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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. AP World History Early Societies in South Asia 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. AP World History Early Societies in South Asia 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. AP World History Early Societies in South Asia 1

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Harappan society and its neighbors, ca. 2000 B.C.E. 2

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Foundations of Harappan Society The Indus River – Silt-enriched water from mountain ranges Major society built by Dravidian peoples, 3000-2500 BCE – Cultivation of cotton before 5000 BCE, early cultivation of poultry – Decline after 1900 BCE Major cities: Harrapa (Punjab region and Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River) – 70 smaller sites excavated (total 1,500) 3

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Mohenjo-Daro Ruins Population c. 40,000 Regional center – Layout, architecture suggests public purpose – Broad streets, citadel, pool, sewage Standardized weights evident throughout region Specialized labor Trade 4

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Harapan Society and Culture Evidence of social stratification – Dwelling size, decoration Harappan Civilization: matriarchal? – Influence on later Indian culture Goddesses of fertility Possible east/west distinctions 5

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Mysterious End of Harappan Civilization Reasons for disappearance unclear – Excessive deforestation, loss of topsoil – Earthquakes? – Flooding? Evidence of unburied dead Disappearance by 1500 BCE 6

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Aryan “Invasion” Aryans, lighter-skinned invaders from the north Dravidians, darker-skinned sedentary inhabitants of Harappa Color Bias Socio-Economic Implications Difficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquest 7

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Early Aryans Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle – Vegetarianism not widespread until many centuries later Religious and Literary works: The Vedas – Sanskrit: sacred tongue – Prakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, Bengali – Four Vedas, most important Rig Veda 1,028 hymms to gods 8

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Vedic Age Conflicts between Aryans and indigenous dasas (“enemies,” “subjects”) – Aryans fighting Dravidians – Also Aryans fighting each other Chiefdoms: Rajas Early concentration in Punjab, migrations further south – Development of iron metallurgy – Increasing reliance on agriculture Tribal connections evolve into political structures 9

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Varna: The Caste System Origins in Aryan domination of Dravidians – Brahmin, Priest – Kshatriya, Warrior – Vaishya, Merchant – Sudra, Commoner – Harijan: “Untouchables; Pariahs” Jati subsystem of castes – Related to urbanization, increasing social and economic complexity 10

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Brahmins from Bengal 11

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Patriarchy in Ancient Indian Society “rule of the father” Enforced in the The Lawbook of Manu Overwhelmed Harappan matriarchy? Caste, Jati, inheritance through male line 12

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Sati (“Suttee”) 13

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Aryan Religion Major deity of Rig Veda: Indra, war god Elaborate ritual sacrifices to gods – Role of Brahmins important C. 800 BCE some movement away from sacrificial cults – Mystical thought, influenced by Dravidians 14

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Teachings of the Upanishads Texts that represent blending of Aryan and Dravidian traditions Composed 800-400 BCE, some later collections until 13 th century CE Brahman: the Universal Soul Samsara: reincarnation Karma: accounting for incarnations Moksha: mystical ecstacy Relationship to system of Varna 15

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 16

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. 17

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. India Before the Mauryan Dynasty 520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west India Introduces Persian ruling pattern 327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in India Troops mutiny, departs after 2 years – Political power vacuum 18

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Kingdom of Magadha Most significant remaining kingdom after Alexander’s departure Central Ganges plain Economic strength – Agriculture – Trade in Ganges valley, Bay of Bengal Dominated surrounding regions in north- eastern India 19

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chandragupta Maurya Took advantage of power vacuum left by Alexander Overthrew Magadha rulers Expanded kingdom to create 1 st unified Indian empire – Mauryan Dynasty 20

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chandragupta’s Government Advisor Kautalya Recorded in Arthashastra, manual of political statecraft Foreign policies, economics Domestic policies – Network of spies Legend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death 21

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Ashoka Maurya Grandson of Chandragupta Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r. 268- 232 BCE Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for south Positive rulership integrated Indian society 22

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Decline of the Mauryan Empire Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenue Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries Regions begin to abandon Mauryan Empire – Disappears by 185 BCE 23

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Regional Kingdom: Bactria Northwestern India Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns Intense cultural activity accompanies active trade 24

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Regional Kingdom: Kush Northern India/Central Asia C. 1-300 CE Maintained silk road network 25

