2 Truman and Civil Rights Justice department begins to support anti-segregation lawsColor barrier in baseball is broken when Jackie Robinson plays for the Brooklyn Dodgers1948 – Truman orders "equality of treatment and opportunity to African-Americans in the armed services
3 Presidents and Civil Rights Truman made attempts to advance the causeEisenhower was a segregationist. Not rabid, but certainly doesn’t take steps to integrateJFK was a tepid supporter of civil rights, but he finger was always testing the political wind, which drove his decision makingLBJ does more for Civil Rights than any other President – irony…he’s a Southerner
4 Emmett Till - 1955 An African-American boy (14 yrs) from Chicago In Mississippi visiting relativesHe apparently whistled at a white store clerk, who informed her husband, Roy BryantBryant and JW Milam killed Till, beating him, gouging out on eye, shooting him and dumping the body in a river.His mother insisted on an open casket and allowed photos of her mutilated son that were circulated in papersHis murderers admitted to the killing, but were acquitted by a jury of 12 southern white men.They deliberated for just over an hourThere was moral outrage throughout the US and Europe. This helped to spark the civil rights movement
6 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka - 1954 Linda Brown – 3rd Grader – had to travel 1 mile to all-black school, passing a white school along the wayNAACP works with Browns challenging school segregationSupreme Court overturns Plessy v. Ferguson – said that “Separate but equal” denied students rights under ConstitutionThe first step in eliminating segregation
7 Loophole in Brown v. Board Decision “with all deliberate speed”Southern states did not move to quickly to reformSouthern Manifesto – Southern Congressmen sign this document asserting that the Supreme Court’s decision violates states rightsSome Southern states threatened to disband public schools and make all schools private
8 Integration in Schools Ike did not advance the ball with integrationDid not crack down on states that ignored Brown v. BoardStates further North desegregated peacefully, but in the South, African-Americans met more violence and tauntsLittle Rock Crisis – 1957Central High School , city admitted 9 blacksGov. Orval Faubas used National Guard to keep blacks outFaubas withdraws guardsmen under national pressureEisenhower sends in 101st Airborne to keep the peace
9 State Universities Slow to integrate, particularly in the South 1956 – University of Alabama admitted Autherine Lucy under court order, but expelled her before she could attend1962 – James Meredith attended the University of Mississippi (transfer from Jackson St)Opposed by Governor Ross Barnett sparking riotsKennedy sent in the armyMeredith graduated the next year - Political ScienceIn 1963 – Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, was vocal in his opposition to integration of the University of AlabamaRan for President in 1968
12 Jim Crowism ( s)Practiced in most Southern states, 3 of 4 border states, and a few in the westSeparated the races in many public facilities like buses & bus terminals, movie theaters, drinking fountains and restrooms.Hotels and restaurants may deny African-Americans service
14 Montgomery Bus Boycott Dec, 1955 – Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger – she was arrestedMontgomery Bus Boycott - Women’s Political Council (college educated African-American women) started a boycott of the bus company in MontgomeryMartin Luther King took a leadership role in this effortLasted several months – received national media attentionSupreme Court ruled almost a year later that bus segregation was unconstitutional Browder v. GayleMartin Luther King was made famous
15 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Civil rights organization founded in 1957Co-founded by Joseph Lowrey and Ella Baker.It was later headed by MLK.The organization, sparked by the success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, focused on nonviolent civil disobedience through protests and marches to gain civil rights for blacks.They thrived on media coverage to gain support around the world.While NAACP focused on court-based reform, SCLC focused on community-based reform
16 Ella Baker Civil rights activist involved with the NAACP and SCLC. She formed SNCC and went to work with them forming the plans for sit-ins and freedom rides.Her ideas on group-centered organizing and direct action influenced the philosophy of participatory democracy put forth by SNCC
18 Lunch Counter Sit-Ins1960 – Four African-American college students sat at the lunch counter of a Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NCWaited for a day without being servedSparked similar demonstrations throughout the SouthHad varying effectsSome lunch counters integrated as a resultViolence by angry whites and arrests happened in other areas
20 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) - 1961 Founded under the guidance of Ella Baker led by John LewisFocused membership on the younger generationInvolved in sit-ins, freedom rides, March on Washington.Its purpose was to coordinate the use of nonviolent direct action to attack segregation as well as other forms of racism.Later led by Stokely CarmichaelBegan to focus on black power, Vietnam and started to abandon the idea of passive resistance.One of the first groups to used a decentralized organizational structure
21 John Lewis Civil rights activist. Involved in sit-ins and the freedom rides during college.During the Selma to Montgomery march, police brutally beat him.At the March on Washington, Lewis, the Pres of SNCC, was critical of the Kennedy administration
22 Freedom Rides - 1961 Began in May, shortly after the Bay of Pigs. Black and White students from SNCC boarded busses to travel through the south to test the enforcement of laws prohibiting segregation.The riders ran into trouble in Alabama where mobs stopped the buses and beat some of the riders.They continued the rideRFK cut a deal with the Governor of Miss to protect the riders in exchange for the justice department not enforcing segregation laws.
