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Early Civilizations Of Ancient India and China.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Civilizations Of Ancient India and China."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Civilizations Of Ancient India and China

2 The Harappan Civilization
3300 BCE BCE

3 Aerial View of Mohenjo-Daro

4 A Male Head, Mohenjo-Daro

5 A Priest-King, Mohenjo-Daro

6 Female Figures, Harappa

7 Undecipherable to date.
Harappan Writing Undecipherable to date.

8 The Vedic Age (1500 BCE BCE)

9 Aryan Migration pastoral  depended on their cattle.
warriors  horse-drawn chariots.

10 Sanskrit writing

11 The Vedas 1200 BCE-600 BCE. written in SANSKRIT.
Hindu core of beliefs: hymns and poems. religious prayers. magical spells. lists of the gods and goddesses. Rig Veda  oldest work.

12 Varna (Social Hierarchy) Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables
Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables

13 The Caste System WHO IS… The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet?
Brahmins WHO IS… Kshatriyas The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet? Vaishyas Shudras

14 The foundations for Hinduism were established!
The Vedic Age The foundations for Hinduism were established!

15 Hinduism Basic Beliefs Sacred texts
Dharma: duties that must be followed to achieve liberation Karma: sum effect of one’s actions Moksha: Liberation – release from reincarnation Samsara: reincarnation (birth, death, rebirth) Sacred texts Vedas (sacred hymns of knowledge) Upanishads (philosophocal reflecetions on Vedas)

16 Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE
Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes 7th c. movement based on Upanishads Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings Ahimsa Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)

17 Ancient China

18 Neolithic China

19 Yellow River Civilization

20 Neolithic Pottery 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE

21 The 4 Old-World River Valley Cultures

22 Pan-Gu: Mythical Creator of the Universe

23 Xia Dynasty BCE

24 Yu, the Great Founder of the Xia

25 “Huangdi” – Emperor The “Yellow Emperor.”
Legend has it that he ruled for over years. Associated with the invention of wheeled vehicles, ships, armor, pottery, and silk-making.

26 Emperor Fuxi Mythical Xia ruler.
Taught the Chinese how to read and write, according to legend.

27 Shang Dynasty BCE

28 Shang: BCE

29 Oracle Bones

30 Oracle Bones Calendar

31 The Evolution of Chinese Writing during the Shang
Pictographs Semantic-Phonetics

32 Zhou Dynasty BCE

33 Western Zhou: BCE

34 Pendant of a Dancer - jade 3c BCE (Zhou)

35 Zhou Coins - bronze

36 “T’ien Ming” The Mandate of Heaven
The leader must lead by ability and virtue. The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations. The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.

37 Dynastic Cycle Start here A new dynasty comes to power.
The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. Emperor is defeated !! Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Dynastic Cycle Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Govt. increases spending; corruption.

38 Buddhism

39 Religions of South Asia

40 The essence of Buddhism
The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.” 2,500 year old tradition. The 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the teachings. Sangha, the community.

41 Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE)
Born in NE India (Nepal). Raised in great luxury to be a king. At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs. Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana. Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.

42 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering?
Desire! Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.

43 Four Noble Truths There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha) The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.

44 Four Noble Truths The cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)

45 Four Noble Truths The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)

46 Four Noble Truths To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path. Right Livlihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration Right View Right Attitude Right Speech Right Action

47 Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality.
Escape from the cycle of rebirth.

48 Buddhist Altar

49 Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism Zen Buddhism

50 Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism.
The “Way of the Elders” or the “Small Vehicle.” Found in southern Asia. The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.” Over 100,000,000 followers today.

51 Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.”
Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism “for the masses.” Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.

52 Boddhisatva

53 Tibetan Buddhism The “Diamond Vehicle.” [Vajrayana]
Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. A mix of Theravada and Mahayana. Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Book of the Dead

54 Zen Buddhism The “Meditation School.”
Seeks sudden enlightenment [satori] through meditation, arriving at emptiness [sunyata]. Use of meditation masters [Roshi]. Beauty, art, and aesthetics: Gardens. Archery. Tea ceremony. Calligraphy.

55 Chinese Philosophies & Ethical Codes

56 Confucianism

57 Confucius 551 – 479 B.C.E. Born in the feudal state of Liu.
Became a teacher and editor of books

58 Major Confucian Principles
Li --> Rite, rules, ritual decorum (Binding force of an enduring stable society) Ren --> humaneness, benevolence, humanity Shu --> Reciprocity, empathy Yi --> Righteousness Xiao --> Filial Piety (Respect your elders!)

59 5 Principle Relationships
1. Ruler Subject 2. Father Son 5 Principle Relationships 3. Husband Wife 4. Older Brother Younger Brother 5. Older Friend Younger Friend

60 Organizing Principles
1. Status 2. Age 3. Gender

61 Confucian Temple Complex

62 The Analects The single most important Confucian work.
In Chinese, it means “conversation.” Focus on practicalities of interpersonal relationships and the relationship of the role of rulers and ministers to the conduct of government.

63 Sayings from The Analects
Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, is characteristics of the person who knows. Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.

64 372 - 289 B.C.E. (Disciple of Confucius.)
Mencius B.C.E. (Disciple of Confucius.) Starts off with the assumption that “people are basically good.” If someone does something bad, education, not punishment, is the answer. Good people will mend their ways in accordance to their inherent goodness.

65 Social Cohesion is Paramount!
The emperor is the example of proper behavior Social relationships are based on “rites” or “rituals.” Even religious rituals are important for SOCIAL, not religious, reasons, acc. to Confucius.

66 Differences in Cultures
INDIA CHINA 1. Brahmin 1. Scholar-Gentry 2. Kshatriyas 2. Peasants Differences in Cultures 3. Vaishyas 3. Artisans 4. Shudras 4. Merchants Untouchables Soldiers Imperial Nobility Domestic Slaves

67 Legalism

68 Han Fei 280? - 233 B.C.E. Lived during the late Warring States period.
Legalism became the political philosophy of the Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty.

69 Major Legalist Principles
1. Human nature is naturally selfish. 2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged. 3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality. 4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand. 5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power.

70 The ruler, therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects!
Authoritarian One who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom. The ruler, therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects!

71 Daoism

72 Lao Zi [Lao-Tzu] Not sure when he died. [604 B.C.E.-?]
His name means “Old Master” Was he Confucius’ teacher?

73 The Dao De Jing The basic text of Daoism.
In Chinese = The Classic in the Way and Its Power. “Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words?

74 Major Daoist Principles
1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. 2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature. [“The butterfly or the man?” story.] 3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” > “The art of doing nothing.” > “Go with the flow!” 4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature.

75 The "Dao" [Tao] To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps of life, one must escape by: 1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning. 2. Relying on the senses and instincts. 3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. 4. Ignoring political and social laws.

76 The Universe of Opposites:
Find the Balance! Yin Masculine Active Light Warmth Strong Heaven Sun Feminine Passive Darkness Cold Weak Earth Moon Yang

77 The Uniqueness of Daoism
How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society. Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order. Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.

78 What's Your Philosophy of Life?

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