13The Caste System WHO IS… The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet? BrahminsThe mouth?The arms?The legs?The feet?KshatriyasVaishyasShudras
14The foundations for Hinduism were established! The Vedic AgeThe foundations for Hinduism were established!
15Hinduism Basic Beliefs Sacred texts Dharma: duties that must be followed to achieve liberationKarma: sum effect of one’s actionsMoksha: Liberation – release from reincarnationSamsara: reincarnation (birth, death, rebirth)Sacred textsVedas (sacred hymns of knowledge)Upanishads (philosophocal reflecetions on Vedas)
16Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic lifePromotes 7th c. movement based on UpanishadsEmphasis on selfless living, concern for all beingsAhimsaPrinciple of extreme non-violenceJainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insectsAhimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)
20The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”2,500 year old tradition.The 3 jewels of Buddhism:Buddha, the teacher.Dharma, the teachings.Sangha, the community.
21Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born in NE India (Nepal).Raised in great luxury to be a king.At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs.Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
22What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
23Four Noble TruthsThere is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha)The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
24Four Noble TruthsThe cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)
25Four Noble TruthsThe solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
26Four Noble TruthsTo reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
27Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
33Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Tibetan BuddhismZen Buddhism
34Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. The “Way of the Elders” or the “Small Vehicle.”Found in southern Asia.The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana.Focus on wisdom and meditation.Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.”Over 100,000,000 followers today.
36Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan).Buddhism “for the masses.”Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings.Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.
40Tibetan Buddhism The “Diamond Vehicle.” [Vajrayana] Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE.A mix of Theravada and Mahayana.Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama.The Tibetan Book of the Dead [Bardo Thodol].
42zen Buddhism The “Meditation School.” Seeks sudden enlightenment [satori] through meditation, arriving at emptiness [sunyata].Use of meditation masters [Roshi].Beauty, art, and aesthetics:Gardens.Archery.Tea ceremony.Calligraphy.
46Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE Unified northern India.Defeated the Persian general Seleucus.Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.He feared assassination [like Saddam Hussein] food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.301 BCE gave up his throne & became a Jain.
48Kautilya Chandragupta’s advisor. Brahmin caste. Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra.A guide for the king and his ministers:Supports royal power.The great evil in society is anarchy.Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!
49Asoka (304 – 232 BCE)Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in BCE.Dedicated his life to Buddhism.Built extensive roads.Conflict how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?
51Asoka’s law codeEdicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.10 rock edicts.Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
56Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I Chandra Gupta II Hindu revival. r. 320 – 335 CE“Great King of Kings”Chandra Gupta IIr CEProfitable trade with the Mediterranean world!Hindu revival.Huns invade – 450 CE
57Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c.He was following the path of the Buddha.He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.
61Kalidasa The greatest of Indian poets. His most famous play was Shakuntala.During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.
62Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture. Gupta ArtGreatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
63500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides Gupta Achievements1000 diseases classified500 healing plants identifiedPrinted medicinal guidesKalidasaLiteraturePlastic SurgeryMedicineInoculationsGupta IndiaC-sections performedSolar CalendarAstronomyMathematicsDecimal SystemThe earth is roundPI =Concept of Zero
64The Decline of the Guptas Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them.After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c.QUESTION: Is the best literature and art written as the civilization is on the rise, at its height, or in its decline?
65Bhartrhari 5c India court poet and philosopher. Knowledge is man's crowning mark, A treasure secretly buried, The source of luxury, fame, and bliss, A guru most venerable, A friend on foreign journeys, The pinnacle of divinity. Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth--- When he lacks it, a man is a brute.