Presentation on theme: "China: 5,000 Years of History in One Presentation Mr. Ornstein Willow Canyon High School Go Go Wildcats Go!"— Presentation transcript:
China: 5,000 Years of History in One Presentation Mr. Ornstein Willow Canyon High School Go Go Wildcats Go!
Yellow River Valley China Is One of the 4 Cradles of Civilization Chinese Civilization is Around 5,000 Years Old Starts in Yellow River Valley
Dynastic Rule Until 1911 China Was Ruled by Dynasties Dynasty- Family of Related Rulers Emperor
Mandate of Heaven Right to Rule China Similar to Divine Right Ruling Dynasties Gained or Lost the Mandate of Heaven Goal of Rulers Was to Keep Order and Prevent Chaos
Dynastic Cycle New Dynasty-Takes Power/Improves Conditions New Dynasty Gets Old- Corrupt, War, Taxes Natural Disasters Blamed on Old Dynasty Old Dynasty Takes Power
Chinese Philosophies Confucianism- Keeping Order Buddhism-Popular Because it Promised a Good Afterlife to the Poor Chinese Peasants
Qin Shi Huangdi Leader of Qin Dynasty Unified China
Other Chinese Dynasties Han Dynasty-Very Similar to Roman Empire Tang and Song-Golden Age of China
The Great Wall of China Built to Keep Manchurians and Mongols Out of China Fails on Both Account
Isolated China??? China Was More Isolated Than Other Early Civilizations Chinese Culture Was More Ethnocentric Geographic Isolation: Mountains, Deserts, Ocean
Ethnocentrism China views itself as the center of the Universe. Belief its culture is superior. Belief that non-Chinese are “barbarian”
Exceptions to Chinese Isolation Silk Road-Trade Between Europe, India, Middle East, Asia Contact with Japan, Korea, Central Asia
Marco Polo Increased Interaction Between Europe and Asia Visits During Mongol Rule
Yuan Dynasty Mongol Rule Increased Contact Between China and Other Lands
Zheng He Ming Dynasty Admiral Chinese Navy Was Most Powerful at time Sailed to Africa Possibly Reaches Americas, Australia
Chinese Isolation Ming Dynasty Abruptly Calls Back Zheng He and Destroys Chinese Navy China Reverts to Isolation China Does not Want Relations or Trade with Europe
Qing or Manchu Dynasty Last Dynasty to Rule China Non-Chinese Rule during time of European Imperialism
Decline of the Qing Dynasty European Imperialism Opium Wars Spheres of Influence Boxer Rebellion
Republic of China Sun Yatsen Overthrows Qing Dynasty Attempts to Establish a Democracy in China
Warlord Period Warlords/Military Generals Overthrow Sun Yatsen and Divide China Chaotic Period
Nationalist Party/KMT Sun Yatsen Forms the Nationalist Party to Combat the Warlords and Attempt to Reunify China
Chiang Kai Shek Takes over Nationalists after Sun Yatsen Dies. Defeats Many Warlords Nearly Unified China
Chinese Communist Party July 1921 Founded Mao Zedong Slowly Emerges as Leader
Chinese Civil War Nationalists lead by Chiang Kai- Shek vs. Communists Led by Mao
Unity For A Short Period of Time the CCP and KMT Worked Together to Defeat the Warlords and Unify China. Soviet Union Urged Cooperation
Answer: Who was leader of the Chinese Nationalists? Who was leader of the Chinese Communists?
The Chinese Civil War 1927-1949 Temporarily Stops Between 1937-1945 During WWII and Japanese Invasion of China Non-Communist Nationalists vs. Chinese Communists Chiang Kai-Shek vs. Mao Zedong
Supporters Nationalists- Had Support of the Rich, Middle Class, Merchants, Bankers, Manufactures Communists-Appealed to the Peasants and Women
The Nationalists More Money Better Equipment Support from the US and at times Stalin
Stalin and the Chinese Civil War Stalin and Mao Do Not Get Along. Stalin at times Supported the KMT Soviets Want to Keep Chinese Civil War Going. Soviets Want a Divided and Weak China on its Border
The Split April 1927 Chiang Kai-Shek turns on Communists Allies and Begins Arrests and Executions Start of Chinese Civil War
Nationalist Success Chiang Kai-Shek Was Initially Successful at Defeating the Communists in the Early Part of the Civil War
The Long March Starts Oct. 1934 Communists Retreat North 80,000 Start, 7,000 Finish Mao Emerges as Leader Strengthens the Resolve of CCP
Bad Timing for Chiang Kai-Shek As Chiang Kai-Shek Was About to Destroy the CCP, Japan Invaded China Beginning World War II. Chiang Kai-Shek is More Concerned with Defeating Chinese Communists than Fighting Foreign Invasion from Japan. Failure to Fight off Japan costs him popular support.
