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THE RESTORATION, 1815-1830 In France, marked by a bitter political struggle between –Ultraroyalists Wanted to wipe out everything the French Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "THE RESTORATION, 1815-1830 In France, marked by a bitter political struggle between –Ultraroyalists Wanted to wipe out everything the French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE RESTORATION, 1815-1830 In France, marked by a bitter political struggle between –Ultraroyalists Wanted to wipe out everything the French Revolution achieved –Various liberal groups Wanted to preserve best reforms of 1789-1815 Louis XVIII stood in between two extremes –In sympathy with ultras but knew their goal would end in disaster Hence his moderation

2 CHARTER OF 1814 Recognized major achievements of revolutionary years –Guaranteed equality before the law –Retained Napoleonic Code –Confirmed titles to owners of confiscated land –Preserved Concordat But it did not determine where real political power resided –Especially ambiguous regarding precise powers of new bicameral legislature Chamber of Peers (members appointed for life) Chamber of Deputies (elected by 100,000 of the largest landowners

3 THE LEGISLATURE Charter invested king with executive power but did not clearly invest legislature with legislative power –Only king could initiate legislation –Legislature could reject or approve a bill but could not change it without king’s consent Ministers were considered officers of the king and were not responsible to the legislature –But principle of “ministerial responsibility” did become established during Restoration Although the king new formally conceded this right

4 SUMMARY Monarchy and its supporters insisted that the source of all political power was the king Others, to a limited degree, argued that the source of political power was the people and their elected representatives in the legislature Never worked out a formal and explicit compromise –Instead, an uneasy, unspoken true developed between the two views Neither side ever actually conceded anything to the other in a formal way but instead simply allowed things to develop in a certain way without formal resistance Danger was that, in the future, one side might push too hard and force the other into a corner where it would have no other choice but to resist

5 FIRST PERIOD, 1815-1816 Ultras won majority in Chamber of Deputies –Proceeded to embarrass Louis XVIII by announcing their intention to abolish a number of institutions established between 1789-1815 and restore confiscated land to former owners –Louis dissolves Chamber and calls for new elections Count d’Artois Head of the Ultraroyalists

6 SECOND PERIOD: 1816-1820 Period of general calm Ended with assassination of Duc de Berry –Son of Count d’Artois –Assassin motivated by desire to end Bourbon line Didn’t work: Count de Chambord born nine months after event

7 THIRD PERIOD: 1820-1830 Era of increasing tension and repression –Louis XVIII took less and less active role in government Died in 1824 Count d’Artois becomes new king –Charles X

8 THE VILLÈLE MINISTRY I Berry assassination used as excuse for imposing restrictions on the press and revising electoral laws Count de Villèle –Prime minister 1822-1828 –Ultras control Chamber of Deputies Passed Law of Indemnity –Compensated nobles for loss of their estates during French Revolution –Compensation was financed by reducing interest on government bonds Count de Villèle

9 THE VILLÈLE MINISTRY II Law of Sacrilege –1823 –Imposed death penalty for offenses of an allegedly sacreligious character and for the theft of religious objects –Appeared to put the state at the service of the Church Villèle undermined state educational system established by Napoleon –Placed bishop at head of the system and fired liberal teachers –Encouraged growth of Catholic seminaries outside of the state system Competed with state schools and undermined prestige and financial equilibrium of state system

10 FALL OF VILLÈLE Opposition grew to Villèle ministry –Liberal newspapers contributed to this –Liberal political society founded in 1827 Aide-toi, et le ciel t’aidera formed to spread liberal propaganda New elections in 1827 result in victory of moderate royalists over Ultras –King fires Villèle and replaces him with more moderate Viscount de Martignac Charles X

11 PRINCE DE POLIGNAC Martinac relaxed reststrictions on press and fired some notorious Ultras from civil service –But Ultras and liberal extremes harassed him mercilessly Providing Charles X with excused to fire him and replace him with Prince de Polignac –One of the most diehard and fanatical Ultras in country –Did not represent majority in Chamber of Deputies in any way Prince de Polignac

12 CHARLES SHOWS HIS TRUE COLORS Charles clearly intended to move country back as close as possible to absolute monarchy –Dissolves Chamber of Deputies when they petition for removal of Polignac New elections of 1830 return larger number of moderates to Chamber than in 1827 –Indicates most French voters, even though they were wealthy and conservative, did not approve of Charles’ intentions nor his methods Nice dress!

