21st Century College English: Book III College Pressures Unit 4: Part A
Pre-Reading Activities Pre-Reading ActivitiesPre-Reading ActivitiesPre-Reading Activities Text A: Language Points Text A: Language PointsText A: Language PointsText A: Language Points Exercises ExercisesExercises Assignment AssignmentAssignment College Pressure Unit 4 Part A
1.As you listen to the passage, fill in as much information as you can about Annette’s plans. Friday evening: During the coming month: Next term: In the fall: Next spring: work on history paper at the library finish history paper, prepare for economics test, finish reading assignments for government class and start next term’s readings concentrate on sociology and management ??? [unspecified in the passage] have a nervous breakdown Pre-reading Activities
2. How did you feel while you were listening to Annette? What was it like trying to keep up with her? How do students like Annette make you feel? Answer the Question Script Pre-reading Activities
Brad:Hi Annette! Some of us are going to see that new play on Friday, and then out for a pizza afterwards. Do you feel like going? Annette:I’d love to, Brad, but I have to finish this paper for history class. I planned to spend Friday evening at the library. Brad:Annette, that paper isn’t due for a month! Annette [talking faster and faster, sounding more and more mindless]: But there’s test in economics that same week. I have to get the history paper out of the way so I can start preparing for that. Plus I have to finish the reading assignments for government class for this term so I can start on the readings for next term. That way I can concentrate on sociology and management next term and hopefully get far enough ahead so that in the fall I won’t have to … Pre-reading Activities Brad: [interrupting]: Whoa, slow down, Annette! You’re just wearing yourself out! You’re going to have a nervous breakdown! Annette[still sounding mindless]: Oh, that’s okay — I’ve scheduled in time for a nervous breakdown during the spring term next year.
By William Zinsser 1I am master of Branford College at Yale. I live on the campus and know the students well. (We have 485 of them.) I listen to their hopes and fears — and also to their stereo music and their piercing cries in the dead of night (“Does anybody care?”). They come to me to ask how to get through the rest of their lives. Branford College at Yaleget throughBranford College at Yaleget through Language Points
2Mainly I try to remind them that the road ahead is a long one and that it will have more unexpected turns than they think. There will be plenty of time to change jobs, change careers, change whole attitudes and approaches. They don’t want to hear such news. They want a map — right now — that they can follow directly to career security, financial security, social security and, presumably, a prepaid grave. change jobs, change careers, change whole attitudes and approachessocial securitychange jobs, change careers, change whole attitudes and approachessocial security Language Points
3What I wish for all students is some release from the grim grip of the future. I wish them a chance to enjoy each segment of their education as an experience in itself and not as a tiresome requirement in preparation for the next step. I wish them the right to experiment, to trip and fall, to learn that defeat is as educational as victory and is not the end of the world. in itselftripin itselftrip Language Points
4My wish, of course, is naive. One of the few rights that America does not proclaim is the right to fail. Achievement is the national god, worshipped in our media — the million-dollar athlete, the wealthy executive — and glorified in our praise of possessions. In the presence of such a potent state religion, the young are growing up old. Achievement is the national god, worshipped in our media — the million-dollar athlete, the wealthy executive — and glorified in our praise of possessions. Achievement is the national god, worshipped in our media — the million-dollar athlete, the wealthy executive — and glorified in our praise of possessions. Language Points
5I see four kinds of pressure working on college students today: economic pressure, parental pressure, peer pressure, and self-induced pressure. It’s easy to look around for bad guys — to blame the colleges for charging too much money, the professors for assigning too much work, the parents for pushing their children too far, the students for driving themselves too hard. But there are no bad guys, only victims. self-induced Language Points
6 Today it is not unusual for a student, even one who works part time at college and full time during the summer, to have accumulated $5,000 in loans after four years — loans that the student must start to repay within one year after graduation (and incidentally, not all these loans are low-interest, as many non-students believe). Encouraged at the commencement ceremony to go forth into the world, students are already behind as they go forth. How can they go forth intogo forth into Language Points
not feel under pressure throughout college to prepare for this day of reckoning? Women at Yale are under even more pressure than men to justify their expensive education to themselves, their parents, and society. For although they leave college superbly equipped to bring fresh leadership to traditionally male jobs, society hasn’t yet caught up with this fact. day of reckoningto justify their expensive education to themselvescaught up withday of reckoningto justify their expensive education to themselvescaught up with Language Points
7 Along with economic pressure goes parental pressure. Inevitably, the two are deeply intertwined. I see students taking premedical courses with joyless determination. They go off to their labs as if they were going to the dentist. It saddens me because I know them in other corners of their life as cheerful people. Along withas if they were going to the dentistAlong withas if they were going to the dentist Language Points
8“Do you want to go to medical school?” I ask them. 9“I guess so,” they say, without conviction, or, “Not really.” 10“Then why are you going?” 11“My parents want me to be a doctor. They’re paying all this money and …” Language Points
