Presentation on theme: "Early Societies in South Asia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Early Societies in South Asia AP World HistoryEarly Societies in South Asia
2 Harappan society and its neighbors, ca. 2000 B.C.E.
3 Foundations of Harappan Society The Indus RiverSilt-enriched water from mountain rangesMajor society built by Dravidian peoples, BCECultivation of cotton before 5000 BCE, early cultivation of poultryDecline after 1900 BCEMajor cities: Harrapa (Punjab region and Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River)70 smaller sites excavated (total 1,500)
4 Mohenjo-Daro Ruins Population c. 40,000 Regional center Layout, architecture suggests public purposeBroad streets, citadel, pool, sewageStandardized weights evident throughout regionSpecialized laborTrade
5 Harapan Society and Culture Evidence of social stratificationDwelling size, decorationHarappan Civilization: matriarchal?Influence on later Indian cultureGoddesses of fertilityPossible east/west distinctions
6 Mysterious End of Harappan Civilization Reasons for disappearance unclearExcessive deforestation, loss of topsoilEarthquakes?Flooding?Evidence of unburied deadDisappearance by 1500 BCE
7 The Aryan “Invasion” Aryans, lighter-skinned invaders from the north Dravidians, darker-skinned sedentary inhabitants of HarappaColor BiasSocio-Economic ImplicationsDifficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquest
8 The Early Aryans Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle Vegetarianism not widespread until many centuries laterReligious and Literary works: The VedasSanskrit: sacred tonguePrakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, BengaliFour Vedas, most important Rig Veda1,028 hymms to gods
9 The Vedic AgeConflicts between Aryans and indigenous dasas (“enemies,” “subjects”)Aryans fighting DravidiansAlso Aryans fighting each otherChiefdoms: RajasEarly concentration in Punjab, migrations further southDevelopment of iron metallurgyIncreasing reliance on agricultureTribal connections evolve into political structures
10 Varna: The Caste System Origins in Aryan domination of DravidiansBrahmin, PriestKshatriya, WarriorVaishya, MerchantSudra, CommonerHarijan: “Untouchables; Pariahs”Jati subsystem of castesRelated to urbanization, increasing social and economic complexity
14 Aryan Religion Major deity of Rig Veda: Indra, war god Elaborate ritual sacrifices to godsRole of Brahmins importantC. 800 BCE some movement away from sacrificial cultsMystical thought, influenced by Dravidians
15 Teachings of the Upanishads Texts that represent blending of Aryan and Dravidian traditionsComposed BCE, some later collections until 13th century CEBrahman: the Universal SoulSamsara: reincarnationKarma: accounting for incarnationsMoksha: mystical ecstacyRelationship to system of Varna
16 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India
17 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.
18 India Before the Mauryan Dynasty 520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west IndiaIntroduces Persian ruling pattern327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in IndiaTroops mutiny, departs after 2 yearsPolitical power vacuum
19 Kingdom of MagadhaMost significant remaining kingdom after Alexander’s departureCentral Ganges plainEconomic strengthAgricultureTrade in Ganges valley, Bay of BengalDominated surrounding regions in north-eastern India
20 Chandragupta Maurya Took advantage of power vacuum left by Alexander Overthrew Magadha rulersExpanded kingdom to create 1st unified Indian empireMauryan Dynasty
21 Chandragupta’s Government Advisor KautalyaRecorded in Arthashastra, manual of political statecraftForeign policies, economicsDomestic policiesNetwork of spiesLegend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death
22 Ashoka Maurya Grandson of Chandragupta Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r BCEExpanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for southPositive rulership integrated Indian society
23 Decline of the Mauryan Empire Economic crisis follows death of AshokaHigh costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenueFrequent devaluations of currency to pay salariesRegions begin to abandon Mauryan EmpireDisappears by 185 BCE
24 Regional Kingdom: Bactria Northwestern IndiaRuled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaignsIntense cultural activity accompanies active trade
26 The Gupta Dynasty Based in Magadha Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CESlightly smaller than Mauryan EmpireHighly decentralized leadership
27 Gupta Decline Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5th c. CE Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault linesSmaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16th c.