13 JULY REVOLUTION OF 1830 Charles issues “July Ordinances” before new Chamber even meets –Dissolves new Chamber –Established new electoral system that deprived all members of the bourgeoisie of the right to vote –Imposed rigid censorship of the press Announcement of the July Ordinances provoked an insurrection in Paris –The July Revolution of 1830

14 THREE GLORIOUS DAYS Revolution occurred with minimum of violence –Because government had not anticipated any trouble and made no preparations to resist Three Glorious Days –Began in Paris on July 26 –Workers, students and some republican agitators build barricades on July 27 –By July 28, rebels took over city hall and raised tri-color flag King offered to fire Polignac but it was too late for concessions Liberty leading the People Eugene Delacroix

15 LOUIS PHILIPPE Liberal leaders were afraid that events might get out of hand –Favored a constitutional monarchy With Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orleans, as king –Cousin of Charles X Louis Philippe was ideal candidate for moderates –Remained in France and had been officer in revolutionary army until 1793 –Believed to hold liberal political views Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orleans

16 KING OF THE FRENCH Louis Philippe still viewed Charles X as legitimate ruler until he renounced all claims to the throne Marquis de Lafayette intervened and convinced Louis Philippe to accept crown –Accepted revised version of Charter of 1814 –Took title of “King of the French” Implied that he owed his throne to the popular will Revolution of 1830 was clear victory for the concept of popular sovereignty over the principle of absolute monarch Marquis de Lafayette King Louis Philippe

17 AUSTRIAN EMPIRE Controlled by Habsburg Dynasty –Especially by prime minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich Metternich had spies everywhere reporting on any sort of evidence of liberalism or subversion

18 BIG DEAL ABOUT NOTHING In years after 1815 opposition was confined to tiny minority of students, a few army officers, a handful of liberal nobles, and a scattering of merchants –Peasants were not concerned with political issue –No numerically significant middle class yet existed Prince Klemens von Metternich

19 NATIONALISM Opposition was more nationalist than it was specifically liberal –In Austria, non-German groups demanded greater use of their language in schools and administration –In Italy and Germany, some wanted greater freedom from Habsburg domination and a greater measure of unity Metternich’s answer was always the same –He ruthlessly suppressed them as threats to the delicate equilibrium of the Habsburg Empire Completely convinced that even the slightest attempt to tamper with the structure of the Habsburg government would bring everything crashing down Merely postponed the inevitable explosion

20 Germanic Confederation Loose confederation of 38 states (including Prussia and Austria) Federal Diet Consisted of delegates appointed by the rulers of each of the member states Met in Frankfort-am- Main Function was undefined but it was clear that it had been set up to be an instrument for the exercise of Metternich’s influence throughout Germany

21 REFORM IN GERMANY Number of German states had granted constitutions to their subjects –Including Bavaria, Wurttemburg, and Baden –Similar to French Charter of 1814 Leadership for reform in Prussia came from Baron Heinrich von Stein (1807-1808) and Baron Karl von Hardenburg (1810-1817) –Both convinced that recovery from Napoleonic defeats could only take place as a result of a series of political and institutional reforms Von Stein Von Hardenburg

22 PRUSSIAN REFORMS Abolition of serfdom Reduction in class distinctions –Non-nobles allowed to buy land and nobles allowed to engage in trade and commerce Introduction of a system of municipal self- government Improvements in primary and secondary education Establishment of the University of Berlin Military reforms –Eliminated harsh physical punishments –Encouraged promotion by merit –Introduced conscription

23 NO CONSTITUTION Frederick William III had promised during Napoleonic wars to create a legislature and a constitution which would establish representative government in Prussia –Never happened –Frederick William instead created Council of State made up of royal princes, ministers, and army commanders Frederick William III

24 “TURNVATER JAHN” German students organized Burschenschaften at several German universities –Student societies inspired by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Had organized gymnastic societies during the Napoleonic Wars to bring about the physical and moral regeneration of German youth Nicknamed “Turnvater Jahn” –Aggressive nationalist –Preached hatred of things foreign –Encourgaed disruptive behavior –Anti-semitic Friedrich Ludwig Jahn

25 BURSCHENSCHAFTEN ACTIVITY Burschenschaften members gathered at Wartburg Castle in 1817 to celebrate 300 th anniversary of Luther’s break with Rome and 4 th anniversary of Battle of the Nations –Speakers exhorted students to dedicate their lives to the “holy cause of union and freedom” –Burned books by conservative and antinationalist authors In 1819, Karl Sand assassinated August von Kotzebue, a reactionary playwright –Mentally disturbed Burschenschaften member –Arrested and sentenced to death –Prompts Metternich to issue Carlsbad Decrees Karl Sand

26 CARLSBAD DECREES 1819 Dissolved Burschenschaften Set up rigid censorship of the press Created elaborate system for rooting out subversive individuals in schools and universities Political opposition almost completely disappears after 1819 as a result –Never strong to begin with

27 MORE REPRESSION News of July Revolution of 1830 in France inspired minor revolts in Baden, Saxony, and Hesse-Cassel –Metternich convinced that they were part of international radical conspiracy –Issues new series of decrees in 1832 Following German Festival at Hambach where 25,000 people drank toasts to Lafayette and denounced Metternich Prohibited public meetings and strengthened restrictions on universities Festival at Hambach

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