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Gupta Dynasty Based in Magadha Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CE Slightly smaller than Mauryan Empire Highly decentralized leadership 26

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Gupta Decline Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5 th c. CE Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault lines Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16 th c. 27

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Economy: Towns and Manufacturing Manufactured goods in big demand Developed in dense network of small workshops Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India 28

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Long-Distance Trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian rule Alexander extends trade west to Macedon Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads 29

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expands – Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean 30

31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Society: Gender Relations Patriarchy entrenched Child marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s) Women encouraged to remain in private sphere 31

32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Social Order Caste system from Aryan times – Brahmins (priests) – Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats) – Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants) – Shudras (serfs) 32

33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Vedic Age (1500 – 500 B.C.E.) 1.After the demise of the Indus Valley civilization, Indo-European warriors migrated into India. Organized in patriarchal families, herded cattle in the northwest. After 1000 b.c.e., some of them began to push into the Ganges Valley, using new iron tools to fell trees and cultivate the land. The oral tradition of these light-skinned Arya tribes tells of a violent struggle between themselves and the darker-skinned Dravidian-speaking Dasas 2.The struggle between Aryas and Dasas led to the system of varna, meaning “color” but equivalent to “class.” People were born into one of four varna: (1) Brahmin (priests/scholars), (2) Kshatriya (warriors), (3) Vaishya (merchants), and (4) Shudra (peasant/laborer). Fifth group, Untouchables, was outside the system and consisted of persons who did demeaning or ritually polluting work such as work that involved contact with the dead bodies of animals or humans.

34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Varna (Social Hierarchy) Shudras Vaishyas Kshatriyas Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables Brahmins karma

35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Castes and Guilds Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes Enforced social order – “outcastes” forced into low-status employment 35

36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Wealth and the Social Order Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras Wealth challenges varna for status 36

37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Religions of Salvation in Classical India Social change generated resentment of caste privilige – e.g. Brahmins free from taxation 6 th -5 th c. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo Charvakas: atheists Jainists, Buddhists 37

38 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes 7 th c. movement based on Upanishads Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings 38

39 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Ahimsa Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.) 39

40 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste, jati distinctions Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups But asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement 40

41 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk 41

42 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment Intense meditation, extreme asceticism 49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title Buddha: “the enlightened one” 42

43 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Buddha and his Followers Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCE Followers owned only robes, food bowls Life of wandering, begging, meditation Establishment of monastic communities 43

44 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Buddha and his Disciples 44

45 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truths – all life is suffering – there is an end to suffering – removing desire removes suffering – this may be done through the eight-fold path – (right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration) 45

46 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

47 Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE)  Born  Born in NE India (Nepal).  Raised  Raised in great luxury to be a king.  At  At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.  Lived  Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs.  Rejecting  Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.  Became  Became “The Enlightened One,” One,” at 35.

48 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The essence of Buddhism  The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”  2,500 year old tradition.  The 3 jewels of Buddhism:  Buddha, the teacher.  Dharma, the teachings.  Sangha, the community.

49 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!  Therefore,  Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.

50 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Four Noble Truths 1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha)  The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.

51 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Four Noble Truths 2. The cause of suffering is self- centered desire and attachments. (Tanha) 3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)

52 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Four Noble Truths 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.

53 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Eightfold Path Nirvana  The union with the ultimate spiritual reality.  Escape from the cycle of rebirth.

54 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Religions of South Asia

55 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Buddhism in the Subcontinent

56 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Theravada Buddhism

57 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit 57

58 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. A Buddhist Monastery 58

59 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Ashoka’s Support of Buddhism Personal conversion to Buddhism Disillusioned after violent war with Kalinga Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities 59

60 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Changes in Buddhist thought 3 rd c. BCE – 1 st c. CE – Buddha considered divine – Institution of Boddhisatvas (“saints”) – Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity 60

61 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer development – India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier version – Ceylon, Burma, Thailand 61

62 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Nalanda Buddhist Monastery Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine Peak at end of Gupta dynasty Helped spread Indian thought – E.g. mathematical number zero 62

63 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions – Mahabharata – Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations 63

64 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord” Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war 64

65 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Hindu Ethics Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha) Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama) Salvation of the soul (moksha) 65

