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Schiavone: Engineering Success1 The Keys to Success The most successful engineering students exhibit the following characteristics in their approach to.

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1 Schiavone: Engineering Success1 The Keys to Success The most successful engineering students exhibit the following characteristics in their approach to study

2 Schiavone: Engineering Success2 The Keys to Success Working Smart: The Rules of the Game ØBefore starting a course, be familiar with the prerequisite materials ØMost engineering courses start from where the prerequisite course ended ØIf you are “fuzzy” on the prerequisite course material, spend some time reviewing ØIf in doubt, ask the course instructor ØMake the most of lectures and classroom time. Lectures are used by the course instructor to… Ø...highlight the most important material Ø...demonstrate important problem solving techniques ØTextbooks should be used as a supplement, and not a substitute, for classes ØWrite structured, clear solutions to all problems ØA clear solution procedure makes it easier for you to identify errors ØA clear solution procedure makes it easier for the course instructor to grant partial credit ØKeep any problems you have completed available for later study. A compendium of detailed solutions facilitates exam review ØKnow the difference between a solution and an answer ØAssignments indicate a required standard, and represent the most important portions of the course material ØPractice solving problems, and ask if you need help. Forming study groups with other students may be helpful

3 Schiavone: Engineering Success3 The Keys to Success Working Smart: The Rules of the Game (continued) ØDevelop an effective examination technique ØSimply knowing the material does not necessarily translate into success on examinations. You must specifically train and study towards each exam ØRehearse for each exam ØUse old practice tests from previous semesters ØWork in a quiet place, and try to avoid being interrupted ØTime yourself, so that you will be working under the same constraints as will be present during the real exam ØDuring the exam, write clear, logical and detailed solutions to win as much partial credit as possible ØDevelop an effective solution technique for homework and test problems ØStage 1 ØAcquaint yourself with the details of the problem ØDefine the goal ØDecide that the goal is attainable ØStage 2 ØTry some obvious solutions, working from your class notes or textbook (if available) ØAdversity is likely to set in at this stage. Don’t give up! ØStage 3 ØAt this stage, you are well-acquainted with all the details of the problem, and are highly focussed ØYou continue to try various solution techniques, and may seek help from your instructor or another student ØAt this point, you are likely to solve the problem

4 Schiavone: Engineering Success4 Introduction to Engineering ØEngineering: A process that applies mathematics and physical science to the design and manufacture of a product or service for the benefit of society ØThe traditional engineering disciplines include ØMechanical Engineering ØElectrical Engineering ØCivil Engineering ØChemical Engineering ØIndustrial Engineering ØMore recently, the following have been recognized as full-fledged engineering disciplines ØMaterials Engineering ØComputer Engineering ØAreas of specialization within mechanical engineering include ØSolid Mechanics ØFluid Mechanics ØThermodynamics ØMechanical Design ØAreas of specialization within electrical engineering include ØElectric Power Engineering ØCommunications ØControl Systems Engineering ØDigital Systems Engineering ØElectronics

5 Schiavone: Engineering Success5 Introduction to Engineering ØAreas of specialization within civil engineering include ØConstruction Engineering ØEnvironmental Engineering ØGeotechnical Engineering ØStructural Engineering ØSurveying ØTransportation Engineering ØWater Resources Engineering ØAreas of specialization within chemical engineering include ØPolymer Engineering ØBiotechnology ØProcess Control Engineering ØEnvironmental Engineering ØEngineering Management ØOil and Natural Gas ØIndustrial engineering is concerned with how to design, organize, implement and operate the basic factors of production (materials, equipment, people, information and energy) in the most efficient manner possible ØMaterials engineering deals with the production, processing, application and design of new materials ØComputer engineering draws from both electrical engineering and computer science. It deals with the design and implementation of computer systems in which both the hardware and software components are critical to the success of the design