28 Economy: Towns and Manufacturing Manufactured goods in big demandDeveloped in dense network of small workshopsTrade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India
29 Long-Distance Trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian ruleAlexander extends trade west to MacedonTrade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads
30 Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expandsSpring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-westTrade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean
31 Society: Gender Relations Patriarchy entrenchedChild marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s)Women encouraged to remain in private sphere
32 Social Order Caste system from Aryan times Brahmins (priests) Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants)Shudras (serfs)
33 The Vedic Age(1500 – 500 B.C.E.)1. After the demise of the Indus Valley civilization, Indo-European warriors migrated into India. Organized in patriarchal families, herded cattle in the northwest.After 1000 b.c.e., some of them began to push into the Ganges Valley, using new iron tools to fell trees and cultivate the land. The oral tradition of these light-skinned Arya tribes tells of a violent struggle between themselves and the darker-skinned Dravidian-speaking Dasas2. The struggle between Aryas and Dasas led to the system of varna, meaning “color” but equivalent to “class.”People were born into one of four varna: (1) Brahmin (priests/scholars), (2) Kshatriya (warriors), (3) Vaishya (merchants), and (4) Shudra (peasant/laborer).Fifth group, Untouchables, was outside the system and consisted of persons who did demeaning or ritually polluting work such as work that involved contact with the dead bodies of animals or humans.
35 Castes and GuildsIncreasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste systemJatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castesEnforced social order“outcastes” forced into low-status employment
36 Wealth and the Social Order Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, ShudrasWealth challenges varna for status
37 Religions of Salvation in Classical India Social change generated resentment of caste priviligee.g. Brahmins free from taxation6th-5th c. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quoCharvakas: atheistsJainists, Buddhists
38 Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic lifePromotes 7th c. movement based on UpanishadsEmphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings
39 Ahimsa Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insectsAhimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)
40 Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste, jati distinctions Obvious appeal to underprivileged groupsBut asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement
41 Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic lifeAbandoned comfortable life to become a monk
42 Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment Intense meditation, extreme asceticism49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenmentAttained title Buddha: “the enlightened one”
43 The Buddha and his Followers Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCEFollowers owned only robes, food bowlsLife of wandering, begging, meditationEstablishment of monastic communities
45 Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truthsall life is sufferingthere is an end to sufferingremoving desire removes sufferingthis may be done through the eight-fold path(right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration)
47 Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born in NE India (Nepal).Raised in great luxury to be a king.At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs.Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
48 The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”2,500 year old tradition.The 3 jewels of Buddhism:Buddha, the teacher.Dharma, the teachings.Sangha, the community.
49 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
50 Four Noble TruthsThere is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha)The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
51 Four Noble TruthsThe cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
52 Four Noble TruthsTo reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
53 Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
57 Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati statusPhilosophy of moderate consumptionPublic service through lay teachingUse of vernacular, not Sanskrit
59 Ashoka’s Support of Buddhism Personal conversion to BuddhismDisillusioned after violent war with KalingaBanned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in courtMaterial support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities
60 Changes in Buddhist thought 3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CEBuddha considered divineInstitution of Boddhisatvas (“saints”)Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity
61 Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer developmentIndia, China, Japan, Korea, central AsiaHinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier versionCeylon, Burma, Thailand
62 Nalanda Buddhist Monastery Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicinePeak at end of Gupta dynastyHelped spread Indian thoughtE.g. mathematical number zero
63 Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditionsMahabharataRamayanaEmphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations
64 The Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord” Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CEDialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war
65 Hindu Ethics Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha)Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama)Salvation of the soul (moksha)
66 Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in IndiaGupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support
73 Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segmentsTariffs and tolls finance local supervisionTax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage
