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P REDICTING W ELL -B EING FROM B UDDHIST I NSPIRED C ONSTRUCTS : L INKING, M INDFULNESS, AND S ELF - C OMPASSION Thomas Harlow, Robert Arrowood, Kate Barford,

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Presentation on theme: "P REDICTING W ELL -B EING FROM B UDDHIST I NSPIRED C ONSTRUCTS : L INKING, M INDFULNESS, AND S ELF - C OMPASSION Thomas Harlow, Robert Arrowood, Kate Barford,"— Presentation transcript:

1 P REDICTING W ELL -B EING FROM B UDDHIST I NSPIRED C ONSTRUCTS : L INKING, M INDFULNESS, AND S ELF - C OMPASSION Thomas Harlow, Robert Arrowood, Kate Barford, Jennifer Grant, Cierra Ockstadt, and Brian Pope Tusculum College

2 A N E MPTY B OAT

3 B UDDHIST CONCEPTS Shenpa Sukha Duhkha Three poisons  Craving/passion  Hatred/fear  Misperceiving/ignorance

4 M C I NTOSH, AND M ARTIN (1992) L INKING “Imagine over the next six months the following things happen: Someone gives you a new car, then you fail two classes, then you go on a great vacation to Hawaii, then someone steals your car.” A) My happiness will swing up and down as the events in my life change. B) These are just natural events and won’t necessarily influence my happiness.

5 N EFF ’ S (2003) S ELF -C OMPASSION Self-kindness “I try to be understanding and patient towards those aspects of my personality I don’t like” Common Humanity “When I feel inadequate in some way, I try to remind myself that feelings of inadequacy are shared by most people” Mindfulness “When I fail at something important to me I try to keep things in perspective” Self-judgment “When I see an aspect of myself that I don’t like, I get down on myself” Isolation “When I fail at something important to me I tend to feel alone in my failure” Over-identification “When I’m feeling down I tend to obsess and fixate on everything that’s wrong”

6 B AER, S MITH, H OPKINS, K RIETEMEYER, AND T ONEY ’ S (2006) F IVE F ACETS OF M INDFULNESS Q UESTIONNAIRE (FFMQ) Describing “I’m good at finding words to describe my feelings” Acting with Awareness “I find myself doing things without paying attention” Non-judging of experience “I think some of my emotions are bad or inappropriate and I shouldn’t feel them” Non-reactivity to inner experience “Usually when I have distressing thoughts or images, I am able to just notice them without reacting” Observing, attending to sensations “I pay attention to sensations such as the wind in my hair or sun on my face”

7 S CHEIER, C ARVER, & B RIDGES ’(1994) L IFE O RIENTATION T EST -R EVISED (LOT-R) “Overall, I expect more good things to happen to me than bad” “In uncertain times, I usually expect the best”

8 R YFF ’ S (1989) S CALES OF P SYCHOLOGICAL W ELL -B EING (RPWB) Self-Acceptance positive attitude towards self Positive relations with others warm, satisfying, trusting relations Autonomy self-determined, independent Environmental Mastery competence in managing environment to meet one’s needs Purpose in Life has goals in life, sense of direction and meaning Personal Growth sees self as growing, open to new experiences

9 B LAISE, ET AL. (1999) S CHWARTZ O UTCOME S CALE (SOS-10) “I have peace of mind” “I am often interested and excited about things in my life”

10 M ETHOD Participants : 253 Intro to Psych Students Excluded students spending <5 s per question 143 Females and 68 males Instruments the 26-item (SC) ten-item Rumination Scale (McIntosh, Harlow, & Martin, 1995) the FFMQ (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, and Toney, 2006) 84-item RPWB (Ryff,1989) the SOS-10 (Blaise, et al., 1999) the ten-item LOT-R (Scheier, et al.,1994) 22-item Linking Scale (McIntosh & Martin,1992)

11 R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION Preliminary Analysis & Variable Construction Linking (alpha=.83) SC (alpha =.87) Mindfulness, though, is better considered multifaceted (component alphas > construct composites) Lot-R (alpha=.81) Well-Being (WB) =RWBS + SOS-R (combined alpha=.90)

12 C ORRELATIONS AMONG B UDDHIST I NSPIRED C ONSTRUCTS, O PTIMISM AND W ELL -B EING

13 S IGNIFICANT BIC P REDICTORS O F W ELL -B EING

14 S IGNIFICANT BIC P REDICTORS O F O PTIMISM

15 2- STEP MODEL OF BIC AND O PTIMISM P REDICTING W ELL -B EING

16 S IGNIFICANT DIRECT EFFECTS PREDICTING W ELL -B EING

17 P ATH M ODEL

18 J OSHU ' S "W ASH Y OUR B OWL "

19 R EFERENCES Baer, R., Smith, G., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using Self-Report Assessment Methods to Explore Facets of Mindfulness. Assessment, 13, Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., Walsh, E., Duggan, D., Williams, J. (2008). Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples. Assessment, 15, Blais, M. A., Lenderking, W. R. Baer, L., deLorell, A., Peets, K., Leahy, L., et al. (1999). Development and initial validation of a brief mental health outcome measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 73, 359–373. McIntosh, E, Gillanders, D. & Rodgers, S. (2010). Rumination, goal linking, daily hassles and life events in major depression. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17, McIntosh,W.D., Harlow, T.F, & Martin, L.L. (1995). Linkers and nonlinkers: Goal beliefs as a moderator of the effects of everyday hassles on rumination, depression, and physical complaints. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5(14 ), McIntosh, W.D. & Martin, L.L. (1992). The cybernetics of happiness: The relation between goal attainment, rumination, and affect. In M.S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology ( Vol. 14, pp ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Neff, K.D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67,


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