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Unit 1 The Reformation Chapter 4.

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1 Unit 1 The Reformation Chapter 4

2 Why is This Happening? Humanism/Individualism of the Renaissance meant that people believed in, and encouraged new ways of thinking. Humanists had studied early Christian thinkers, had more knowledge than the Dogma of the current church. People believe that humans are sinful- and NEED a church- but question is the Roman Catholic (as it was in 1500) the best for humanity? Begin with the idea of reform- end with split The Reformation is a transformative event that will help set Europe on its modern path

3 Seeds of Revolt Power and prestige of church had been damaged in the late middle ages Challenges to the church came from kings (who were growing in power and resented supremacy of church) and those who believed the church had strayed from the origins of Christ and Christianity.

4 Babylonian Captivity In 1302 Pope published the Unum Sanctum- which said resisting the pope was resisting the will of god- which prompted Philip the Fair to bring pope to France so King could “influence” pope (and god’s will) Pope in Avignon Made pope seem under control of king (which he was) Got more and more blatant over time- King made his own family members Pope- damaged credibility

5 Great Schism There are at LEAST two popes (sometimes three) Which is real? Which is “Antipope”? Eroded authority of church- cast doubt on “infallibility” of pope Made the church look foolish- how can they claim to be the ultimate authority if they can’t even keep their own house in order?

6 Church Practices The church is rich and powerful- the largest single landowner in Europe. Many people said church cared more about $$ than humanity- especially b/c of sale of Indulgences. (Began with crusades, being used in 1500s to rebuild St. Peter’s) Also: Sale of offices (Simony), Fees for sacraments (Burial, Baptism etc…) Absenteeism, Pluralism, Clerical Ignorance, and Moral laxity of Clergy (drunkenness, gambling, whoring- Pope Alexander I had 6 children WHILE POPE) Seemed like the church like to MAKE rules, but not follow them

7 Critics of the Church Martin Luther was not the 1st person to criticize church practices (or even to suggest breaking away)

8 Lollards: John Wycliff
English Said Bible and sacraments should be in vernacular so ordinary people can understand them People need and want a personal connection with God- not a list of rules Excommunicated, but not executed. Lollards are those who continue to follow his ideas after he died

9 Jan Hus Czech. Resented conflict of Church in Bohemia during Great Schism. Said the Bible was the sole authority in Christianity- not the pope. Said God loves us- doesn’t judge us Burned at the stake as a heretic

10 Martin Luther and the Beginnings of “Protestantism”
As a young man Luther swore to devote his whole life to God (caught in a storm) Became a monk, but found religious life unsatisfying- he still felt he was too sinful, and wanted something more. Lived in Holy Roman Empire- which was good distance away from Rome (esp in North where Luther lived) HRE was center of Northern Humanism- looking to use Christianity to build a better world

11 Who is Luther? Searched and studied for answers- became a professor of theology at Wittenberg University. The “Experience in the Tower” his transforming moment. God knows we are mortal and sinful, and loves us anyway. God gives righteousness as a gift to those who have faith. Not “rules”- just faith. Urged people to study the Bible for themselves (few Catholics- even priests- read it) and to form a personal connection to God

12 Why is he unhappy? John Tetzel was selling indulgences in Bavaria (to pay for St Peter’s- and for the fee Bishop had paid to get his post) 1517 published 95 Thesis on the Policy of Indulgence- in which he questioned the validity of Simony and Indulgence (Also denied the infallibility of the pope and said Jan Hus had NOT been a heretic)

13 What did he do? Begins a massive set of writings (Freedom of a Christian) in German, which said salvation came from faith alone. We don’t even need a church, just the bible and a priesthood of all believers. Pope threatened excommunication unless he recanted- refused. Tried at Diet of Worms 1521, declared a Heretic and ordered executed (hidden) Can no longer “reconcile” with church- creates his own. How Different? Confession of Augsburg written as a last attempt at compromise, became a statement of protestant beliefs Salvation through faith, not sacraments Bible sole authority, not pope We are all equal in eyes of God Used vernacular, allowed married clergy and divorce. Encouraged Education (read bible) Sermons in each service. Consubstantiation.

