5What is Hinduism? One of the oldest religions About 1500 B.C.E.Began in IndiaGave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, SikhismTolerance and diversity"Truth is one, paths are many““There is only one God, but endless are his aspects and endless are his names”“We are not human beings having spiritual experiences; We are spiritual beings having a human experience!”
6What do Hindus believe?Hinduism has no formal theology that defines GodIt is henotheistic (acknowledging many but worshiping only one)Brahman—One impersonal Ultimate RealityManifest as many personal deitiesAtman—The soul, Brahma trapped in matterSamsara—Reincarnation – atman is continually born into this world lifetime after lifetimeKarma—Spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad)Moksha—Ultimate goal of life – to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with BrahmanVedas—Truth: myths, rituals, chants
7Major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma, the creator godVishnu, the preserver godShiva, god of constructive destruction (the transformer)
8What are the spiritual practices of Hinduism? Yoga—seeking union with the divine:Guru—a spiritual teacher, especially helpful for Jnana and Raja yogaBhakti Yoga—worship, seeking union with the divine through loving devotion to manifest deitiesIn the home (household shrines)In the temples (priests officiate)
9How does Hinduism direct life in this world? Respect for all life – vegetarianHuman life as supreme:Four “stations” of life (Caste) - priests & teachers, nobles & warriors, merchant class, servant classFour stages of life – student, householder, retired, wandering philosopherFour duties of life – pleasure, success, social responsibilities, religious responsibilities (moksha)
11The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”The 3 jewels of Buddhism:Buddha, the teacher.Dharma, the teachings.Sangha, the community.
12Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born as prince in NE India (Nepal)At 29 rejected luxurious life to seek enlightenment and source of sufferingLived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrsRejecting this extreme, sat in meditation and found nirvanaBecame “The Enlightened One,” at 35
13What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
14Four Noble TruthsThere is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer.The cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments.The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments.To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
15Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
18Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism.Found in southern Asia.Focus on wisdom and meditation.Goal: is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.”Mahayana BuddhismFounded in northern Asia (China, Japan).Buddhism “for the masses.”Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.
19Types of Buddhism Zen Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Seeks sudden enlightenment through meditation, arriving at emptinessUse of meditation mastersBeauty, art, and aesthetics, such as gardens & calligraphyTibetan BuddhismDeveloped in Tibet in the 7c CE.A mix of Theravada and MahayanaInclude Lamas, like the Dalai Lama
21Hinduism only Buddhism only Both ReincarnationCyclical view of historyBelief in a state of enlightenment (Hindu moksha, Buddhist nirvana)The Middle Way (Eightfold Path)Four Noble TruthsCaste systemAnimal sacrifice
23Confucius 551 – 479 B.C.E. Born in the feudal state of Liu Became a teacher and editor of books
24Major Confucian Principles Li --> Rite, rules, ritual decorum (Binding force of an enduring stable society)Ren --> humaneness, benevolence, humanityShu --> Reciprocity, empathyDo not do unto others what you would not want others to do unto you.Yi --> RighteousnessXiao --> Filial Piety (Respect your elders!)
27The Analects The single most important Confucian work. Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, is characteristics of the person who knows.Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake.The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others.To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.
29Social Cohesion is Paramount! The emperor is the example of proper behavior --> “big daddy”Social relationships are based on “rites” or “rituals”Even religious rituals are important for SOCIAL, not religious reasons
32Han Fei 280? - 233 B.C.E. Late Warring States period Legalism became political philosophy of Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty
33Major Legalist Principles 1. Human nature is naturally selfish.2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged.3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality.4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand.5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power.
34AuthoritarianOne who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom.
36Lao Zi [Lao-Tzu] 604 B.C.E. - ? His name means “Old Master” Was he Confucius’ teacher?
37Major Daoist Principles 1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life.2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature.3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” > “The art of doing nothing.” > “Go with the flow!”4. Man is unhappy because he lives according to man-made laws, customs & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature.
38The "Dao" [Tao]To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps” of life, one must escape by:1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning.2. Relying on the senses and instincts.3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe.4. Ignoring political and social laws.
39The Universe of Opposites: Find the Balance!YinMasculineActiveLightWarmthStrongHeaven; SunFemininePassiveDarknessColdWeakEarth; MoonYang
40The Uniqueness of Daoism How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity??Confucianism --> Moral order in societyLegalism --> Rule by harsh law & orderDaoism --> Freedom for individuals and less government to avoid uniformity and conformity
42Judaism Monotheistic, believing in one true God 5JudaismMonotheistic, believing in one true GodOmniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresentUnity and singularity of God as He is revealed though TorahSh’ma–cornerstone of all Jewish belief.Deuteronomy 6:4 – “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.”Israelites believed they were God’s “chosen people.”They believed that God would lead them to “promised land.”
43Judaism Born in grace, live in grace, and die in grace Sin is not a fact of birth, it is a matter of choiceOlam Ha-Ba: “The World to Come”Messiah will reignJewish temple will be rebuiltNation of Israel will be fully restoredWorld order of justice and compassion.
44Teachings on Law and Morality 5Teachings on Law and MoralityJewish prophets, or spiritual leaders, preached code of ethics, or moral standards of behaviorTorah—laws that addressed all aspects of life, from cleanliness and food preparation to criminal mattersTen Commandments
45Significant Jewish “Holy” Days Shabbat – Sabbath–day of restFriday sundown through Saturday sundownProhibited: work, travel, commerceYom Kippur –"Day of Atonement"Atone for sins of past year – sins between man and GodOn Yom Kippur, judgments of God are entered into “the books” and then sealedRosh Hashanah –New Year, plan better life and begin introspectionPassover –commemorate Israelites’ escape from EgyptPersonal journey from slavery to freedom
47EARLY CHRISTIANITY Roots JudaismTeachings of John the Baptist, Jesus, and apostlesEarliest converts were Jews who did not think they were breaking away from Hebrew LawEarly Christians wished to be considered JewsJewish religion officially recognized by Roman government and its adherents had certain privileges
48BELIEFSBased on belief that Jesus is the Christ/Messiah, the son of GodOne of TrinityGod the Father, Son, Holy SpiritTeachingsIn Gospels12 disciplesDeath at 33By believing in Jesus, his followers will go to Heaven at their deathBible is Word of GodHoly days—Christmas & Easter
49EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Legalism Daoism JudaismChristianity(Islam will be in the next unit)