66 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in India Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support 66

67 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

68 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World Lack of police enforcement outsied of established settlements Changed in classical period – Improvement of infrastructure – Development of empires

69 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Trade Networks Develop Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of Monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes

70 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Trade in the Hellenistic World Bactria/India – Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls Persia, Egypt – Grain Mediterranean – Wine, oil, jewelry, art Development of professional merchant class

71 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire Sea Lanes and Maritime trade as well

72 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Silk Roads, 200 BCE-300 CE

73 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage

74 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE

75 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE

76 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Buddhism in China Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5 th c. CE

77 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia Sea lanes in Indian Ocean 1 st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia – Rulers called “rajas” – Sanskrit used for written communication – Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths

78 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Christianity in Mediterranean Basin Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3 rd c. CE Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, Europe Sizeable communities as far east as India Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced

79 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Christianity in SW Asia Influence of ascetic practices from India Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies After 5 th c. CE, followed Nestorios – Emphasized human nature of Jesus

80 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Spread of Epidemic Disease Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self- sufficiency

81 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism During the years of disorder following the collapse of the Han Dynasty: Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation

82 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. India and The Ocean Basin 82

83 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. India after the Fall of The Gupta Dynasty Invasion of White Huns from Central Asia beginning 451 CE Gupta State collapsed mid-6 th c. Chaos in northern India – Local power struggles – Invasions of Turkish nomads, absorbed into Indian society 83

84 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. King Harsha (r. 606-648 CE) Temporary restoration of unified rule in north India Religiously tolerant – Buddhist by faith Generous support for poor Patron of the arts – Wrote three plays Assassinated, no successor able to retain control 84

85 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Introduction of Islam to Northern India Arabs conquer Sind (north-west India), 711 Heterodox population, but held by Abbasid dynasty to 1258 85

86 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Merchants and Islam Arabic trade with India predates Islam Dominated trade between India and the west to 15 th century Established local communities in India – E.g. Cambay 86

87 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Mahmud of Ghazni Raids into India, 1001-1027 Plunders, destroys Hindu and Buddhist temples – Often builds mosques atop ruins 87

88 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Sultanate of Delhi Consolidation of Mahmud’s raiding territory Capital: Delhi Ruled northern India 1206-1526 Weak administrative structure – Reliance on cooperation of Hindu kings 19 out of 35 Sultans assassinated 88

89 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India Chola Kingdom, 850- 1267 – Maritime power – Not highly centralized Kingdom of Vijayanagar – Northern Deccan – Originally supported by Sultanate of Delhi – Leaders renounce Islam in 1336 – Yet maintain relations with Sultantate 89

90 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Agriculture in the Monsoon World Spring/summer: rains, wind from south-west Fall/winter: dry season, wind from north-east Seasonal irrigation crucial to avoid drought, famine – Especially southern India Massive construction of reservoirs, canals, tunnels 90

91 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The trading world of the Indian Ocean basin, 600-1600 C.E. 91

92 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Population Growth in India 92

93 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Trade and Economic Development in Southern India Indian regional economies largely self- sufficient Certain products traded throughout subcontinent – Iron, copper, salt, pepper Southern India profits from political instability in north 93

94 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Temples and Indian Society More than religious centers Center of coordination of irrigation, other agricultural work – Some Temples had large landholdings Education providers Banking services 94

95 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Trade increases in post-classical period Larger ships – Dhows, junks Improved organization of agricultural efforts Establishment of Emporia – Cosmopolitan port cities serve as warehouses for trade Specialized products developed (cotton, high-carbon steel) 95

96 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Kingdom of Axum Example of trade-driven development Founded 1 st c. CE – Adopted Christianity Displaces Kush as Egyptian link to the south – Axum destroys Kushan capital Meroë c. 360 CE – Major territorial expansion to late 6 th c. 96

97 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Obelisk at Axum 97

98 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Challenges to Caste and Society Migrations Growth of Islam Urbanization Economic development – Development of Jati (subcastes) – Similar to worker’s guilds Caste system expands from north to south Promoted by Temples, educational system 98

99 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Decline of Buddhism Buddhism displaced as Turkish invasions destroy holy sites, temples 1196 Muslim forces destroy library of Nalanda – Thousands of monks exiled 99