14 Charles V Newly elected Holy Roman Emperor as all this is breaking out- unsure how to proceed. Allied with Pope to stamp out heresy, but underestimated Luther’s appeal with common man (and princes) Emperor doesn’t have a ton of power- and Charles was often away in his other lands- or fighting for territory in Italy

15 Peasant’s War Germany 1524-1525
Peasant’s saw Luther as throwing off ALL authority- took it and ran with it. Demanded an end to all serfdom and tithes. Luther did NOT support this- spoke against it- and it was savagely crushed (100,000 dead)

16 League of Schmalkalden 1531
Formed by Princes who became Lutheran (looking to gain power for themselves, break away from Emperor and Church ties) Stood against Charles V (aided by Francis I of France, who wanted to push down Hapsburgs) Led to Hapsburg Valois Wars as well as a German Civil war (beginning of wars of religion)

17 Peace of Augsburg 1555 Charles fought- but Luther’s ideas took hold, in part because of the ideas themselves, and in part because of resistance to imperial/papal power. 1555 Charles passed and edict legalizing Protestantism (lutheranism only) in HRE. Princes could choose if their land was Protestant or Catholic. No Sharing, if you don’t like it – move. Led to a division of German states into Protestant and Catholic.

18 Reformation in Switzerland and France
Protestant ideas spread around the HRE- took particular hold in Switzerland (odd, most of southern areas stayed Catholic) Closely tied to urban areas These were not the ideas of Luther (though influenced by him) – but their own Moved from Switzerland into France

19 Swiss: Zwinglianism Ulrich Zwingli ( ) a priest who admired Erasmus. Critical of church around same time as Luther- and with many similar ideas, but more radical (and less well published) emphasizing the independence of the individual believer and deemphasizing the value of clergy. Severe simplicity of worship (but LONG services) Killed during religious conflict. Never a big following- but influenced other Swiss thinkers. Argued with Luther about the Eucharist- said it was only symbolic, didn’t represent anything

20 Anabaptists Protestants who were against infant baptism (which isn’t in the bible) Said only mature adults could make the conscious choice of faith. Lutherans didn’t like them- which shows tendency of early protestants to splinter (RC didn’t like either- but that was to be expected) Voluntary association- no allegiance to any particular state Accepted Polygamy Rejected the idea of the trinity- believed the end of the world was near

21 Calvinism John Calvin ( ) French, moved to Switz to be protestant. Wrote Institutes on the Christian Religion. Took ideas from Luther and Zwingli to create a group which would be the other major protestant theology. Geneva (the city that was a church) became a theocracy- ruled by Calvin and his followers

22 Principles Predestination: Big new idea. God knows everything, including who is saved. (no free will) Already decided, but if you live a good enough life- God will let you know. (the “elect” visible saints living among men) Church should be governed by Presyteries- groups of ministers/elders who rule church council and town. Strict rules, no frivolous activities (music, dancing or cards) Stark churches, plain clothes.

23 Protestant Work Ethic Calvinists emphasized the importance of hard work- that all tasks done well pleased God. Whether you grow rich or poor depends of YOU and what you do- God helps those who help themselves. Would have major social impact on Calvinist societies (focus on business etc..)

24 Spread People came from all over Euro to spend time in the “model” community of Christians. Made Geneva the center of protestant doctrine Calvinism spread to France: called Huguenots, supported by nobility (who were against king) Scotland: Converted by John Knox- called Presbyterians England : Puritans Hungary/Bohemia: Hussites Dutch Reform Church: A corner of HRE had gone to Spain when Charles V split empire (Spanish Netherlands) converted to Calvinism and became a center of revolt against Hapsburgs (Spain and HRE) Reformation had Virtually no impact on Ireland, Italy, Spain- none of those were ever anything but Catholic.

25 English Reformation William Tyndale
Began with conflict between king and pope rather than real theological issues (this one is about power) Couldn’t have happened without the others- they made it possible to “quit” being Catholic Humanist- Translated the bible into English in 1526 (Base of the King James version) Hunted down and executed 1535

26 Henry VIII King of England 1509-1547
Began reign as staunch Catholic- hindered spread of Protestantism in England (Wrote a pamphlet condemning Luther, pope gave him title “defender of the faith”) However…. Wants an annulment from pope to remarry. Pope says no. (Henry executes Thomas Wolsey b/c he can’t make this work) Uses Parliament (Act of Restraint of Appeals 1534, Act of Supremacy 1535) to create a church where the King is in charge- join or die (which Thomas More did) Catholic lands confiscated by king, (600 monasteries convents) sold for profit Divorce permitted at discretion of king (shocker) 1536 Pilgrimage of Grace- rebellion of common folk in favor of RC church- crushed