24 BirminghamSCLC concentrated its efforts on the heavily segregated Birmingham, AlabamaHold sit-ins & protest marchesCommissioner of Public Safety, Bull Connor, turned the fire hoses & dogs on these peopleSome were arrestedMLK wrote ”Letter from a Birmingham Jail”“We have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and non-violent pressure… Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed”
25 March on Washington (for Jobs and Freedom) – Aug 1963 Approx ,000 people attended.King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech.Kennedy felt that this would undermine pending civil rights legislation and hurt other domestic initiatives.JFK concerned this would embarrass the United States in the world communityHelped to push through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voters Rights act of 1965
26 Civil Rights Act of 1964LBJ has taken over Presidency after JFK’s murderLBJ is a creative legislator and pushes through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as a tribute to the fallen PresidentProhibited segregation in public accommodations (hotels, restaurants, gas stations, theaters & parks)Outlawed employment discrimination on federal projects
28 Freedom SummerCivil rights organizations like SNCC launched a campaign to register as many black voters as they could in Mississippi counties that had a noticeably low black voter turnout.Violence hindered the campaign when three students were apprehended by the KKK and murdered.Their murders sparked an investigation by the FBI and became a symbol of the civil rights movement
30 Selma to Montgomery March MLK and SCLC demonstrated in Selma, Alabama for voter rightsOnly 2% of eligible blacks were registered in that countyProtestors were arrestedJohn Lewis organized a group to march from Selma to MontgomeryThe protestors were met by state troopers who beat the protestors when they failed to disperseTV cameras caught the violence
31 Voting Rights Act - 1965 Signed by Johnson Outlawed literacy tests Federal voting registrars would be sent to states with less than 50% of eligible population registered
32 Black PowerAttitude in America, urban riots, fueled separatists from the nonviolence camp
33 Nation of IslamElijah Muhammad - The leader of the Nation of Islam from the 30s to the 70s.He was similar to the Pope in that he was the voice of Allah on Earth.From an early age he developed a deep hatred for white people because of the violence he witnessedfather killed by whites.He preached that whites were devils and inferior.He preached complete separation from white community (black separatism) as well as black nationalism.He believed in rehabilitating blacks who were alcoholics, drug users and criminals – which he had success doing.Had a profound impact on Malcolm X.
34 Nation of Islam Malcolm X Becomes the leading Black Muslim Break free of white dominance by using any means necessaryEmphasized African cultural heritage & self-helpPilgrimage to Mecca softened his stanceAssassinated by members of the Nation of Islam
35 Black Panthers - 1966 Founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton This was a militant group of civil rights protesters who believed in black nationalism and believed in armed resistance to stop black oppression.They monitored police to look for abuse.They are an example of the new wave of civil rights activists, tired of the non-violent approach.
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