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Civil Rights 1950s-1970s.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil Rights 1950s-1970s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil Rights 1950s-1970s

2 Truman and Civil Rights
Justice department begins to support anti-segregation laws Color barrier in baseball is broken when Jackie Robinson plays for the Brooklyn Dodgers 1948 – Truman orders "equality of treatment and opportunity to African-Americans in the armed services

3 Presidents and Civil Rights
Truman made attempts to advance the cause Eisenhower was a segregationist. Not rabid, but certainly doesn’t take steps to integrate JFK was a tepid supporter of civil rights, but he finger was always testing the political wind, which drove his decision making LBJ does more for Civil Rights than any other President – irony…he’s a Southerner

4 Emmett Till - 1955 An African-American boy (14 yrs) from Chicago
In Mississippi visiting relatives He apparently whistled at a white store clerk, who informed her husband, Roy Bryant Bryant and JW Milam killed Till, beating him, gouging out on eye, shooting him and dumping the body in a river. His mother insisted on an open casket and allowed photos of her mutilated son that were circulated in papers His murderers admitted to the killing, but were acquitted by a jury of 12 southern white men. They deliberated for just over an hour There was moral outrage throughout the US and Europe. This helped to spark the civil rights movement

5 Public School Integration

6 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka - 1954
Linda Brown – 3rd Grader – had to travel 1 mile to all-black school, passing a white school along the way NAACP works with Browns challenging school segregation Supreme Court overturns Plessy v. Ferguson – said that “Separate but equal” denied students rights under Constitution The first step in eliminating segregation

7 Loophole in Brown v. Board Decision
“with all deliberate speed” Southern states did not move to quickly to reform Southern Manifesto – Southern Congressmen sign this document asserting that the Supreme Court’s decision violates states rights Some Southern states threatened to disband public schools and make all schools private

8 Integration in Schools
Ike did not advance the ball with integration Did not crack down on states that ignored Brown v. Board States further North desegregated peacefully, but in the South, African-Americans met more violence and taunts Little Rock Crisis – 1957 Central High School , city admitted 9 blacks Gov. Orval Faubas used National Guard to keep blacks out Faubas withdraws guardsmen under national pressure Eisenhower sends in 101st Airborne to keep the peace

9 State Universities Slow to integrate, particularly in the South
1956 – University of Alabama admitted Autherine Lucy under court order, but expelled her before she could attend 1962 – James Meredith attended the University of Mississippi (transfer from Jackson St) Opposed by Governor Ross Barnett sparking riots Kennedy sent in the army Meredith graduated the next year - Political Science In 1963 – Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, was vocal in his opposition to integration of the University of Alabama Ran for President in 1968

10 Autherine Lucy & James Meredith

11 Equal Access to Public Facilities

12 Jim Crowism ( s) Practiced in most Southern states, 3 of 4 border states, and a few in the west Separated the races in many public facilities like buses & bus terminals, movie theaters, drinking fountains and restrooms. Hotels and restaurants may deny African-Americans service

13 Examples of Jim Crow

14 Montgomery Bus Boycott
Dec, 1955 – Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger – she was arrested Montgomery Bus Boycott - Women’s Political Council (college educated African-American women) started a boycott of the bus company in Montgomery Martin Luther King took a leadership role in this effort Lasted several months – received national media attention Supreme Court ruled almost a year later that bus segregation was unconstitutional Browder v. Gayle Martin Luther King was made famous

15 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Civil rights organization founded in 1957 Co-founded by Joseph Lowrey and Ella Baker. It was later headed by MLK. The organization, sparked by the success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, focused on nonviolent civil disobedience through protests and marches to gain civil rights for blacks. They thrived on media coverage to gain support around the world. While NAACP focused on court-based reform, SCLC focused on community-based reform

16 Ella Baker Civil rights activist involved with the NAACP and SCLC.
She formed SNCC and went to work with them forming the plans for sit-ins and freedom rides. Her ideas on group-centered organizing and direct action influenced the philosophy of participatory democracy put forth by SNCC