74 Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routesIndia through central Asia to east AsiaCosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchantsBuddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE
75 The Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE
76 Buddhism in ChinaOriginally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populationsGradual spread to larger population beginning 5th c. CE
77 Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia Sea lanes in Indian Ocean1st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE AsiaRulers called “rajas”Sanskrit used for written communicationBuddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths
78 Christianity in Mediterranean Basin Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3rd c. CEChristianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, EuropeSizeable communities as far east as IndiaJudaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced
79 Christianity in SW Asia Influence of ascetic practices from IndiaDesert-dwelling hermits, monastic societiesAfter 5th c. CE, followed NestoriosEmphasized human nature of Jesus
80 The Spread of Epidemic Disease Role of trade routes in spread of pathogensLimited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clearSmallpox, measles, bubonic plagueEffect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency
81 Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism During the years of disorder following the collapse of the Han Dynasty:Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrinesBuddhism, Daoism gain popularityReligions of salvation
83 India after the Fall of The Gupta Dynasty Invasion of White Huns from Central Asia beginning 451 CEGupta State collapsed mid-6th c.Chaos in northern IndiaLocal power strugglesInvasions of Turkish nomads, absorbed into Indian society
84 King Harsha (r CE)Temporary restoration of unified rule in north IndiaReligiously tolerantBuddhist by faithGenerous support for poorPatron of the artsWrote three playsAssassinated, no successor able to retain control
85 Introduction of Islam to Northern India Arabs conquer Sind (north-west India), 711Heterodox population, but held by Abbasid dynasty to 1258
86 Merchants and Islam Arabic trade with India predates Islam Dominated trade between India and the west to 15th centuryEstablished local communities in IndiaE.g. Cambay
87 Mahmud of Ghazni Raids into India, 1001-1027 Plunders, destroys Hindu and Buddhist templesOften builds mosques atop ruins
88 The Sultanate of Delhi Consolidation of Mahmud’s raiding territory Capital: DelhiRuled northern IndiaWeak administrative structureReliance on cooperation of Hindu kings19 out of 35 Sultans assassinated
89 Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India Chola Kingdom,Maritime powerNot highly centralizedKingdom of VijayanagarNorthern DeccanOriginally supported by Sultanate of DelhiLeaders renounce Islam in 1336Yet maintain relations with Sultantate
90 Agriculture in the Monsoon World Spring/summer: rains, wind from south-westFall/winter: dry season, wind from north-eastSeasonal irrigation crucial to avoid drought, famineEspecially southern IndiaMassive construction of reservoirs, canals, tunnels
91 The trading world of the Indian Ocean basin, 600-1600 C.E.
93 Trade and Economic Development in Southern India Indian regional economies largely self-sufficientCertain products traded throughout subcontinentIron, copper, salt, pepperSouthern India profits from political instability in north
94 Temples and Indian Society More than religious centersCenter of coordination of irrigation, other agricultural workSome Temples had large landholdingsEducation providersBanking services
95 Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Trade increases in post-classical periodLarger shipsDhows, junksImproved organization of agricultural effortsEstablishment of EmporiaCosmopolitan port cities serve as warehouses for tradeSpecialized products developed (cotton, high-carbon steel)
96 The Kingdom of Axum Example of trade-driven development Founded 1st c. CEAdopted ChristianityDisplaces Kush as Egyptian link to the southAxum destroys Kushan capital Meroë c. 360 CEMajor territorial expansion to late 6th c.
98 Challenges to Caste and Society MigrationsGrowth of IslamUrbanizationEconomic developmentDevelopment of Jati (subcastes)Similar to worker’s guildsCaste system expands from north to southPromoted by Temples, educational system
99 Decline of BuddhismBuddhism displaced as Turkish invasions destroy holy sites, temples1196 Muslim forces destroy library of NalandaThousands of monks exiled
100 Development of Hinduism Growth of devotional cultsEsp. Vishnu, ShivaPromise of salvationEspecially popular in southern India, spreads to north
101 Devotional Philosophers Shankara, Brahmin philosopher of 9th c. CEDevotee of ShivaSynthesized Hindu writings in Platonic formPreferred rigorous logical analysis to emotional devotionRamanuja, Brahmin philosopher 11th-early 12th c.Challenges Shankara’s emphasis on intellectLaid philosophical foundations of contemporary Hinduism
102 Conversion to Islam25 million converts by 1500 (1/4 of total population)Possibilities of social advancement for lower-caste HindusRarely achieved: whole castes or jatis convert, social status remains consistent
103 Sufis Personal, emotional, devotional approaches to Islam Important missionaries of Islam to IndiaSome flexibility regarding local customs
104 The Bhakti MovementAttempt to bring Hinduism and Islam closer together12th c. southern Hindu movement, spread to northGuru Kabir ( )Taught that Shiva, Vishnu, Allah all manifestations of one DeityLargely unsuccessful
105 Indian Influence in Southeast Asia Influence dates from 500 BCEEvidence of Indian ideas and traditionsKingshipReligions (Hinduism, Buddhism)LiteratureCaste system not as influential
106 Early States of Southeast Asia FunanLower Mekong River, 1st-6th c. CEKingdom of SrivijayaCentered in Sumatra, CEKingdom of AngkorCambodia, CEMagnificent religious city complexes
