2Take off the shoes to win I was meeting with a group of Japanese businessmen in Tokyo, and our morningdiscussions had not gone well. For lunch my hosts rented a private room in arestaurant. As is the custom, they took off their shoes. I was wearing my dresscowboy boots and removed them. No sooner had we sat cross-legged on the dining mats than I began to receive the first smiles and laughter of the day. I was puzzled until one man said, "Mickey Mouse," pointing to my socks. My children had packed this footwear, which they had given me for my birthday. Not realizing I would be taking off my boots, I wore the socks. That moment in the restaurant was the turning point of the trip, and before I left Japan we had an agreement.
3National Differences in Culture What is CULTURE?shared system of values and norms that offer a design for livingValues: abstract ideas about what is good, right and desirableNorms: social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations
5Determinants of Culture Social StructureGroup and individualSocial classes and mobilityReligionPoliticalPhilosophyNorms/ ValuesEconomicPhilosophyLanguageSpoken and silentEducation
6Cultural Issues Technological and Material Culture Communication and LanguageAestheticsEducationReligionAttitudes and ValuesSocial Organization
7Technological and Material Culture Material Culture - tools and artifacts (physical things) in a society, excluding those physical things found in nature unless they undergo some technological change e.g. tree to Christmas tree or orchardTechnology - Techniques to make and use those things.
8Technological and Material Culture Effect on consumptionCar - SuburbsTelevision - Advertising, Home Shopping etc.Microwave oven - Food preparation and nature of the food consumed.Sony Walkman, Cellular phone
9Communication and Language Language as a Communication ToolVerbal or Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbalVerbal - Language is a mirror of culture; 3000 languages
10Gestures American - ok Southern France - sale is worthless Brazil - **&
11International Marketing Blunders Coors put its slogan, "Turn it loose," into Spanish, where it was read as "Suffer from diarrhea."
12International Marketing Blunders Scandinavian vacuum manufacturer Electrolux used the following in an American campaign:è Nothing sucks like an Electrolux.
13International Marketing Blunders The American slogan for Salem cigarettes, "Salem-Feeling Free", was translated into the Japanese market asè "When smoking Salem, you will feel so refreshed that your mind seems to be free and empty."
14International Marketing Blunders Colgate introduced a toothpaste in France called Cue, the name of a notorious porno magazine.
15International Marketing Blunders An American T-shirt maker in Miami printed shirts for the Spanish market which promoted the Pope's visit. Instead of "I saw the Pope" (el Papa),è the shirts read "I saw the potato" (la papa).
16International Marketing Blunders In Italy, a campaign for Schweppes Tonic Water translated the name into "Schweppes Toilet Water.”
17International Marketing Blunders Pepsi's "Come alive with the Pepsi Generation" translated intoè "Pepsi brings your ancestors back from the grave," in Chinese.
18International Marketing Blunders Frank Perdue's chicken slogan, "it takes a strong man to make a tender chicken" was translated into Spanish asè "it takes an aroused man to make a chicken affectionate.”
19International Marketing Blunders When Parker Pen marketed a ball-point pen in Mexico, its ads were supposed to have read, "it won't leak in your pocket and embarrass you".è Instead, the company thought that the word "embarazar" (to impregnate) meant to embarrass, so the ad read: "It won't leak in your pocket and make you pregnant".
20Religion Holidays Taboos and Consumption Patterns Economic Development and Materialism
21Religion Muslims and Ramadan Tunisia - market slumps Saudi Arabia - pilgrimage to MeccaSwedish co. for transportation system
22Religion Christians and Christmas Dutch - St. Nicholas Day (Dec 6th) Russians - Frost Man’s day (January 1)
23Taboos Never touch the head of a Thai or Pass an object over it The head is considered sacred in Thailand.
24Some Cultural Facts Germans prefer salad dressing in a tube. An American firm lost floor wax sales in Brazil because a change in the formula made the product less effective as a lighter fluid to ignite Sunday Barbecues.Germans prefer salad dressing in a tube.Kellogg’s Pop Tart failed in Europe, as many homes do not have toasters.Mountain Dew soft drink in difficult to pronounce in Portuguese, and sales have been slow in these markets.Two-liter pop bottle failed in Spain because of small refrigeratorsAlthough 89% of Americans agree that everyone should use deodorant, only 53% of Australians agree with this statement
25Values and Attitudes Marketing Activities Wealth, Material Gain, and AcquisitionWork EthicChangeRisk TakingCompetitivenessStatus SymbolsNationalism
26Values and Attitudes Colac Laxative in Japan - Richardson-Vicks Psychological dimensions of constipationdiscuss only in group - no westerners presentdissatisfied with slow-acting herbal remedieswary western laxatives too strong
27Colac Laxative in Japan Two little pills with natural qualities“Three things to consider for stubborn constipation - salad, beauty exercise, and Colac before bedtime”
28Education Levels of Participation Literacy Rates Emphasis on Specific Subjects
29Who’s top? World Education League Some countries seem to educate their children much better than others? Why? No comprehensive answer has emerged yet but plenty of lessons are being learnedEconomist 3/29/97
30AestheticsDesignColorMusicChoice of brand names, packaging etc.
31Aesthetics - Cultural differences SHAPESAvoid using triangular shapes in Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan.The triangle is considered a negative shape
32Aesthetics - Cultural differences NUMBERSThe number 7 is considered bad luck in Kenya and good luck in the Czech Republic and Magical connotation in Benin, AfricaThe number 10 is bad luck in Korea.The number 4 means death in Japan
33Aesthetics - Cultural differences COLORSRed represents witchcraft and death in many African countriesRed is a positive color in Denmark