12Peer pressure and self-induced pressure are also intertwined, and they begin from the very start of freshman year. “I had a freshman student I’ll call Linda,”one instructor told me, “who came in and said she was under terrible pressure because her roommate, Barbara, was much brighter and studied all the time. I couldn’t tell her that Barbara had come in two hours earlier to say the same thing about Linda.” Language Points
13The story is almost funny — except that it’s not. It’s a symptom of all the pressures put together. When every student thinks every other student is working harder and doing better, the only solution is to study harder still. I see students going off to the library every night after dinner and coming back when it closes at midnight. I wish they could sometimes forget about their peers and go to a movie. I hear the rattling of typewriters in the hours before dawn. I see the tension in their eyes when exams are approaching and papers are due: “Will I get everything done?” except thatexcept that Language Points
14 Probably they won’t. They will get sick. They will sleep. They will oversleep. They will bug out. 15I’ve painted too grim a portrait of today’s students, making them seem too solemn. That’s only half of their story; the other half is that these students are nice people, and easy to like. They’re quick to laugh and to offer friendship. They’re more considerate of one another than any student generation I’ve ever known. If I’ve described That’s only half of their storyeasy to likeThat’s only half of their storyeasy to like Language Points
them primarily as driven creatures who largely ignore the joyful side of life, it’s because that’s where the problem is — not only at Yale but throughout American education. It’s why I think we should all be worried about the values that are nurturing a generation so fearful of risk and so goal-obsessed at such an early age. obsessed Language Points
16I tell students that there is no one “right” way to get ahead — that each of them is a different person, starting from a different point and bound for a different destination. I tell them that change is healthy and that people don’t have to fit into pre-arranged slots. One of my ways of telling them is to invite men and women who have achieved success outside the academic world to come and talk informally with my students during the year. I invite heads of companies, editors of magazines, bound forbound for Language Points
politicians, Broadway producers, artists, writers, economists, photographers, scientists, historians — a mixed bag of achievers. Broadwaya mixed bagBroadwaya mixed bag 17I ask them to say a few words about how they got started. The students always assume that they started in their present profession and knew all along that it was what they wanted to do. But in fact, most of them got where they are by a circuitous route, after many side got startedknew all along that it was what they wanted to dogot startedknew all along that it was what they wanted to do Language Points
trips. The students are startled. They can hardly conceive of a career that was not preplanned. They can hardly imagine allowing the hand of God or chance to lead them down some unforeseen trail. conceive ofconceive of Language Points
get through — manage to live through (a period of time during which something unpleasant is happening) e.g. How do they ever get through Siberian winters? Translate他们帮我渡过了那段辛酸的日子。 Key They helped me to get through those miserable days.
e.g. 1)The design was not in itself bad. 2)The plan wasn’t illegal in itself, but it would lead to some doubtful practices. in itself — in its own nature; intrinsically Translate问题本身倒并不很重要，但其长远影响可能是重大的。 Key The problem is unimportant in itself but its long term effects could be very serious.
e.g. 1)She tripped over a stone. 2)He tripped and fell, tearing a hole in his trousers. trip vi. —(~ over/up) knock one’s foot against something when walking and lose balance so that one falls or nearly falls Translate 她让猫绊了一跤 。 Key She tripped over the cat and fell.
e.g. 1)We tried to put off the day of reckoning. 2)The day of reckoning has come for him. Translate别看你现在逍遥，将来会遭报应的。 Key You’re enjoying yourself now, but a day of reckoning will come. day of reckoning — time when a person pays or when he is punished for things that he has done wrong Cf. reckon and calculate Both reckon and calculate mean “determine something mathematically”, but reckon usually connotes simpler mathematical process, especially such as can be carried on in one’s head or aided by the use of a counting device, while calculate is usually preferred when highly advanced, complex processes are followed with precision and care and when the result arrived at is not readily proven by measuring.
e.g. 1)Will Western industry ever catch up with Japanese innovations? 2)They haven’t caught up yet with the latest styles. Translate他因病一学期未上课，得努力赶上（其他同学）。 Key After missing a term through illness he had to work hard to catch up (with the others). catch up with —reach (and sometimes overtake) (sb. Who is ahead); (in competition, trade, standard, etc.) become equal to
e.g. 1) Failing health often goes along with old age. 2)Increased unemployment has gone along with rising prices all over the world. go along with — be found together with Translate 事实证明，成功总是和勤奋分不开的。 Key It is proved that success always goes with diligence. Paraphrase: Along with economic pressure goes parental pressure. Parental pressure takes place together with economic pressure.
e.g. 1)It couldn’t have happened except that it did. 2)She would have protested except that she was afraid. Translate 她 （对他）什么都不记得，只记得他的头发是黑的。 Key She remembered nothing (about him) except that his hair was black. except that —(used to introduce a statement which states or implies something contrary to the preceding one) only that, but that Paraphrase: The story is almost funny — except that it’s not. The story (about Linda and Barbara thinking that each is working harder and doing better than the other) sounds somewhat funny, but in fact it’s not funny.
