13 The Caste System WHO IS… The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet? BrahminsWHO IS…KshatriyasThe mouth?The arms?The legs?The feet?VaishyasShudras
14 The foundations for Hinduism were established! The Vedic AgeThe foundations for Hinduism were established!
15 Hinduism Basic Beliefs Sacred texts Dharma: duties that must be followed to achieve liberationKarma: sum effect of one’s actionsMoksha: Liberation – release from reincarnationSamsara: reincarnation (birth, death, rebirth)Sacred textsVedas (sacred hymns of knowledge)Upanishads (philosophocal reflecetions on Vedas)
16 Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic lifePromotes 7th c. movement based on UpanishadsEmphasis on selfless living, concern for all beingsAhimsaPrinciple of extreme non-violenceJainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insectsAhimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)
36 “T’ien Ming” The Mandate of Heaven The leader must lead by ability and virtue.The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations.The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.
37 Dynastic Cycle Start here A new dynasty comes to power. The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient.Emperor is defeated !!Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged.Dynastic CycleRebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor.Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.)Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords.Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected.Droughts, floods, famines occur.Govt. increases spending; corruption.
40 The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”2,500 year old tradition.The 3 jewels of Buddhism:Buddha, the teacher.Dharma, the teachings.Sangha, the community.
41 Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born in NE India (Nepal).Raised in great luxury to be a king.At 29 he rejected hisluxurious life to seekenlightenment and thesource of suffering.Lived a strict, asceticlife for 6 yrs.Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
42 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
43 Four Noble TruthsThere is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha)The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
44 Four Noble TruthsThe cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)
45 Four Noble TruthsThe solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
46 Four Noble TruthsTo reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.Right LivlihoodRight EffortRight MindfulnessRight ConcentrationRight ViewRight AttitudeRight SpeechRight Action
47 Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
50 Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. The “Way of the Elders” or the “Small Vehicle.”Found in southern Asia.The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana.Focus on wisdom and meditation.Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.”Over 100,000,000 followers today.
51 Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan).Buddhism “for the masses.”Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings.Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.
53 Tibetan Buddhism The “Diamond Vehicle.” [Vajrayana] Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE.A mix of Theravada and Mahayana.Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama.The Tibetan Book of the Dead
54 Zen Buddhism The “Meditation School.” Seeks sudden enlightenment [satori] through meditation, arriving at emptiness [sunyata].Use of meditation masters [Roshi].Beauty, art, and aesthetics:Gardens.Archery.Tea ceremony.Calligraphy.
62 The Analects The single most important Confucian work. In Chinese, it means “conversation.”Focus on practicalities of interpersonal relationships and the relationship of the role of rulers and ministers to the conduct of government.
63 Sayings from The Analects Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, is characteristics of the person who knows.Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake.The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others.To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.
64 372 - 289 B.C.E. (Disciple of Confucius.) MenciusB.C.E. (Disciple of Confucius.)Starts off with the assumption that “people are basically good.”If someone does something bad, education, not punishment, is the answer.Good people will mend their ways in accordance to their inherent goodness.
65 Social Cohesion is Paramount! The emperor is the example of proper behaviorSocial relationships are based on “rites” or “rituals.”Even religious rituals are important for SOCIAL, not religious, reasons, acc. to Confucius.
66 Differences in Cultures INDIACHINA1. Brahmin1. Scholar-Gentry2. Kshatriyas2. PeasantsDifferences in Cultures3. Vaishyas3. Artisans4. Shudras4. MerchantsUntouchablesSoldiersImperial NobilityDomestic Slaves
68 Han Fei 280? - 233 B.C.E. Lived during the late Warring States period. Legalism became the political philosophy of the Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty.
69 Major Legalist Principles 1. Human nature is naturally selfish.2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged.3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality.4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand.5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power.
70 The ruler, therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects! AuthoritarianOne who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom.The ruler, therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects!
72 Lao Zi [Lao-Tzu] Not sure when he died. [604 B.C.E.-?] His name means “Old Master”Was he Confucius’ teacher?
73 The Dao De Jing The basic text of Daoism. In Chinese = The Classic in the Way and Its Power.“Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words?
74 Major Daoist Principles 1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life.2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature. [“The butterfly or the man?” story.]3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” > “The art of doing nothing.” > “Go with the flow!”4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature.
75 The "Dao" [Tao]To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps of life, one must escape by:1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning.2. Relying on the senses and instincts.3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe.4. Ignoring political and social laws.
76 The Universe of Opposites: Find the Balance!YinMasculineActiveLightWarmthStrongHeaven SunFemininePassiveDarknessColdWeakEarth MoonYang
77 The Uniqueness of Daoism How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity??Confucianism --> Moral order in society.Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order.Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.
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