27 Aftermath of Anglican Split
It wasn’t about doctrine- so the “Anglican” (Church of England) ideas don’t change too much. Did adopt idea of faith alone, and had services in vernacular. Henry VIII married 6 times had 1 son (weak) and 2 daughters succeed him- kept England in religious chaos for a generation. Edward VI (r ) became king at 10- regents protestant. Added to Anglican by allowing married clergy- recognized only 2 sacraments (baptism and communion) Mary I (r ) tried to restore Catholicism by force (bloody Mary) rescinded all Anglican legislation, exiled 1000s executed 100s Elizabeth I (r ) RC called her illegitimate. Practical in terms of religion- Protestant, but not harshly so. Elizabethan settlement: law says you must be Anglican in public- do what you want at home 31 Articles: Anglican Creed. Followed protestant ideas, but loose enough most (except Puritans) could live with it

28 The Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Even before Luther et al…the church realized there were problems and was trying to correct sporadically. As protests began, recognized that people left b/c protestants had legitimate points, and the church had to change, or it might lose. Paul III (humanist) became pope in determined to fix problems

29 The Council of Trent 1545 called a church council (which would meet sporadically until 1563) Set new course for RC church. Reinforced dominance (if not infallibility) of pope. Transubstantiation. Reaffirmed that bible and church, plus all 7 sacraments necessary to go to heaven. No divorce. Cleansed bad practices- getting rid of Simony, pluralism and indulgence. Creates index of forbidden books to stamp out heresy Works- after 1540 no new country becomes protestant. Makes split between Catholics/protestants permanent and implacable.

30 Jesuits “Society of Jesus” Founded 1540 by Ignatius de Loyola. Defenders of the church and papal authority (army of the pope) Founded schools for “reeducation” of Catholicism. Became missionaries (very effective in new world) In charge of Inquisition. Stamp out Heresy. 3 Goals 1. reform church through education 2. Spread Catholicism 3. Fight Protestantism

31 Political Impact of Reformation
Added a new issue for Kings to deal with (religious beliefs haven’t been a source of division since Roman Empire) Some kings used it to gather their own power- others were pulled apart by 100 years of religious conflict that followed Shattered the last unifying element in European culture. Made it easier for them to fight each other. Positives: Religious enthusiasm rekindle, and literacy expanded (keep up with arguments etc…)

32 France Has Catholic and Calvinist (Huguenots) elements. 1st significant issue Affair of the Placards 1534 (denouncements on RC churches, which led to royal repression of Huguenots) Persecution sporadic- Huguenots were strong in Southern France (which resented growing royal power) Big war coming after 1560.

33 Dutch England Strongly Calvinist- wanted freedom from Hapsburg Control- will lead to prolonged war which will diminish Spanish power Elizabeth gets things settled (with problem of Catholic claimant Mary of Scots to deal with) But religious issues will return with House of Stuart vs. Puritans

34 Scotland Protestant- but Royal Family Catholic. (Mary of Guise, French born Queen Regent and mother of Mary Queen of Scots is FIERCE Catholic) Scots don’t like Guises b/c of Catholicism and attachment to France- eventually an uprising which deposes Mary in favor of her infant son James.

35 German States Luther survived b/c he was supported by the princes. Many in north converted- and seized church property in their lands Civil War from (league of Schmalkalden) only first wave- issues become about power as well as faith

36 Social Impacts Things stayed unsettled in areas going between Protestant and Catholic- this was a big change. Everyday life most impacted in areas which became Protestant- especially in terms of violence etc…

37 Marriage Catholic clergy had been seen as the highest form of life- now not. Protestants said marriage and family the highest form of life (including for clergy) Origins of “family values”. Protestants accepted divorce in some cases (adultery, impotence, abandonment)

38 Social Class Protestantism appealed to all classes- created a unity of thought among them. Rebellion of religion could create other issues (Like the peasant’s war) but kings seizing (and selling) church land created more opportunities to peasants. Overall ever increasing emphasis on secular world

39 Women Protestant Catholic
No more convents etc… meant that women lost main opportunity for leadership. Protestant women meant to be devoted wives and mothers- subordinate to men. Although, marriage supposed to be based on Love rather than econ. Encouraged to read bible (therefore literate) Continued to have opportunities as nuns etc… Ursuline Order founded by Council of Trent to educate women in their faith.

