Presentation on theme: "Major Components of a Play Characters Settings StageDirections Story Language."— Presentation transcript:
Major Components of a Play Characters Settings StageDirections Story Language
Major Components of a Story Conflicts Climax Theme
conflict: the essence of a play, a clash of actions, ideas, desires or wills. It may happen in three forms: man against man, man against environment, man against himself. climax: When a conflict develops to the most intensified point, it becomes a climax. layout of a stage: Up Left Up Right Stage Left Center Stage Stage Right Down Left Down Right
Characters in the play: Father Mother Diane Sean Heidi Restaurant Mrs. Higgins Manager An executive of a high school
ScenesMain Ideas One (line 1-65) Two (line ) Three (line ) Father embarrassed Sean by talking too proudly to the restaurant Manager. Father embarrassed Diane by persuading a work-mate into pressing his son to ask her to the senior prom. Father embarrassed Heidi by boasting to an official of her new school about how bright she was. Text Organization
embarrass vt. [esp passive] cause (sb) to feel self-conscious, awkward or ashamed; cause anxiety to (sb): I was embarrassed by his comments about my clothes. embarrassing adj: 令人困窘的、尴尬的 embarrassed adj. 感到困窘的 、尴尬的 embarrassingly adv. embarrassment n [U] 窘迫； [C] 令人困窘的人或事物 Ex. 我因缺钱而苦恼 I’m embarrassed by lack of money ___________________________ （我感到很尴尬） when I knocked the cup of tea over my teacher. I was really embarrassed
fade vi vt. 1) (cause sth to) lose colour, freshness or vigour: Will (the colour in) this material fade? The strong sunlight had faded the curtains. 2) vi. disappear gradually 【 ~ (away/from) 】 : The sound of the cheering faded (away) in the distance. 欢呼声在远处逐渐消失了. phr v. fade away （指人）散开, 死亡 Ex. 她对童年的一切记忆逐渐从脑海中消逝了. All memory of her childhood had faded from her mind.
overall adv 1) on the whole; generally 大体上 : Overall it‘s been a good match. 总的来说, 那场比赛 很好 2) including everything 总共 : How much will it cost overall? 一共多少钱 ? Ex. 总的说来，我们喜欢这次演出。 We enjoyed the performance overall./Overall, we enjoyed the performance. adj [attrib 作定语 ] 总计的, 全面考虑的 : the overall measurements of a room There's been an overall improvement recently. 近来各 方面都有所改进.
bet vt. be sure I bet (that)... (infml) I am certain: I bet he arrives late, he always does. 我敢肯定他得迟到 -- 他一贯如此. you bet (infml) you may be sure (of it) 当然 : `Are you going to the match?‘ `You bet (I am)!’ “ 你去看比赛吗 ?” “ 当然（我去） !” Ex. 我确信这个消息会使他们大吃一惊. I bet they were surprised by the news. vt vi. 打赌，赌博【 ~ (sth) (on sth) 】 : He spends all his money betting on horses.
exhaust vt. 1) [esp passive] tire out: The long cycle ride exhausted her. 2) use (sth) up completely : 用尽力气 exhaust one’s strength n [U] 废气、 蒸气等 exhaustion n [U] 精疲力竭 ; 耗尽 exhausted adj very tired 极其疲倦的 exhaustive adj 彻底的 ; 全面的 exhaustively adv. Ex. 这次旅行后我们都筋疲力尽了。 We are all exhausted after the journey.
frank adj (-er, -est) showing thoughts and feelings openly; honest and direct in speech; plain and blunt 【 ~ (with sb) 】【 (about sth) 】 : a frank reply/ discussion 坦率的回答 / 讨论 To be (perfectly) frank with you, I think your son has little chance of passing the exam. 说实在的, 我认为你儿子这次考试及格的希望不大. frankly adv Ex. 在这个问题上你能不能和我坦诚相对 ? Will you be quite frank with me about this matter?
interference n [U] 1) interfering 干涉 【 ~ (in/with sth) 】 : I don't want any interference from you! Her parents’ continual interference in our affairs irritated me. 2) (radio) (computing) 干扰 interfere vi. 干涉 【 ~ (in sth) 】【 ~ (between sb and sb) 】 Don't interfere in matters that do not concern you! Ex. 你干涉他的私事是不明智的。 Your interference in his private affairs is unreasonable.
constant adj 1) [usu attrib] going on all the time; happening again and again 持续的 ; 不断发生的 : constant chattering, complaints, interruptions This entrance is in constant use; do not block it. 2) unchanging; fixed 不变的 : a constant speed, value, etc 恒定速度、 恒值等 Pressure in the container remains constant. 3) [usu attrib] (approv 褒 ) firm; faithful 坚定的 ; 忠 实的 : constant n 常量 ; 恒量. constantly adv. 不断地 Ex. 我已经持续头痛三天了。 I have had a constant headache for three days.
patience n [U] 1) ability to accept delay, annoyance or suffering without complaining 忍耐力 ; 耐心【 ~ (with sb/sth) 】 : I warn you, I'm beginning to lose (my) patience (with you). After three hours of waiting for the train, our patience was finally exhausted. 我们等了三个小时的火车, 最后再也没有耐性了. 2) ability to persevere with sth; perseverance 毅力【 ~ (for sth/to do sth) 】 : Learning to walk again after his accident required great patience.
proof n 1) [C, U] (piece of) evidence that shows, or helps to show, that sth is true or is a fact 证据 : Have you any proof that you are the owner of the car? 你有证据证明这汽车是属于你的吗 ? 2) [U] testing of whether sth is true or a fact; demonstration or proving 证明 : Is the claim capable of proof? 这要求能证明是合理的吗 ? Ex. 没有证据证明他当时在犯罪现场。 There is no proof that he was on the crime spot.