107 Later states of Southeast Asia: Angkor, Singosari, and Majapahit, 889-1520 C.E.
108 Islam in Southeast Asia Early populations of Muslim tradersIncreasing popularity with Sufi activityMany convert, retain some Hindu or Buddhist traditions
109 Chinese and European voyages of exploration, 1405-1498.
111 Patterns of Long-Distance Trade Silk roadsSea lanes of Indian Ocean basinTrans-Saharan caravan routesDevelopment of trading cities, emporiaNomadic invasions cause local devastation but expand trade networkE.g. Mongols in China, 13th c.
112 Travel and trade from the twelfth to the fourteenth century.
113 European Exploration in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Motives: profit, missionary activityPortugese early leaders in Atlantic explorationSearch for sea route to Indian Ocean basinPrince Henrique (Henry the Navigator) siezes Strait of Gibraltar, 1415Begins encouragement of major Atlantic voyages
114 Indian Ocean TradeAttempt to avoid using Muslim middlemen in trade with east1488 Bartolomeu Dias sails around Cape of Good HopeVasco de Gama sails this route to India and backPortuguese gunships attempt to maintain trade monopolyBeginnings of European imperialism in Asia
117 The Mughal EmpireZahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger), Chagatai Turk, invades northern India for plunder, 1523Gunpowder technology gives Babur advantageFounds Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynastyExpands through most of Indian subcontinent
118 Akbar (r. 1556-1605) Grandson of Babur Wins fear and respect after throwing Adham Khan, leader of the army, out the window twiceSecond time just to make sure he was deadCreated centralized governmentDestroyed Hindu kingdom of VijayanagarReligiously tolerant, promoted “Divine Faith”Syncretic form of Islam and Hinduism
119 Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707) Expands Mughal empire into southern India Hostile to HinduismDemolished Hindu temples, replaced with mosquesTax on Hindus to encourage conversion
120 Common Elements of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires Empires based on military conquest (“gunpowder empires”)Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the rulerClose relations with Sufism, ghazi traditionSteppe Turkish traditionsIssuance of unilateral decreesIntra-family conflicts over power1595 Sultan massacres 19 brothers (some infants), 15 expectant women (strangulation with silk)
121 Women and Politics Women officially banned from political activity But tradition of revering mothers, 1st wives from Chinggis Khan
122 Agriculture and TradeAmerican crops effect less dramatic change in Muslim empiresCoffee, tobacco importantInitial opposition from conservative circles, fearing lax morality of coffee housesPopulation growth also reflects territorial additions and lossesTrade with English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch VOC
124 Religious Diversity Ottoman Empire: Christians, Jews Safavid Empire: Zoroastrians, Jews, ChristiansMughal Empire: Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Christians, SikhsMughal Akbar most tolerantReceived Jesuits politely, but resented Christian exclusivityEnthusiastic about syncretic Sikhism, self-serving “Divine Faith”
125 Status of Religious Minorities Non-Muslim protected people: dhimmiPayment of special tax: jizyaFreedom of worship, property, legal affairsOttoman communities: millet system of self-administrationMughal rule: Muslims supreme, but work in tandem with HindusUnder Akbar, jizya abolishedReaction under Aurangzeb
126 Capital Cities Akbar builds magnificent Fatehpur Sikri Chooses site without sufficient water supply, abandonedTaj Mahal example of Mughal architecture
129 The idea of Imperialism Term dates from mid-19th centuryIn popular discourse by 1880sMilitary imperialismLater, economic and cultural varietiesUS imperialism
130 Motivation for Imperialism MilitaryPoliticalEconomicEuropean capitalismReligiousDemographiccriminal populationsDissident populations
131 Manifest Destiny Discovery of natural resources Exploitation of cheap laborExpansion of marketslimited
132 The “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling ( )Raised in India, native Hindi speakerBoarding school in England, then return to India (1882)French: mission civilisatriceTake up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go, bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait, in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught sullen peoples,Half devil and half child.In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plain,To seek another's profitAnd work another's gain.The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of Famine,And bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearest(The end for others sought)Watch sloth and heathen follyBring all your hope to nought.No iron rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeper--The tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go, make them with your livingAnd mark them with your dead.Take up the White Man's burden,And reap his old reward--The blame of those ye betterThe hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--"Why brought ye us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"Ye dare not stoop to less--Nor call too loud on FreedomTo cloak your weariness.By all ye will or whisper,By all ye leave or do,The silent sullen peoplesShall weigh your God and you.Take up the White Man's burden!Have done with childish days--The lightly-proffered laurel,The easy ungrudged praise:Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless years,Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers.