6 Schiavone: Engineering Success6 Introduction to Engineering ØAnalytical Engineer: Deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of engineering problems ØExperimental Engineer: Concerned mainly with testing and evaluating physical prototypes. Experimental engineers tend to spend more time in a laboratory or out in the field than in the office ØDesign Engineer: Involved in all aspects of the design process, and produces a detailed plan, or design, from which an actual product can be assembled ØTest Engineer: Tests new and existing products and processes to see whether they comply with the required design specifications ØResearch Engineer: Concerned with the development of new and novel products, designs and processes. This research is usually applied, in that it is directed towards a fixed goal rather than being open ended ØConsulting Engineer: Works as an independent professional, and sells his/her expertise to clients, usually on a contract basis. Consulting engineers work in every engineering specialty ØEngineering Management: Engineers who combine engineering skills with managerial abilities to direct resources towards the efficient production of goods and services Engineers are classified by job function, as well as area of specialization. Typical job functions include the following:

7 Schiavone: Engineering Success7 Introduction to Engineering Study ØAttending a university is not the same as attending high school ØHigher standards ØBetter competition ØAdditional pressures (financial, social, etc.) ØYou will need to obtain the skills necessary for success in college “on the fly.” These include ØAppropriate study skills and strategies ØAppropriate attitudes towards course work and study ØCommunication skills ØTeam skills -- the ability to work as part of a team ØTime management skills -- the ability to prioritize ØProfessors often assume that you know more than you really do when you enter their course, and they generally start with new material, without taking time at the beginning to review. This could pose a problem ØYou may have forgotten some of the prerequisite material ØA prerequisite course taken at another institution may not have completely covered all required material ØThe upshot is that you may have to “catch up” on your own. At the very least, see the course instructor for help if you find yourself in this situation Success in a program of engineering study requires a different set of skills than you used to succeed in high school. The reasons for this include the following

8 Schiavone: Engineering Success8 Introduction to Engineering Study ØExpect the unexpected, and be willing to change your approach to a problem when necessary ØAsk questions. Course instructors, advisors, and upper class students are all willing to share advice with you on how to maximize your performance ØGet together with other first year students ØShare problems, concerns and information ØStudy in groups, if at all possible ØSocialize informally with your new university friends ØGet organized and manage your time efficiently ØUse a notebook or calendar to write down your appointments, commitments and obligations ØEstablish both short term and long term goals ØCreate a schedule, and establish blocks of time for both study and other tasks. It is unrealistic to expect that you will devote all of your free time to studying ØTry to stick to your schedule. Be willing to make adjustments to your schedule if you find that it is unworkable ØBefore a course begins, know what your instructor assumes you know. Review prerequisite material, if necessary Strategies for coping with the requirements of university study

9 Schiavone: Engineering Success9 Introduction to Engineering Study ØCooperative Education Programs (Co-ops) and Engineering Internships: Programs which allow you relevant and productive paid work experience while still a student ØWhy pursue a co-op or internship? ØYou gain valuable real work experience which prepares you for the future job market ØYou learn on-the-job skills which cannot be learned in the classroom ØYou have improved employment opportunities upon graduation ØYou gain exposure to the demands and expectations of an engineering career ØYou get to apply theory learned in the classroom to real problems ØYou learn to work in groups of people with various backgrounds ØYou make valuable networking contacts ØYou have the experience to make more informed decisions about your career path ØYou may get opportunities to sample more than one work environment ØThere are subtle differences between co-ops and internships; however, both provide students with valuable experience that will give them a head start in their careers

10 Schiavone: Engineering Success10 The Role of the University Lectures ØAttributes of a lecture ØMost common of all instructional methods ØLittle interaction between the students and the instructor ØMost often used in large (>50 students) classes ØWhat to expect from a lecture ØClear, logical presentation of material taken from a variety of sources ØMaterial selected is geared towards assigned problems and exams ØGenerally covers relevant examples, required standards and other pertinent information ØYour role in a lecture ØPrepare by reading assigned material ØDo not expect to be entertained! ØSit towards the front of the room, and pay attention ØFeel free to ask for a quick clarification (or to point out an error), but save longer questions for office hours ØReread, rewrite and review notes taken during lecture. See the instructor to clarify any unclear points ØExpect that most real learning will take place during your study time, and not during the lecture itself