100 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Development of Hinduism Growth of devotional cults – Esp. Vishnu, Shiva Promise of salvation Especially popular in southern India, spreads to north 100

101 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Devotional Philosophers Shankara, Brahmin philosopher of 9 th c. CE – Devotee of Shiva – Synthesized Hindu writings in Platonic form – Preferred rigorous logical analysis to emotional devotion Ramanuja, Brahmin philosopher 11 th -early 12 th c. – Challenges Shankara’s emphasis on intellect – Laid philosophical foundations of contemporary Hinduism 101

102 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Conversion to Islam 25 million converts by 1500 (1/4 of total population) Possibilities of social advancement for lower- caste Hindus – Rarely achieved: whole castes or jatis convert, social status remains consistent 102

103 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Sufis Personal, emotional, devotional approaches to Islam Important missionaries of Islam to India Some flexibility regarding local customs 103

104 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Bhakti Movement Attempt to bring Hinduism and Islam closer together 12 th c. southern Hindu movement, spread to north Guru Kabir (1440-1518) – Taught that Shiva, Vishnu, Allah all manifestations of one Deity – Largely unsuccessful 104

105 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Indian Influence in Southeast Asia Influence dates from 500 BCE Evidence of Indian ideas and traditions – Kingship – Religions (Hinduism, Buddhism) – Literature Caste system not as influential 105

106 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early States of Southeast Asia Funan – Lower Mekong River, 1 st - 6 th c. CE Kingdom of Srivijaya – Centered in Sumatra, 670- 1025 CE Kingdom of Angkor – Cambodia, 889-1431 CE – Magnificent religious city complexes 106

107 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Later states of Southeast Asia: Angkor, Singosari, and Majapahit, 889-1520 C.E. 107

108 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Islam in Southeast Asia Early populations of Muslim traders Increasing popularity with Sufi activity Many convert, retain some Hindu or Buddhist traditions 108

109 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chinese and European voyages of exploration, 1405-1498. 109

110 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Reaching Out: Cross-Cultural Interactions 110

111 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Patterns of Long-Distance Trade Silk roads Sea lanes of Indian Ocean basin Trans-Saharan caravan routes Development of trading cities, emporia Nomadic invasions cause local devastation but expand trade network – E.g. Mongols in China, 13 th c. 111

112 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Travel and trade from the twelfth to the fourteenth century. 112

113 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. European Exploration in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Motives: profit, missionary activity Portugese early leaders in Atlantic exploration Search for sea route to Indian Ocean basin Prince Henrique (Henry the Navigator) siezes Strait of Gibraltar, 1415 Begins encouragement of major Atlantic voyages 113

114 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Indian Ocean Trade Attempt to avoid using Muslim middlemen in trade with east 1488 Bartolomeu Dias sails around Cape of Good Hope – 1497-1499 Vasco de Gama sails this route to India and back Portuguese gunships attempt to maintain trade monopoly Beginnings of European imperialism in Asia 114

115 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Islamic Empires 115

116 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Islamic empires, 1500-1800 116

117 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Mughal Empire Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger), Chagatai Turk, invades northern India for plunder, 1523 Gunpowder technology gives Babur advantage Founds Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynasty Expands through most of Indian subcontinent 117

118 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Akbar (r. 1556-1605) Grandson of Babur Wins fear and respect after throwing Adham Khan, leader of the army, out the window twice – Second time just to make sure he was dead Created centralized government Destroyed Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar Religiously tolerant, promoted “Divine Faith” – Syncretic form of Islam and Hinduism 118

119 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707) Expands Mughal empire into southern India Hostile to Hinduism – Demolished Hindu temples, replaced with mosques – Tax on Hindus to encourage conversion 119

120 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Common Elements of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires Empires based on military conquest (“gunpowder empires”) Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the ruler – Close relations with Sufism, ghazi tradition Steppe Turkish traditions – Issuance of unilateral decrees – Intra-family conflicts over power 1595 Sultan massacres 19 brothers (some infants), 15 expectant women (strangulation with silk) 120

121 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Women and Politics Women officially banned from political activity But tradition of revering mothers, 1 st wives from Chinggis Khan 121