40 Chapter 5: A Century of Conflict

41 Politics, Religion and Warfare
Transforming period for Europe Things are rough in many directions: In Germany- Peace of Augsburg only dealt with Lutherans, not Calvinist- who were also vocal minorities in England, France, Netherlands, and Scotland. There were also threats from Muslims in Mediterranean and Orthodox in Eastern Euro/Russia. Constant warfare- a mix of politics and religion. Hapsburg Valois wars last of the dynastic wars (disguised as religion, really about land) War is different- having castles and knights doesn’t help- not chivalrous- slaughter from guns and artillery.

42 French Wars of Religion
civil war on political (power of king) and religious (calvinist) issues. Valois dynasty failing- Bourbon vs. Guise for control of the the throne

43 Origins Valois monarch staunchly RC (1540 Edict of Fountainbleu brought Inquisition to France). Kings expanding power, nobility weakening, trade/middle class becoming more important Francis I and Henry II strong kings made royal (rather than religious) law/power dominant. Taille (head tax) funded a standing army. But provinces like Brittany, Burgundy, and Provence have own identity Growth of Calvinism led to persecution by Francis I (he was captured by Huguenots at Battle of Pavia during Hapsburg Valois wars) 40-50% of nobility became Huguenots vs. only about 7% of regular population. Showed that issues in France are more political than spiritual, the nobles resent king’s power

44 Rivalries Henry II died as a fairly young man (jousting accident) leaves a sickly 15 yr old as heir- followed by 2 weak brothers, all dominated by their mother- Catherine de Medici. Who will take the throne? 3 families circling: Montmorency-Challitons (Prot), Guise (RC- big into Inquisition) and Bourbon (Prot). All using religious differences to cover their real ambition- power.

45 Religious Riots and Civil War
Alliances constantly shifting- intrigues complex and many layered. Both sides call each other heretics- clergy (of both) encouraged acts of violence. St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Aug. 25th 1572: A wedding was held between a Bourbon and Valois as bid for peace (Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre). Guise (with knowledge of Queen Catherine) use opportunity to a Montmorcey, which led to Catholics slaughtering Huguenots all over France- 12,000 killed in one day. Gloves are off- civil war time

46 War of Three Henrys Henry of Guise (funded by Spain, which wants to have a king they can control in France), Henry of Navarre (Bourbon, and Protestant) and King Henry III (really Catherine) 15 year civil war with over 500,000 killed - nearly as many as 100 years war! Eventually Henry of Guise assassinated (by Henry III, who was assassinated as well by a fanatical monk)- only one Henry left standing

47 Triumph of the Politiques
Politiques: Moderates of both religions who decided to put France above Faith- no religion justification for endless war. Henry of Navarre agreed. Law said king had to be Catholic- so he converted in (Said “Paris is worth a Mass”) and became Henry IV Privately he remained Calvinist- rather Machiavellian, willing to do what was NEEDED rather than obsess over doctrine War had broken power of nobles (though they are not quite done), Henry IV’s rule put France on path to absolutism Assassinated in 1610 by a Catholic Fanatic

48 Edict of Nantes 1598 Gave religious rights to Huguenots in France.
Allowed public worship, freedom of assembly, admission to gov’t jobs, ability to fortify their towns. Revoked in 1685 by Louis XIV Religious rights only in certain areas- 200 defined “Huguenot” towns. NOT religious tolerance or mixing- more like a truce in wars than an end to them

49 Spain: Philip II and Militant Catholicism
Hapsburgs had huge power in 16c. Had HRE, Spain, Netherlands, and New World. But Charles V split the empire- gave Spain and New, Netherlands and New World to his son Philip II. (and HRE to his brother Ferdinand) Philip (“the Most Catholic”) ruled Spain at the height of its power (their golden age, lasts > 100 years, in part b/c kings are so inflexible) Ridiculously rich from new world treasure- and fanatically Catholic. Believed in strict conformity to church in all his lands would bring strength and peace

50 Escorial Philip used $$ to build a magnificent new royal palace/monastery - in the shape of a grille to represent the martyrdom of St. Lawrence A Cathedral was the heart of the palace. Philip’s bedroom attached to cathedral, with an interior window against the monk’s choir so he could hear prayers and chanting 24/7. Show his mindset

51 Ottomans Had taken Constantinople (Istanbul) in heavily involved in Mediterranean trade. Philip wants that trade for Christians. Also, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent is attacking Balkans and Eastern Europe (HRE) as part of his plans for expansion. (took Belgrade, laid siege to Vienna) Spain sends navy into Mediterranean (Turks aren’t big sailors) and defeats them at Battle of Lepanto 1571 Kicked 50,000 “Moriscos” (converts from Islam to Christianity) out of Spain Reminiscent of fervor of crusades- pushed Turks out of Sea trade, made Spain feel invincible

52 Revolt of the Netherlands
Spain/HRE have pretty much let Dutch alone. 17 Autonomous provinces- split between Calvinists and RC, really pretty tolerant of each other. Philip starts bossing- he doesn’t like Calvinism, esp. Stadholder William of Orange (William the Silent) Kings send in Duke of Alba to persecute heretics- leads to rebellion of Calvinists Spain tries and tries, but can’t quell revolt. Dutch open the dykes and flood their own lands to block Spanish (actually leads to decline of Antwerp and rise of Amsterdam as the major trade center of the Netherlands) Major blow to Philip and his plans. Northern (Calvinist) areas become Dutch Republic (United Provinces of Netherlands) South- Flanders (RC) stays Spanish

53 Defeat of Spanish Armada 1588
Philip also prince consort of England- married to Mary I. (his cousin) She died 1558. To keep control of England, he tried to marry the heiress- Mary’s half sister Elizabeth I- she says no- and supported Dutch in their rebellion. Pope Sixtus V called for a Crusade against England- Philip sends his “invincible” armada into the English Channel. English boats are smaller, but also lighter and faster (better for shallows of Channel), and there was a huge storm (the “protestant wind”). The Armada was defeated and destroyed- a HUGE psychological blow to Spain, it begins their decline (and England’s Rise)

54 Germany: the 30 Years War Most important conflict of the 1600s HRE fairly evenly split between Protestants (in North) and Catholics (in South) – but only Lutheranism “legal” and Calvinism was growing. RC never gave up push to get stuff back- and that resparked conflict that had never really ended

55 Four Phases: 1st (Bohemian) Phase
Began in the Eastern empire with the “Defenestration of Prague” where protestants threw 2 RC emissaries out a window (fell 70 feet and survived!) Ferdinand (king of Bohemia) elected Emperor in 1619 (RC) sent in his troops- the Czechs (Bohemians- Calvinist) decide to use this as an opportunity to gain independence. Refused to recognize Ferdinand as emperor- chose a protestant (Fredrick V) instead. Czechs defeated by Battle of White Mountain- forced conversions in Bohemia- successful, within 10 years it is a Catholic territory again

56 2nd (Danish) Phase King Christian of Demark (Lutheran) had large holdings in HRE- which emperor decided he wants. Hires mercenaries Albert of Wallerstein to fight a very unprincipled war (mostly against civilians) Emperor wins again Issues Edict of Restitution- saying all lands lost to protestant since 1552 (BOOK TYPO) are to return to the church, and reiterates that everything BUT Lutheran is illegal. High point for RC- looks like reformation may be undone

57 3rd (Swedish) Phase Swedish (Lutheran) king Gustavus Adolphus decided to help oppressed Protestants. (France actually helps them too, which was odd, but they didn’t like the idea of growing Hapsburg power) Swedes win battles- though king killed 1632, took over Denmark, Poland, Finland and Baltics- all blocking Emperor Turns the tide and gives protestants hope. Battle of Breitenfield 1631 ended Hapsburg hopes of controlling all Germanic territories. Emperor annulled Edict of Restitution

58 4th (French/International) Phase
Swedish phase ended with Peace of Prague- generally pro- catholic. Emperor Ferdinand dies- French use that as opportunity to grab Hapsburg territory on their border. French also declare war on Spain (supported a rebellion in Portugal) Not as about Germans- an international war that is happening IN Germany. Cardinal Richelieu pulling strings for Louis XIII- Cardinal is a politique, supporting Protestants b/c it’s good for France to weaken Germany

59 Peace of Westphalia In 1648 no one really “wins” they just can’t go on (no decisive victories) Treaty recognizes Power of sovereign German Princes (effectively destroys power of emperor and unity of HRE) Recognizes Dutch and Swiss independence. France gains Alsace and Lorraine, Sweden gains northern territory. Prussia gains power Recognizes Augsburg agreement- adds Calvinism Pope lost right to “intervene” in HRE Ensured Germany would stay divided for many years- a problem as this is the age where countries are unifying to become powerful. Hapsburgs, once leaders of Europe, are in decline