11 Schiavone: Engineering Success11 The Role of the University Lectures with Student Participation (Active Lectures) ØAttributes of an active lecture ØMost common in high schools ØMost often used in smaller (<20 students) classes ØWhat to expect from an active lecture ØMaterial is presented at a slower pace ØInstructor will engage the class - ask questions, and present the material in a more conversational style ØYour role in an active lecture ØPrepare by keeping up with all the readings and assignments ØPay attention ØParticipate ØThink, respond and take notes Tutorials, Seminars or Laboratories ØOften required in addition to scheduled lectures ØMostly one-on-one and in small groups ØQuestions which come up during lecture or while doing homework can be dealt with here ØEmphasis is placed on mastering the material ØStudents benefit most by participating actively, and by preparing adequately at home before class (pre- labs, assigned problems, etc.)

12 Schiavone: Engineering Success12 The Role of the University The role of a university professor is varied, and generally includes the following

13 Schiavone: Engineering Success13 The Role of the University Dos and Don’ts for Office Hours ØDo ØArrive on time, either during the prescheduled office hours, or at the time of your prearranged appointment ØArrive prepared and organized. Know what to ask! ØShow what you have done so far on any problems you wish to discuss ØStay targeted and focused ØBe professional, polite and courteous ØEncourage your professor to write down any help or information s/he provides ØAsk as many questions as you need to ask ØDon’t ØShow up outside of scheduled office hours unless you have a prearranged appointment ØAsk unfocussed or general questions ØAsk for help on problems you have not yet attempted or thought about ØArgue with the professor

14 Schiavone: Engineering Success14 The Role of the University Other Campus Resources

15 Schiavone: Engineering Success15 Learning in the University Environment Teaching and Learning Styles ØIt is helpful when your leaning style matches the teaching style of your professor ØMost of us fit into more than one category ØTypes of learning styles include...

16 Schiavone: Engineering Success16 ØDon’t blame the professor! Be proactive and take matters into your own hands ØDetermine what you need to make the course material come alive. Ask the professor for supplemental material (which could include more examples, theory, worked out examples, real-world examples or formulas) ØFind someone else (teaching assistant, classmate, another professor) to explain the material to you in another way ØFind supplemental material on your own. Sources could include other textbooks, internet, journal articles, videos, CD-ROMs, etc. Begin your search in the engineering library If your learning style is not compatible with the professor’s teaching style... Learning in the University Environment

17 Schiavone: Engineering Success17 Benefits of Working with a Team of Student Peers ØProvides opportunities for collaborative learning ØIt is unlikely that all will have trouble with the same material. Group members will be able to help each other over hurdles ØIt has been shown that students who study in groups... Ø…get higher grades Ø…retain what they learn longer Ø…enjoy classes more Ø…gain more self-confidence ØTeaching something is the most effective way to learn it well. Group members gain from teaching each other ØKeeps you motivated and on track ØIt’s easier to keep going if you know you are not alone ØSomeone else’s success may depend on your active participation ØGood practice for the real world (after graduation) ØTeamwork is the norm in the real world ØMost projects are too large and broad for one person ØProject teams consist of people with a variety of expertise and backgrounds “Best Practice” Techniques for Group Learning ØTry to work in groups of three or four ØGroups of two may not have enough of a variety of ideas, and will not be able to effectively resolve conflicts ØSome members of large groups (five or more) may be left out, and not act as full participants ØThink about and outline problems individually before getting together as a group ØMake sure that all group members understand every solution Learning in the University Environment