17 Ella Baker

18 Lunch Counter Sit-Ins 1960 – Four African-American college students sat at the lunch counter of a Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC Waited for a day without being served Sparked similar demonstrations throughout the South Had varying effects Some lunch counters integrated as a result Violence by angry whites and arrests happened in other areas

19 Woolworth’s Sit-In - Greensboro

20 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) - 1961
Founded under the guidance of Ella Baker led by John Lewis Focused membership on the younger generation Involved in sit-ins, freedom rides, March on Washington. Its purpose was to coordinate the use of nonviolent direct action to attack segregation as well as other forms of racism. Later led by Stokely Carmichael Began to focus on black power, Vietnam and started to abandon the idea of passive resistance. One of the first groups to used a decentralized organizational structure

21 John Lewis Civil rights activist.
Involved in sit-ins and the freedom rides during college. During the Selma to Montgomery march, police brutally beat him. At the March on Washington, Lewis, the Pres of SNCC, was critical of the Kennedy administration

22 Freedom Rides - 1961 Began in May, shortly after the Bay of Pigs.
Black and White students from SNCC boarded busses to travel through the south to test the enforcement of laws prohibiting segregation. The riders ran into trouble in Alabama where mobs stopped the buses and beat some of the riders. They continued the ride RFK cut a deal with the Governor of Miss to protect the riders in exchange for the justice department not enforcing segregation laws.

23 Freedom Rides

24 Birmingham SCLC concentrated its efforts on the heavily segregated Birmingham, Alabama Hold sit-ins & protest marches Commissioner of Public Safety, Bull Connor, turned the fire hoses & dogs on these people Some were arrested MLK wrote ”Letter from a Birmingham Jail” “We have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and non-violent pressure… Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed”

25 March on Washington (for Jobs and Freedom) – Aug 1963
Approx ,000 people attended. King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. Kennedy felt that this would undermine pending civil rights legislation and hurt other domestic initiatives. JFK concerned this would embarrass the United States in the world community Helped to push through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voters Rights act of 1965

26 Civil Rights Act of 1964 LBJ has taken over Presidency after JFK’s murder LBJ is a creative legislator and pushes through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as a tribute to the fallen President Prohibited segregation in public accommodations (hotels, restaurants, gas stations, theaters & parks) Outlawed employment discrimination on federal projects

27 Equitable Voter Registration

28 Freedom Summer Civil rights organizations like SNCC launched a campaign to register as many black voters as they could in Mississippi counties that had a noticeably low black voter turnout. Violence hindered the campaign when three students were apprehended by the KKK and murdered. Their murders sparked an investigation by the FBI and became a symbol of the civil rights movement

29 Freedom Summer

30 Selma to Montgomery March
MLK and SCLC demonstrated in Selma, Alabama for voter rights Only 2% of eligible blacks were registered in that county Protestors were arrested John Lewis organized a group to march from Selma to Montgomery The protestors were met by state troopers who beat the protestors when they failed to disperse TV cameras caught the violence

31 Voting Rights Act - 1965 Signed by Johnson Outlawed literacy tests
Federal voting registrars would be sent to states with less than 50% of eligible population registered

32 Black Power Attitude in America, urban riots, fueled separatists from the nonviolence camp

33 Nation of Islam Elijah Muhammad - The leader of the Nation of Islam from the 30s to the 70s. He was similar to the Pope in that he was the voice of Allah on Earth. From an early age he developed a deep hatred for white people because of the violence he witnessed father killed by whites. He preached that whites were devils and inferior. He preached complete separation from white community (black separatism) as well as black nationalism. He believed in rehabilitating blacks who were alcoholics, drug users and criminals – which he had success doing. Had a profound impact on Malcolm X.

34 Nation of Islam Malcolm X Becomes the leading Black Muslim
Break free of white dominance by using any means necessary Emphasized African cultural heritage & self-help Pilgrimage to Mecca softened his stance Assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam

35 Black Panthers - 1966 Founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
This was a militant group of civil rights protesters who believed in black nationalism and believed in armed resistance to stop black oppression. They monitored police to look for abuse. They are an example of the new wave of civil rights activists, tired of the non-violent approach.

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