Risks of extreme learning WarfareYou die Dangerous sportsYou injure yourself MedicineYou injure someone else Theatre performanceEmbarrass yourself and cast TeachingEmbarrass yourself Get it wrong and..
Benefits of extreme learning Authenticity Personal engagement and commitment Towards “one shot” learning
Teaching methods Apprenticeship Reflection in and on experience Schön: reflection in action; reflection on action Value of limited examples Learning by teaching See one, do one, teach one
Design of environments for extreme learning Augmented reality, or simulated reality Coaching Minimisation of danger, but not of risk Emphasis on real consequences of failure
Reality: what is real? If you use a simulated calculator are you calculating? If you use a flight simulator, are you flying? So what is the difference between calculating and flying?
Calculation and flying Calculation Its essential property is independent of its physical embodiment Mind game Failure causes mental annoyance Flying Its essential property depends on “being there” Mind and body game Failure causes physical harm
Total simulation People are given a “flight in a Lear Jet”. Enters the plane. Flies around. Lands at the same place. Gets out. In fact, it was a flight simulator. Passengers believe they have flown in a Lear Jet. Was the flight real? No – the risks weren’t authentic Battlefield simulations: excitement but no risk
Risk and learning Types of risk: Immediate vs delayed Physical vs non-physical (e.g. financial) Easy to assess vs difficult to assess Individual vs collective Risk vs challenge – Challenge without risk can lead to overconfidence and inability to anticipate danger – Risk without challenge is foolhardy Risk vs harm Assessing associated risk is an important part of game playing
Risk for effective learning Immediately assessable Direct connection between activity and risk Risk rather than harm (Simulated) reality + assessable intrinsic risk = extreme learning
Extreme learning games Real-world game activities in which reality and risk are maximised, and inauthenticity and harm are minimised Important to know the rules of the game, and to be able to act quickly to avoid breaking them
Issues from 1 st presentation Is “risk” the right term (too limited – calculation of tradeoffs between benefits and harm) Risk vs payoff – people are more willing to take risk when high payoff Individual differences In assessing risk In tolerating risk (context dependent) Theme park design: designing to maximise challenge but minimise danger What are people learning in extreme learning? Learning about risk Learning to avoid risk Learning through risk (about some topic)