India began along the Indus River, which flooded & left behind fertile soil Seasonal monsoons caused summer rains & floods The people were well protected on the Indian “subcontinent” by the oceans, mountains, & deserts that surrounded the Indus River Valley
Lasting Contributions Advanced cities: – Indus cities were laid out in a grid system with high walls & citadel of major buildings
Lasting Contributions Specialized Workers: – Indian society was divided by the “caste system” which divided people based on their purity in Hinduism
Lasting Contributions Government: – Little is known about Indus government other than they were ruled by kings
Lasting Contributions Religion: – Believed in a polytheistic religion called Hinduism – Hindus believe that one’s soul is reborn until moksha is achieved (reincarnation) – Moksha (enlightenment or nirvana) is the spiritual release from human form – A soul’s karma (good or bad deeds) effect reincarnation
Lasting Contributions Writing: – Indus writing has not been fully translated so much of Indus life is still a mystery – Writing contained about 400 symbols that were both pictograms & phonetic characters
Lasting Contributions Technology: – Advanced plumbing; Most houses had toilets & private bathrooms connected to underground sewer systems – Standard, oven-baked bricks
Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born Born in NE India (Nepal). Raised Raised in great luxury to be a king. At At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. Lived Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs. Rejecting Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana. Became Became “The Enlightened One,” One,” at 35.
The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.” 2,500 year old tradition. The 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the teachings. Sangha, the community.
What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! Therefore, Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
Four Noble Truths 1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha) The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
Four Noble Truths 2. The cause of suffering is self- centered desire and attachments. (Tanha) 3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
Four Noble Truths 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit 23
Ashoka’s Support of Buddhism Personal conversion to Buddhism Disillusioned after violent war with Kalinga Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities 25
Changes in Buddhist thought 3 rd c. BCE – 1 st c. CE – Buddha considered divine – Institution of Boddhisatvas (“saints”) – Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity 26
Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer development – India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier version – Ceylon, Burma, Thailand 27
Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions – Mahabharata – Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations The Bhagavad Gita: “Song of the Lord” Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war 28
Hindu Ethics Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha) Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama) Salvation of the soul (moksha) 29
Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in India Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support 30
The Mauryan Empire of India Indus River Valley After the river valley era, India transitioned into the Mauryan Empire Chandragupta Maurya became king of India in 321 BC, created a vast army, & conquered new lands Chandragupta’s empire controlled most of the Indian subcontinent
India: The Mauryan Empire Chandragupta used tactics to control his empire: – Like the Persians, Chandragupta divided his empire into provinces each ruled by a local prince
The Mauryan Empire of India Indus River Valley In 269 B.C., King Asoka took over & expanded the Mauryan Empire to its greatest extent During his wars of expansion, Asoka converted to Buddhism Asoka developed new policies of tolerance & nonviolence for his empire Buddhism spread as a result of Asoka’s influence
The Gupta Empire After Asoka’s death, the Mauryan Empire declined & was replaced by the Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta formed the Gupta Empire in 320 A.D. & expanded the empire
Classical India India experienced a “golden age” during the Gupta Empire & became a “classical empire” – Indian astronomers were the first to discover that the earth was round – Mathematicians invented modern numerals, zero, pi, & the decimal system
Merchants sold exotic spices & silks to people in the Mediterranean world
Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage
Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE
The Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE