The Caste System The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet? WHO IS… Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras
The Vedic Age The foundations for Hinduism were established!
Hinduism Basic Beliefs –Dharma: duties that must be followed to achieve liberation –Karma: sum effect of one’s actions –Moksha: Liberation – release from reincarnation –Samsara: reincarnation (birth, death, rebirth) Sacred texts –Vedas (sacred hymns of knowledge) –Upanishads (philosophocal reflecetions on Vedas)
Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes 7 th c. movement based on Upanishads Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings Ahimsa –Principle of extreme non-violence –Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects –Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)
Yellow River Civilization
Neolithic Pottery 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE
The 4 Old-World River Valley Cultures
Pan-Gu: Mythical Creator of the Universe
Yu, the Great Founder of the Xia
“Huangdi” – Emperor The “Yellow Emperor.” Legend has it that he ruled for over 100 years. Associated with the invention of wheeled vehicles, ships, armor, pottery, and silk-making.
Emperor Fuxi Mythical Xia ruler. Taught the Chinese how to read and write, according to legend.
Oracle Bones Calendar
The Evolution of Chinese Writing during the Shang PictographsSemantic-Phonetics
Western Zhou: BCE
Pendant of a Dancer - jade 3c BCE (Zhou)
Zhou Coins - bronze
“T’ien Ming” The Mandate of Heaven 1.The leader must lead by ability and virtue. 2.The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations. 3.The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.
A new dynasty comes to power. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Emperor is defeated !! The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. Start here
Religions of South Asia
The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.” 2,500 year old tradition. The 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the teachings. Sangha, the community.
Siddhartha Gautama ( BCE) Born Born in NE India (Nepal). Raised Raised in great luxury to be a king. At At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. Lived Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs. Rejecting Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana. Became Became “The Enlightened One,” One,” at 35.
What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! Therefore, Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
Four Noble Truths 1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha) The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
Four Noble Truths 2. The cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)
Four Noble Truths 3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
Four Noble Truths 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path. Right View Right Attitude Right Speech Right Action Right Livlihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration
Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Zen Buddhism
Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. The “Way of the Elders” or the “Small Vehicle.” Found in southern Asia. The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.” Over 100,000,000 followers today.
Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism “for the masses.” Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.
Tibetan Buddhism The “Diamond Vehicle.” [Vajrayana] Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. A mix of Theravada and Mahayana. Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Book of the Dead
Zen Buddhism The “Meditation School.” Seeks sudden enlightenment [satori] through meditation, arriving at emptiness [sunyata]. Use of meditation masters [Roshi]. Beauty, art, and aesthetics: Gardens. Archery. Tea ceremony. Calligraphy.
551 – 479 B.C.E. Born in the feudal state of Liu. Became a teacher and editor of books
Li --> Rite, rules, ritual decorum (Binding force of an enduring stable society) Ren --> humaneness, benevolence, humanity Shu --> Reciprocity, empathy Yi --> Righteousness Xiao --> Filial Piety (Respect your elders!)
1. Ruler Subject 2. Father Son 3. Husband Wife 4. Older Brother Younger Brother 5. Older Friend Younger Friend
1. Status 2. Age 3. Gender
The single most important Confucian work. In Chinese, it means “conversation.” Focus on practicalities of interpersonal relationships and the relationship of the role of rulers and ministers to the conduct of government.
Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, is characteristics of the person who knows. Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.
B.C.E. (Disciple of Confucius.) Starts off with the assumption that “people are basically good.” If someone does something bad, education, not punishment, is the answer. Good people will mend their ways in accordance to their inherent goodness.
The emperor is the example of proper behavior Social relationships are based on “rites” or “rituals.” Even religious rituals are important for SOCIAL, not religious, reasons, acc. to Confucius.
280? B.C.E. Lived during the late Warring States period. Legalism became the political philosophy of the Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty.
1. Human nature is naturally selfish. 2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged. 3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality. 4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand. 5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power.
One who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom. The ruler, therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects!
Not sure when he died. [604 B.C.E.-?] His name means “Old Master” Was he Confucius’ teacher?
The basic text of Daoism. In Chinese = The Classic in the Way and Its Power. “Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words?
1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. 2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature. [“The butterfly or the man?” story.] 3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” --> “The art of doing nothing.” --> “Go with the flow!” 4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature.
1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning. 2. Relying on the senses and instincts. 3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. 4. Ignoring political and social laws. To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps of life, one must escape by:
Feminine Passive Darkness Cold Weak Earth Moon Masculine Active Light Warmth Strong Heaven Sun
How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society. Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order. Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.