talent n 1) [C, U] (instance of) special or very great ability 才能 【 ~ (for sth) 】 : He possesses a remarkable talent for music. Her talents are well known. a painter of great talent 天才的画家 2) [U] people who have gift 天才 : We're always looking for new/fresh talent. adj. gifted 有才能的，天才的 Ex. 莫扎特（ Mozart ）是个天才的音乐家. Mozart was a musician of great talent/ a talented musician.
junior adj younger 【 ~ (to sb) 】 ; lower in rank (than sb) ( 年龄、职位、资历等 ) 较低的 a junior clerk in an office 办公室的下级职员 He is several years junior to Mrs Cooper. n. ( 年龄、职位等 ) 较低者, 大学三年级学生 John Smith, Jr. （缩略）小约翰 · 史密斯 Cf. junior, inferior senior, superior, senior adj. ( 年龄、职位、资历等 ) 较高的 inferior/superior adj. （对质量、价值、地位等比较） Ex. 选词填空 : A. junior B. inferior He has ______ position in the company. His work is ______ to mine. A B
consist of be made up of, be composed of The book consists of essays written over the last twenty years. comprise vt.1) consist of, be composed of, be formed of 由... 形成、 组成或构成 2) compose or constitute, form 形成、 组成或构成 : 英国国会是由下议院和上议院组成的. The British Parliament comprises/consists of/is composed of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. 下议院和上议院组成了英国国会. The House of Commons and the House of Lords comprise/compose/constitute the British Parliament.
keep/leave (sb.) in suspense delay telling (sb.) what they are I won’t keep you in suspense any longer. Here are the results of the mid-term exam. 观众们一直到戏的结尾都处在悬念中。 The audience is kept in suspense to the very end of the play. hand down vt. 把 … 传下去 【 to 】 The art of story-telling is handed down from mother to daughter. 这个戒指 (ring) 在我家里传了几代了。 This ring has been handed down in my family for generations.
at any rate in any case 不管怎样 （ You use it to indicate that the important thing is what you are saying now, and not what was said before. ） 不管怎么说，你还是在这次车祸中幸存下来。 At any rate, you survived the accident. narrow down vt. make (a list of things) smaller 【 ~to 】限制，缩小（范围、议论等） Over 100 applicants will be narrowed down to a short list of 5 candidates. 他们把嫌疑犯 (suspect) 人数缩小到三人。 They narrowed the suspects down to three.
come over (sb.) (of a feeling) affect sb A fit of dizziness came over her. 她感到一阵头晕目眩. I can't think what came over me. 我不知道我是怎麽了。 Ex. _________________________________ ( 我感到很 平静 ) when I realized that I was no longer responsible for the situation. Cf. come over (to sth) 改变立场或意见等 : She will never come over to our side. A great sense of calm came over me
in charge (of) 主管，负责 Who is in charge of the club’s finances? Ex. _______________________________ （负责 这个项目的经理） was having some difficulties in negotiating terms with the contractors. fill sth out [AmE.]=fill sth in add what is necessary to make sth complete 填写 : fill in/out an application form 填写申请表格. Ex. 警察填写了一份事故报告。 The policeman filled out a report of the accident. The executive in charge of the project
Grammatical Structures know better than (that/ to do sth.) be wise or well- trained enough not to do (sth.) 不至于 … ，懂得 … 不该 … E.g a)Father knows better! (line 18; 65;169) b) Father/ Daddy, you know better than that. (line 56; line158; line 208) Fools may believe you, but I know better. 傻子才相信你，但我可不相信你的话。 Ex. 你应该知道刚吃过饭不宜立即去游泳。 You ought to know better than to go swimming immediately after a meal.
Whatever 1) interrog pron. (expressing surprise or bewilderment ) （究竟是）什麽 : a)Well, whatever it is, dear, don’t keep us in suspense. (line 73) b) Whatever would make you think that? (line 80) 译文： a) 到底是什么事啊？亲爱的，别卖关子了。 b) 你怎么会知道？ Ex. 你究意是什麽意思 ? * 2)pron. regardless of what, no matter what 无论什麽 : Whatever happens (may happen), don’t be surprised. Whatever do you mean?
Character Analysis Although a playwright can ’ t come forward to speak directly to readers, we may still form a mental picture of what each character is like, based on the way they speak, their tone of voice, their facial expressions and their actions.
Character Analysis Father Father shows great respect for mother: he pulled the chair for her before dinner, and obeyed her commands. Besides, although Father was pleased with what he had done for Diane, he had learned from experience that his efforts were not always welcome.
Character Analysis Mother Mother uses quite a number of do ’ s and don ’ ts, please ’ s. She is the real head of the Thompson household, giving out commands to her children as well as her husband. Moreover, most times her orders are respected. She also tries to maintain peace, knowing her children ’ s attitude towards Father ’ s meddling.
Character Analysis The Children The Thompson children respect Mother, as shown by their frequent “ Yes, Mother ” and “ Sorry, Mom ”. On the other hand, they are used to Father ’ s meddling with their affairs. When Sean and Heidi find out that this time the bad luck has befallen Diane, they can afford to stand back and place a few (to be continued)
Character Analysis bemused comments. Diane ’ s feelings are entirely different, though. She is put on guard when Father tells her “ I have a surprise for you. ” Then she is embarrassed as Father mentions her feelings toward young Kyle. Later as Father goes on delaying telling the truth, she becomes hysterical. Finally, when she learns the truth, she loses her temper.