18 Schiavone: Engineering Success18 Introduction to Student Organizations ØStudent organizations on a typical student campus may include the following ØSports clubs ØReligious organizations ØSocial fraternities and sororities ØAcademic organizations ØPolitical clubs and associations ØCulture clubs and associations ØProfessional student organizations ØFor the engineering student interested in an academic organization, the following may be of interest ØLocal, department-based clubs, e.g. ØMechanical Engineering Club ØFirst Year Engineering Students’ Association ØStudent chapters of professional engineering organizations (which often hold joint events with senior- level chapters), e.g. ØSociety of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) ØAmerican Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) ØAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ØEthnic and gender based engineering organizations, e.g. ØNational Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) ØSociety of Women Engineers (SWE) ØSociety of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) Learning in the University Environment

19 Schiavone: Engineering Success19 Student Ethical Responsibility ØStudents are obligated to conduct themselves in an ethical manner ØMost schools have a Code of Student Ethics which students are required to follow ØWhile some situations and behaviors may be subject to interpretation (ethically ambiguous), others are clear-cut, and generally recognized as unethical. These include ØPlagiarism: intentionally claiming other people’s work as your own ØCheating ØUnauthorized sharing of information ØFalse representation (representing yourself as another person, or having someone else represent themselves as you) ØChanging a solution or answer on a paper after it has been graded ØUsing confidential materials without permission (upcoming tests, solutions manuals, etc.) ØFabrication: falsification of information in any academic exercise (paper, assignment, lab report, etc.) Learning in the University Environment

20 Schiavone: Engineering Success20 ØAs an engineering student you have three main priorities when it comes to spending time ØPriority #1: Commitments - the inflexibly allocated periods of time in your schedule ØScheduled classes, labs seminars and meetings ØWork (part-time job) ØPriority #1A: Necessities of life! Can be rescheduled, but you can’t live without them ØEating ØSleeping ØPriority #2: Study time. Time devoted to… Ø…completing assignments Ø…reading the text; going over class notes Ø…reviewing for tests Ø…group study ØPriority #3: Entertainment, leisure, recreation ØSocializing with friends and family ØExercise ØTV, movies, etc. ØObviously, there may be some overlap between categories (eating with friends, etc.) ØBest ways to manage your time and fit everything in ØCreate a schedule which includes all activities (long term, short term, and recurring; academic and non-academic) ØCreate an on-going list of errands and one-time appointments. Items can be crossed off as they are completed Key Strategies for Maximizing Performance

21 Schiavone: Engineering Success21 Weekly Planner for a Six-Course Schedule Key Strategies for Maximizing Performance

22 Schiavone: Engineering Success22 ØRegarding course prerequisites ØMake sure that you are aware of what your instructor assumes you know ØMake sure that you have mastered what your instructor assumes you know -- make sure your prerequisite skills work! ØMany students fail because they don’t have adequate mastery of course prerequisite material. Take the prerequisite material seriously, and ask if you are not sure ØEffective note taking techniques ØMake sure you write down whatever the instructor writes down. This is a strong indication of what s/he feels are the most important points ØDuring oral presentations, take notes on what the instructor is saying. Don’t try to write every word, but do include the most important points. You can always review later ØAs soon as possible after the lecture, review and complete your notes. Write them out as if you were going to use them to teach the subject ØDate and number each page; leave ample space for further comments and clarification ØWhen you miss class, get notes from another conscientious and successful student, or (if possible) the course instructor ØPurpose of the course textbook ØTo provide a backup source of course material. The textbook will serve as your primary source for supplementary material ØTo provide a source of illustrative examples ØTo provide a good supply of practice problems ØDon’t try to do every problem, or to read every chapter. Stick to material that is similar to that presented in class unless the instructor says otherwise Key Strategies for Maximizing Performance