If you say something is only half of the story, or part of the story or not the whole story you mean that there are more details that need to be known in order to understand the situation. that’s only half of their story — That’s only part of the situation with the students. e.g. 1)What he told us yesterday is only half the story; there are more people concerned in this affair than he knows about. 2)These figures gave only part of the story.
e.g. 1)The fear of death obsessed her throughout her old age. 2)She was obsessed with the idea that she was going to die. Translate她总觉得受人监视而心神不宁。 Key She was obsessed with the idea that she was being watched. obsess vt. —fill the mind of (sb.) continually and make thinking about anything else difficult Paraphrase: the values that are nurturing a generation so fearful of risk and so goal-obsessed at an early age the social principles that are bringing up a generation so afraid of taking risks and so excessively concerned about their future career when so young
e.g. 1)Jane invited a mixed bag of people to her party. 2)The songs on this record are (quite) a mixed bag. a mixed bag — a thoroughly varied mixture (of people or things)
e.g. 1)When can we get started? 2)It’s time we got started on the washing up. get started —begin
Brandford College at Yale Brandford College is one of the oldest of Yale university’s twelve residential colleges. It opened its doors in the start of the academic year in 1933. Text-related information
Social Security Social security generally refers to all measures established by legislation to maintain individual to family income at certain levels, to assure income if employment is lost, and to provide a great number of benefits covered by other programs. These benefits may include maternity payments, cash for medical needs, legal aid, compensation for crop failure, and funeral expenses.
Broadway Broadway is one of the principal business thoroughfares of New York City, extending in a generally north-south direction. Laid out in the early 17 th century by the Dutch, Broadway grew in length as the city developed from a small settlement on the southern tip of Manhattan Island. It now extends 27 km (17 mi) to the city’s northern boundary in the Bronx. Broadway forms the central thoroughfare of More to learn More to learn Text-related information
New York City’s theater district. This stretch is one of the most highly concentrated entertainment centers in the United Stats, and includes official Broadway theaters, smaller off-Broadway playhouses, movie theaters, restaurants, and bars. Also located on Broadway are Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and Columbia University (1754). More to learn More to learn Text-related information
Women enter the Broadway Theater in Denver, Colorado. One woman wears a short fur coat, hat and evening dress. The Broadway Theater opened in 1890 on 18th and Broadway Avenues. It was demolished in 1955. More to learn More to learn Text-related information
A book: Broadway Theatres, an introduction of the history of Broadway. Text-related information
change jobs, change careers, change whole attitudes and approaches Paraphrase: take another job, begin a new career, adopt an entirely different attitude and approach Someone’s career is the series of jobs that they have in their life, esp. in the same area of work. So, if a teacher quits teaching in one school and starts teaching in another, he changes his jobs, but if he quits teaching at all and starts running a business, he changes his career. Do you know the difference between “change jobs” and “change careers”? Comprehension
Success is greatly admired by the whole country, highly respected in newspapers, on radio and television … and strongly praised in our approval of wealth. Achievement is the national god, worshipped in our media … and glorified in our praise of possessions. Comprehension
to justify their expensive education to … to prove to … that it is right for them to receive such an expensive education; to show to … that they can perform as well as or even better than men for the expensive education they’ve received Comprehension
as if they were going to the dentist as if they were going to suffer Having one’s teeth treated often causes a lot of pain, and going to the dentist is never a pleasant experience. So students who study medicine under parental pressure feel as if they were going to the dentist when they have to go to their labs. Comprehension
when … papers are due when … it is time to hand in papers Comprehension
they … knew all along that it was what they wanted to do they … knew from the very beginning that it (their present profession) was the profession they wanted to follow Comprehension
self-imposed self-induced —caused or brought about by oneself self-indulgent decided by yourself allowing yourself to have or do anything that you enjoy self-inflicted (of something bad) done to yourself
go force (into) —set out Could you make a sentence by yourself?
e.g. These two young musicians are bound for international success. be bound for —intending to go to; going to
e.g. He couldn’t conceive of a time when he would have no job. I find it hard to conceive of such cruelty. conceive of —think of