134 Domestic Political Considerations Crises of industrialismPressure from nascent SocialismImperial policies distract proletariat from domestic politicsCecil Rhodes: imperialism alternative to civil war
142 Sepoy Revolt, 1857 Enfield rifles Cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fatProblem for Hindus: beefProblem for Muslims: porkSepoys capture garrison60 soldiers, 180 civilian males massacred (after surrender)Two weeks later, 375 women and children murderedBritish retake fort, hang rebels
143 Britain establishes direct rule Pre-empts East India CompanyEstablished civil service staffed by EnglishLow-level Indian civil servants
144 British Rule in India Organization of agriculture Crops: tea, coffee, opiumStamp of British culture on Indian environmentVeneer on poor Muslim-Hindu relations
145 Imperialism in Central Asia British, French, Russians complete for central AsiaFrance drops out after NapoleonRussia active after 1860s in Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand, and approached IndiaThe “Great Game”: Russian vs. British intrigue in AfghanistanPreparation for imperialist warRussian Revolution of 1917 forestalled war
146 Imperialism in Southeast Asia Spanish: PhilippinesDutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies)British establish presence from 1820sConflict with kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established colonial authority by 1880sThomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of MelakaBase of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s-1880sFrench: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos,Encouraged conversion to Christianity
147 Nationalism and Anticolonial Movements Ram Mohan Roy ( ), Bengali called “father of modern India”Reformers call for self-government, adoption of selected British practices (e.g. ban on sati)Influence of Enlightenment thought, often obtained in European universitiesIndian National Congress formed 18851906 joins with All-India Muslim League
149 India’s Quest for Home Rule Indian National Congress founded 1885, to promote self-ruleInitial support from both Hindus and MuslimsOriginal position in favor or collaboration with British, after World War I moved to oppositionBritish encouraged development of Muslim League (1906) to blunt CongressWoodrow Wilson, Lenin inspirations to movement
150 Mohandas K. Gandhi ( )Hindu, studied law in London, practiced in South AfricaOpposed apartheidReturned to India 1915, made Indian National Congress into a mass movementTitled Mahatma: “great soul”Opposed caste system
152 Ghandi’s Passive Resistance Ahimsa: non-violenceSatyagraha: passive resistance (“truth and firmness”)Non-cooperation Movement ( )Civil Disobedience Movement (1930)Boycott of British InstitutionsArmritsar Massacre (1919)
153 The Government of India Act (1937) Creation of autonomous legislature600 nominally sovereign princes refuse to cooperateMuslim fears of Hindu dominanceTraditional economic divideEspecially severe with Great DepressionMuhammad Ali Jinnah ( ) proposes partition, creation of the State of Pakistan
156 India The Jewel of the Crown Deep division between Hindus, Muslims Legacy of British colonialismDeep division between Hindus, MuslimsRole of Mohandas Ghandi
157 “Vivisection” of India (Ghandi) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim LeagueJawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party1947 partition500,000 killed10 million refugeesIndia moves toward nonalignment positionThe “third path”
159 Indian DemocracyIndian democracy flourishes under Indira Ghandi ( )Daughter of Nehru, no relationship to Mohandas“Green Revolution” increases agricultural yieldsRepressive policies to slow population growth, including forced sterilizationAssassinated by Sikh bodyguards after attack on Sikh extremists in Amritsar, 1984