23 Schiavone: Engineering Success23 Key Strategies for Maximizing Performance ØStrategies for maximizing the effectiveness of assignments ØTry to do all of the assigned problems. Those that complete their homework assignments tend to, as a group, perform better on exams ØDon’t simply study example problems and homework solutions. The only way to learn how to solve problems is to solve problems. (It’s similar to riding a bicycle -- you can’t learn how to ride a bike without getting on one!) ØCollaboration and group work is beneficial as long as it is not abused. Working in groups should not reduce the amount of effort that each individual puts forth; instead, fellow group members should use each other to get through the roughest spots in a problem, and to brainstorm alternative solution techniques ØPosted solutions to assignments and exams ØGood examples of what constitutes a proper, correct solution ØGood way of reviewing for exams as posted solutions illustrate exactly what is expected by the course instructor ØPosted solutions from previous semesters may be a useful source of review problems ØGetting extra help ØMake use of any free tutoring services available through your college. Members of engineering honor societies often provide free tutoring as a service to the university community ØIf hiring a tutor, make sure s/he knows the material well, and is an effective communicator ØPrepare for your tutoring session by reviewing the material and listing all questions that you have in advance. Do not expect the tutor to do the work, as that is your job! ØSelf-study manuals and problem solvers may be helpful. As there are many available, ask your instructor for a recommendation!

24 Schiavone: Engineering Success24 How to be Successful on Exams ØExams are generally the single largest contributor to your grade in an engineering course ØSuccess on your exam depends upon mastery of Øthe course material Øeffective study techniques (smart practice) Øeffective examination technique ØDivide your test preparation into long term (ongoing) and short term (1-2 weeks beforehand) phases ØLong term ØMake sure your class notes are complete and well organized ØPay special attention to topics emphasized in class, as these often show up on exams ØWrite clear, complete and logical homework solutions ØCompletely redo any homework problems you may have answered incorrectly ØUse assigned problems to gauge what material the professor thinks is most important, and direct your study towards those topics ØGet help on any issues and problems you may have as they arise ØShort term: Apply smart practice ØFind out what will be covered on the exam ØReview the relevant theory and relevant examples from course notes and the course textbook ØReview your solved assignments ØWork through relevant practice problems, previously assigned problems, and problems from past exams

25 Schiavone: Engineering Success25 How to be Successful on Exams Effective Exam Review Techniques ØIncorporate exam review periods in your schedule, and specify what material you will review in each ØChoose your study environment carefully. Continue to maintain a healthy lifestyle despite the extra stress which accompanies exams ØPick a quiet room that is free of distractions ØGet comfortable ØTake frequent breaks ØEat well and get plenty of rest ØEngage in some physical activity ØDuring your study periods ØMake notes and summarize the important points as you review. These will be useful if your professor allows you to bring in formula sheets ØChoose practice problems randomly, and solve them blindly, without any supplemental information or help from others ØAs the exam approaches, you may wish to schedule some group review sessions

26 Schiavone: Engineering Success26 How to be Successful on Exams Taking the Examination ØBefore the exam: eat something, dress comfortably, and make sure you have everything you will need ØGet to the exam early, and select a seat that will be relatively free of distraction ØThe first few minutes ØPut your name on all exam sheets ØRead through the exam, and note ØRelative point values ØRelative difficulty of each problem ØEffective exam techniques ØPace yourself. Make sure you are not spending too much time on any one problem ØAttempt to solve every problem ØWrite your solution with the purpose of getting the maximum number of points ØInclude sufficient detail ØWrite neat, well-structured solutions ØRemember what the instructor is looking for ØA set procedure or method illustrating clear, logical thinking and understanding, leading to the correct answer ØAn ability to use the most appropriate technique in the most efficient way possible ØAn ability to communicate ideas effectively ØAn ability to develop a valid, step-by-step scientific argument, incorporated with any necessary mathematics ØAn ability to explain the significance of any results obtained

