized citizens.c.To urge on knowledge seekers to pursue thought,wisdom and even truth.e.g.Intellectual corruption: plagiarism.
126A University Stands and Shines Text1Text IIMemorable QuotesA University Stands and ShinesJohn MasefieldThere are few earthly things more splendid than a University. In these days of broken frontiers and collapsing values, when the dams are down and the floods are making misery, when every future looks somewhat grim and every ancient foothold has become something of a quagmire, wherever a University stands, it stands and shines; wherever it exists, the free minds of men, urged on to full and fair enquiry, may still bring wisdom into human affairs.
127Text2Text IIMemorable Quotes2There are few earthly things more beautiful than a University. It is a place where those who hate ignorance may strive to know, where those who perceive truth may strive to make others see; where seekers and learners alike, banded together in the search for knowledge, will honour thought in all its finer ways, will welcome thinkers in distress or in exile, will uphold ever the dignity of thought and learning and will exact standards in these things. They give to the young in their impressionable years, the bond of a lofty purpose shared, of a great corporate life whose links will not be loosed until they die. They give young people that close companionship for which youth longs, and that chance of the endless discussion of the themes which are endless, without which youth would seem a waste of time.
128Text3Text IIMemorable Quotes3There are few things more enduring than a University. Religions may split into sect or heresy; dynasties may perish or be supplanted, but for century after century the University will continue, and the stream of life will pass through it, and the thinker and the seeker will be found together in the undying cause of bringing thought into the world.To be a member of one of these great Societies must ever be a glad distinction.In conferring it upon us you declare, or let it be presumed, that we are qualified to teach in those ways of life which we have followed. It has been a mark of the Humanist since he began among us that “gladly wolde he lerne, and gladly teche”; and although all of us would more gladly learn than teach, to be counted fit to teach is something of a crown to all men.45
129Text4Text IIMemorable Quotes6On behalf of my fellows in this glory, on behalf of the very learned, valiant, wise and gifted men beside me here, who stand for the Law by which we live, the air by which we breathe, the Free Enquiry by which we hope to endure, and the Art by which we shall be remembered, I thank you for this great distinction, which links us with you while we last.
130Text1 – About the authorText IIMemorable QuotesAbout the author: John Edward Masefield ( ) was an English poet and writer, and Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1930 until his death in He is remembered as the author of the classic children’s novels The Midnight Folk and The Box of Delights, 19 other novels (including Captain Margaret, Multitude and Solitude and Sard Harker), and many memorable poems, including “The Everlasting Mercy” and “Sea-Fever”, from his anthology Saltwater Ballads. The text was a speech delivered at the University of Sheffield on June 25, 1946, in response to a toast in his honor.
131Text2 – impressionable years Text IIMemorable Quotesimpressionable years (Paragraph 2): the years when the young are learning in a university and when they are most apt to learn and shape their personality
132Text4 one of these great … Text IIMemorable Quotesone of these great Societies (Paragraph 4)：It refers to a University which, according to the author, is most splendid, most beautiful and most enduring of all earthly things.
133Text3– gladly wolde …Text IIMemorable Quotes… gladly wolde he lerne, and gladly teche (Paragraph 5)：A quotation of Chaucer, it is a pedagogical advice from Geoffrey Chaucer, who in his Canterbury Tales describes the Clerk of Oxford thus: “Gladly wolde he lerne and gladly teche.” The three operative words in that Middle English sentence from six hundred years ago are “gladly,” “learn,” and “teach.” What Chaucer meant was that without gladness — without joy — one can expect from the educative process only a little learning.
134Text1– In these days …Text IIMemorable QuotesIn these days of broken frontiers and collapsing values, when the dams are down and the floods are making misery, when every future looks somewhat grim and every ancient foothold has become something of a quagmire, wherever a University stands, it stands and shines … (Paragraph 1): Speaking metaphorically, Masefield is commenting on the reality of the time before and after World War II, and the human affairs that lack wisdom. Frontiers and dams represent restraints on human vices and, according to John Masefield, could be provided by human wisdom.
135Text2- They giveText IIMemorable QuotesThey give to the young in their impressionable years, the bond of a lofty purpose shared, of a great corporate life whose links will not be loosed until they die. (Paragraph 2): Professors will provide students, who are in the most vulnerable age and most apt for learning, both knowledge and enlightenment, and guide them in a noble direction.
136Questions for discussion1 Text IIMemorable Quotes1. How do you understand the idea that a University is even more enduring than religions and dynasties?A University is even more enduring than religions and dynasties in that it is a place where the undying cause of bringing thought into the world is carried out.2. The author maintains that “the thinker and the seeker will be found together in the undying cause of bringing thought into the world” (Paragraph 3). Cite a modern instance or two of thought brought into the world.Charles Darwin: theory of evolution; Albert Einstein: theory of relativity; Sigmund Freud: theory of psychoanalysis.
137Questions for discussion2 Text IIMemorable Quotes3. What is the Humanist? What do you think are the major marks of the Humanist?The Humanist is the man who believes in human intelligence and reason rather than depending on a god or religion. Some of the major marks are stress on intellectual side, the emphasis on human dignity, sufficient attention paid to the importance of the present life, and the improvement of one’s ability and the pursuit of the beauty of life.4. What is “this great distinction” the author mentions in the last but one line of the selection?It may mean that it is an honor to be part of a University.
138Questions for discussion3 Text IIMemorable Quotes5. Make an analysis of these few paragraphs and show four main points of the selection.Four main points of the selection could be that a University is splendid; it is beautiful; it is enduring; and it is an honor to be part of it.
139Memorable Quotes1 1. Mistakes are the portals of discovery. Text IIMemorable Quotes1. Mistakes are the portals of discovery.— James Joyce
140Memorable Quotes3 2. Experience is the name everyone gives to their Text IIMemorable Quotes2. Experience is the name everyone gives to theirmistakes.— Oscar Wilde
141Questions for discussion1 Text IIMemorable QuotesQuestions for Discussion1) Discuss with your classmates some mistakes you’ll probably try to avoid on your journey through life and explain why.TipFor example: I can not afford to choose a wrong career because I think it’ll be rather difficult for me to transfer from one line of work to another …
142Questions for discussion1 Text IIMemorable Quotes2) Share with your classmates a mistake you’ve made in your life. And discuss with them what you’ve learned from it.TipFor example:a. I believe choosing English as my major is a big mistake because my mother picked it for me. I gradually found out I was not interested in language study at all. Now I’ve learned the importance of making my own choice.b. The biggest mistake I’ve made so far is that I never allowmyself to make any mistake. I feel much pressure from myperfectionism obsession. And I’ve lost some preciousopportunities to achieve major breakthroughs in myuniversity life because of this.
143Memorable Quotes1Text IIMemorable QuotesJames Joyce ( ) was an Irish novelist and poet of the early 20th century, best known for his landmark novel Ulysses (1922), a modern re-telling of The Odyssey.
144Memorable Quotes1Text IIMemorable QuotesOscar Wilde ( ) was an Irish writer and poet , regarded as one of London’s most popular playwrights in the early 1890s, also a spokesman for aestheticism.