CCP and Japan Chinese Peasants Felt the Communists Were Doing More to Fight the Japanese than the Nationalists. Japanese Occupation of Japan was Brutal
Xian Incident: Dec. 1936 Chiang Kai-Shek’s Own Generals Kidnap Him and Force Him to Make Truce with CCP and Fight Japan. KMT and CCP Join Forces to Fight Japanese Invasion. CCP Seen as More Active
End of WWII World War II Ends and Communists and Nationalists Resume the Chinese Civil War Fighting Japan Drained the Nationalists of Many Resources Many Peasants Joined the Communists
Marshall Mission 1945-1946 Truman Sends Marshall to Negotiate Compromise Between KMT and CCP 1.5 Million Nationalists Troops Demobilize Communists Do Not and Use Time to Train and Increase Their Army Hostilities Resume in Spring 1946
Problems for Nationalists Hurt by Marshall Mission Corruption Inflation Little Support from Peasants Undemocratic
Advantages for the Communists Strong and Charismatic Leadership Tight After Long March Massive Peasant Support/Promise Land Reform Women Support/Promised Equality
Communist Victory Mao Zedong and the Communists Win Control of China in 1949 Establish the Peoples Republic of China
Chiang Kai-shek Retreats Chiang Kai-shek retreats to the Island of Taiwan and Establishes a Non-Communist Government. Republic of China
2 China’s??? Chiang Kai-shek Promised to Return to China. Felt he was legitimate ruler. Peoples Republic of China sees Taiwan as part of China and is currently a “break away” state.
Who won or lost China? Did Communists win control? Did Chiang Kai-shek lose it? What is the fault of President Truman and his administration?
Truman and China 3 Billion in Aid to Chiang Kai Shek Many in Congress were Strong Supporters of Chiang Kai-shek Problems with Marshall Mission? Compromised State Department?
Chiang’s Loss??? Well Supplied and Plenty of Money Very Corrupt Poor Leader Failure to win Support of Peasant Poor Generalship
Mao’s Victory??? Tight Leadership after Long March Peasant Support from resistance to Japan and promise of land reform Better/more ruthless leadership?
McCarthyism and China “Loss of China” helps start wave fear in the United States that Communist Sympathizers infiltrated our government.
Summary??? How did the Chinese Communists Become Popular in China? How did WWII affect the Chinese Civil War? Who lost China?
Mao’s China Communist Totalitarian Dictatorship Cult of Personality Complete Control Over Peoples Lives Most Original Supporters are Killed or Jailed Rules Until 1976
The Great Leap Forward 1958-1962 Mao’s Plan to Rapidly Industrialize China
Great Leap Forward Mao Wants to Make China as Industrialized as England and US All People Were to Help the Industrialization Process “Pig Iron” People Forced to Contribute All Metal in Homes Lack of Farming During this time
The Great Leap Forward/Great Famine Fails to Industrialize China Leads to Massive Famine 20-40 Million Die
People Begin to be Critical of Mao Failure of Great Leap Forward Lead Some People to Become Critical of Mao Mao will Launch “Cultural Revolution” to strike at Critics.
Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 Supposed to Purge China of all People who were anti- Revolutionary Mao uses to get rid of all opposition to his rule
Red Guard Groups of Students Brainwashed by Mao Attack, Humiliate, Embarrass, and Kill “Enemies” of Mao During Cultural Revolution. Attack Elements of Old Chinese Culture
Mao Dies Cultural Revolution Does Not End Until Mao Dies in 1976. China begins True Modernization After Mao’s Death