27 Schiavone: Engineering Success27 How to be Successful on Exams Taking the Examination (continued) ØOn multiple choice tests ØRead the question, and identify what it is asking ØIgnore the (given) answers, and solve the problem for yourself ØCompare your answer to the given choices, and rework, if necessary ØIf you are completely stumped, try to eliminate any answers you know to be false ØWork backwards to check your problem (if time) ØDon’t leave any questions out. Guess if you have to, to maximize your score ØAfter the examination ØCheck for errors in grading. If there is a problem, see the professor as soon as possible. Remember to be courteous and professional at all times! ØLearn from your mistakes by redoing incorrect problems ØStart working towards your next exam. Make any adjustments in your preparation technique that you think are necessary based on your performance

28 Schiavone: Engineering Success28 Procedures for Effective Problem Solving ØThe solution of practical problems is an essential part of engineering ØA significant amount of time in the engineering curriculum is devoted to developing students’ problem solving skills ØEngineering problems encountered in most undergraduate courses generally fall into two basic categories Ø(A) Those that require mainly the application of known techniques, and minimal amounts of original thought ØProblems of this type may be mathematically intensive ØOnce the applicable formula is identified, “plug and chug” to get the solution ØOften, the problem is directly stated in terms of a formula, which then must be solved Ø(B) Those that require original thought, and minimal application of established techniques. Often posed as word problems. Solution procedure includes ØMathematical modeling ØEvaluation and application of selected mathematical techniques ØInterpretation of results with respect to the context of the original problem statement ØProblems such as these include word problems, where the problem must be translated from English to mathematics. This process is known as mathematical modeling

29 Schiavone: Engineering Success29 Solving Applications Problems (A) ØCarefully read through the problem ØClassify the problem by identifying which area of the course it is from ØIdentify the specific area, technique, formula or rule that will form the basis of the solution ØFind a worked-out example similar to the one you are trying to solve. This will generally be an example problem from the textbook or class notes ØApply the known problem solving procedure to your specific problem Solving Word Problems (B) ØRead the problem. Try to identify what you have (given) and what you want (find). Assign variables to those quantities. Draw a diagram, if applicable ØTranslate the problem from English to mathematics. This will often involve identifying formulas that relate what you know to what you want to know ØTry to find a similar, solved example from your course notes or textbook ØSometimes it will be necessary to split a complicated problem into a series of simpler sub-problems ØInclude appropriate dimensions in your equations, and make sure they remain consistent throughout your solution ØEvaluate your answer, and see if it makes physical sense Procedures for Effective Problem Solving

30 Schiavone: Engineering Success30 How to Succeed in Mathematics Courses ØMathematics is a cumulative subject. The understanding of one part depends heavily on the understanding of previous parts ØStudents often have more problems with mathematical manipulation than they do with engineering concepts ØKeys to success in mathematics courses ØIdentify and become fluent in key prerequisites ØMake the most of class time ØMake effective use of the textbook ØGet help when necessary ØDo your assignments ØFollow effective problem solving procedures ØCarefully prepare for exams by working test problems from previous semesters, and compare your answers to test solutions (if they are available)

31 Schiavone: Engineering Success31 Developing Engineering Skills ØSkills prized by employers include ØThe ability to work effectively in diverse teams ØThe ability to keep up to date and current in your field ØThe ability to effectively manage personnel and resources in engineering projects ØEffective written communication skills ØEffective interpersonal (one-to-one) skills ØThe ability to design and present effective formal presentations (in front of groups) ØThe ability to demonstrate creativity in all aspects of your job ØDeveloping effective writing skills requires effort and commitment ØTake writing classes. Many colleges and universities offer noncredit writing courses in their continuing education programs that can be taken during evening and weekend hours ØWrite as much as you can ØRead as much as possible, because… Ø…reading exposes you to good, professional writing Ø…reading expands your vocabulary and grammar skills ØSeek out good examples of writing ØGet lots of feedback from others ØRead your own work out loud to yourself