60 Results of 30 Years War After 30 years, the North is Protestant and South is Catholic. Very little change Germany was WRECKED- looting, plundering etc… in battle and to feed armies. Up to 1/3 population died either from fighting, or starvation/disease b/c of fighting Ends German Reformation and wars of religion (on continent) Beginning of Rise of France as prime continental power Introduced Balance of Power diplomacy

61 England: Puritans vs. Anglicans
Not big part of religious issues on continent. Their civil war (In 1640s) was unique- between 2 groups of protestants (Anglican vs. Puritan, RC pretty dead in England by this point)

62 Who are Puritans? English Calvinists- opposed to the “lavishness” of Anglican church (too close to RC) not “purified” enough. Supported Presbyterianism- have local ministers control church. The most strict were Congregationalists- every individual church should be autonomous Believed themselves the predestined “elect”- chosen by god to lead others

63 Conflicts in Stuart England
Elizabeth I never married, throne went to James I of Scotland James had already been king of Scotland 35 years when he became king of England, experienced- but the English don’t really like him. He doesn’t have Elizabeth’s style, and he is distrusted as a Scot. But the biggest problem is that he believes in Divine Right of Kings- no one should question him Meanwhile, Parliament has been gaining power- and many members are Puritan. (“Gentry”, meaning they didn’t have great noble titles, but rich enough they don’t work) Elizabeth had been a moderate, but James declared he wanted to “harry the Puritans out of the land”. James had $$ troubles- he is extravagant. Levied Impositions: customs duties without the consent of parliament

64 Charles I and the Long Parliament
(James’s Son) Got into several small conflicts at beginning of reign which increased debt. Parliament refuses to pass new taxes unless they get a say in how taxes are spent gave king Petition of Right: protested his spending etc… so Charles dissolved Parliament and did call one again for 11 years Charles saw himself as an absolute monarch used “ship $$” (required all counties to contribute to outfitting ships) to keep afloat. 1637 Charles ordered the Scottish church (Calvinist) to use the Anglican service- they refuse and rebel. Charles HAS to call parliament back for taxes for invasion. Parliament demands that king allow them their rights- he dismisses them again (short parliament 1640) But rebellion grows- called back- same demands, and cut king’s existing revenue (created special tax and paid army to go home) November 1641 present king with Grand Remonstrance: a list of all the things the king needs to change. Charles refuses to sign and declares parliament treasonous and in rebellion- it’s on

65 The English Civil War Supporters of the king are called Cavaliers. Anglican and Noble, Strong in North and West of England Supporters of Parliament are called Roundheads (helmets). Puritan, Gentry/middle class, Strong in South and East As fighting begins it would seem Cavaliers have upper hand (more experience etc…)

66 Oliver Cromwell Staunch Puritan, member of Parliament. Created a “New Model Army” (using protestant work ethic) defeated Cavaliers. Wanted radical change- leader of “levelers” wanted to equalize society politically and socially Military success made him a leader in Parliament instituted “Pride’s Purge”- removed all non puritans from parliament. Only 60 left, known as Rump Parliament.

67 Execution of Charles I Charles invaded from Scotland- defeated and captured in 1649. Brought to trial (shocking! Never been done to a king) found guilty, and executed First time in European history a king had been executed by his own subjects. Royal family had escaped to France- including the heir “Bonnie Prince Charlie”

68 Interregnum From 1649-1660 England has no king.
call themselves a “Commonwealth”. Have abolished Monarchy and House of Lords. (Along with anything that might be called “fun”, dancing, drinking, gambling, prostitution)

69 Protectorate Cromwell begins to run England as “Lord Protector”. Denied religious freedom to Anglicans- but allowed Jews to return to England (had been outlawed since 1290) Invaded and BRUTALLY conquered Ireland (a royalist stronghold) 20% pop killed. Act of Settlement took 2/3 of entire country’s land from Irish nobles/peasants, and gave it to Puritans. Some go to live there- many become absentee landlords. (this is why Irish hate English) Harshness (not a fun guy) alienated the people. When he was dying tried to pass power to his son Richard- but it doesn’t work. Charles II “restored” to the throne of his fathers.

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