32 Schiavone: Engineering Success32 Developing Engineering Skills ØEffective interpersonal skills include ØGood listening skills ØThe ability to define what you need, and to ask for it ØThe power of persuasion ØSensitivity to the beliefs and perceptions of others ØThe ability to understand another’s point of view ØPreparation and poise are vital for effective formal presentations ØPrepare presentation materials well beforehand. Make sure that… Ø… they are technically correct and contain no errors Ø…they are clear and legible from anywhere in the room Ø…your talk contains neither too much nor too little content Ø…you can effectively handle any questions which may be posed ØDivide your talk into three parts ØIntroduction and overview of presentation ØMain body ØConclusion, summary and recommendations for future consideration ØLeave sufficient time for rehearsal. Try to rehearse in a room similar to the one which will be used ØRelax, and believe in yourself. Don’t belittle yourself ØDon’t entertain your audience, although one quick, well- placed joke can be an effective ice-breaker ØExperience is unbeatable. Your confidence will increase a bit every time you give a presentation

33 Schiavone: Engineering Success33 Developing Engineering Skills ØAttributes of creativity include ØOriginality of thought ØAbility to use your imagination to come up with innovative ideas ØCreativity cannot be learned, but can be improved and nurtured through the following techniques ØIncrease your knowledge of engineering. Read about advances in the state-of-the-art, and new and novel solutions ØMaintain an interest in things outside of engineering. Engineering innovation can often be spurred by something related to another discipline ØBrainstorm, and think creatively about new solutions to old (previously solved) problems. Play with ideas. This can be done alone, or with colleagues Ø“Sleep” on problems. Allow your subconscious time to work ØAllow yourself some time to relax and recharge. Your mind gets tired if it is constantly thinking, so it needs some time to rest ØFocus on the ultimate objective. Don’t obsess on the detail (which become the focus much later in the design process)

34 Schiavone: Engineering Success34 What’s After Graduation? Becoming Gainfully Employed ØCareer options include ØOne of the engineering job descriptions described previously ØA job in a non-engineering field that requires some of the skills acquired as engineering students. These include areas where problem solving, mathematics and creative thought are important, such as insurance, financial and accounting firms ØA job involving government or military work (national laboratories, transportation, municipal services, etc.) ØWorking abroad, either for a multi-national corporation, or for a service organization (e.g. Peace Corps) ØContinuing education is now a requirement of most jobs! ØRead journals and trade publications and attend seminars to stay in touch with advances in technology ØMany employers will pay you to attend advanced courses, as long as they are relevant to your work. Some colleges offer courses, and even entire degree programs, via satellite or computer that can be completed without requiring attendance in actual classes ØJob search tips ØTake advantage of personal contacts by networking ØMaximize your chances by applying for many jobs simultaneously ØPrepare your resume carefully. Get advice from employed friends and your school’s writing center. Proof-read carefully! ØPrepare for your interview by practicing with friends. Treat your interview as a formal presentation of yourself. Be sure to research the company so you can ask intelligent questions ØHighlight your ability to learn and think independently ØDon’t “sell yourself short” to a prospective employer

35 Schiavone: Engineering Success35 What’s After Graduation? Obtaining an Advanced Degree (or two) ØTypical advanced degree paths include ØMaster of Science in Engineering ØRequires 18 months to three years ØSome programs require only course work ØOthers require both course work and thesis-based research ØA M.S. degree leads to either doctoral study, or a more advanced job in the field ØDoctoral Degree (Ph. D.) in Engineering ØTakes three to five additional years ØSome course work plus extensive research leading to a dissertation ØA doctoral degree in engineering does not increase employment prospects, but typically leads to a job in academia or research ØOther disciplines ØMedicine ØLaw ØBusiness (MBA) ØFinancial considerations ØStudents pursuing advanced degrees in engineering typically receive financial support in the form of research or teaching assistantships, as well as reduced or free tuition ØStudents pursuing advanced degrees in areas other than engineering are typically “on their own”

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