122 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Agriculture and Trade American crops effect less dramatic change in Muslim empires – Coffee, tobacco important – Initial opposition from conservative circles, fearing lax morality of coffee houses Population growth also reflects territorial additions and losses Trade with English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch VOC 122

123 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Population Growth 123

124 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Religious Diversity Ottoman Empire: Christians, Jews Safavid Empire: Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians Mughal Empire: Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Christians, Sikhs Mughal Akbar most tolerant – Received Jesuits politely, but resented Christian exclusivity – Enthusiastic about syncretic Sikhism, self-serving “Divine Faith” 124

125 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Status of Religious Minorities Non-Muslim protected people: dhimmi – Payment of special tax: jizya – Freedom of worship, property, legal affairs Ottoman communities: millet system of self- administration Mughal rule: Muslims supreme, but work in tandem with Hindus – Under Akbar, jizya abolished – Reaction under Aurangzeb 125

126 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Capital Cities Akbar builds magnificent Fatehpur Sikri – Chooses site without sufficient water supply, abandoned – Taj Mahal example of Mughal architecture 126

127 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Building of Global Empires 127

128 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Imperialism in Asia, ca. 1914 128

129 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The idea of Imperialism Term dates from mid-19 th century In popular discourse by 1880s Military imperialism – Later, economic and cultural varieties – US imperialism 129

130 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Motivation for Imperialism Military Political Economic – European capitalism Religious Demographic – criminal populations – Dissident populations 130

131 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Manifest Destiny Discovery of natural resources Exploitation of cheap labor Expansion of markets – limited 131

132 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling (1864-1936) – Raised in India, native Hindi speaker – Boarding school in England, then return to India (1882) French: mission civilisatrice 132

133 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Geopolitical considerations Strategic footholds – Waterways – Supply stations – Imperial rivalries 133

134 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Domestic Political Considerations Crises of industrialism Pressure from nascent Socialism Imperial policies distract proletariat from domestic politics – Cecil Rhodes: imperialism alternative to civil war 134

135 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Technology and Imperialism Transportation – Steamships – Railroads Infrastructure – Suez Canal (1859-1869) – Panama Canal (1904-1914) 135

136 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Weaponry muzzle-loading muskets Mid-century: breech-loading rifles – Reduce reloading time 1880s: Maxim gun, 11 rounds per second 136

137 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Communications Correspondence – 1830 Britain-India: 2 years – After Suez Canal, 2 weeks Telegraph – 1870s, development of submarine cables – Britain-India: 5 hours 137

138 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Jewel of the British Crown: India East India Company Monopoly on India trade Original permission from Mughal emperors Mughal empire declines after death of Aurangzeb, 1707 138

139 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Home of a Wealthy Family in Calcutta 139

140 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. British Conquest Protection of economic interests through political conquest British and Indian troops (sepoys) 140

141 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. British Colonial Soldiers 141

142 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Sepoy Revolt, 1857 Enfield rifles Cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fat – Problem for Hindus: beef – Problem for Muslims: pork Sepoys capture garrison – 60 soldiers, 180 civilian males massacred (after surrender) Two weeks later, 375 women and children murdered British retake fort, hang rebels 142

143 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Britain establishes direct rule Pre-empts East India Company Established civil service staffed by English Low-level Indian civil servants 143

144 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. British Rule in India Organization of agriculture – Crops: tea, coffee, opium Stamp of British culture on Indian environment Veneer on poor Muslim-Hindu relations 144

145 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Imperialism in Central Asia British, French, Russians complete for central Asia – France drops out after Napoleon – Russia active after 1860s in Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand, and approached India The “Great Game”: Russian vs. British intrigue in Afghanistan – Preparation for imperialist war – Russian Revolution of 1917 forestalled war 145

146 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Imperialism in Southeast Asia Spanish: Philippines Dutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) British establish presence from 1820s – Conflict with kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established colonial authority by 1880s – Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of Melaka Base of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s-1880s French: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, 1859-1893 – Encouraged conversion to Christianity 146

147 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Nationalism and Anticolonial Movements Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1883), Bengali called “father of modern India” Reformers call for self-government, adoption of selected British practices (e.g. ban on sati) – Influence of Enlightenment thought, often obtained in European universities Indian National Congress formed 1885 – 1906 joins with All-India Muslim League 147

148 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Nationalism and Political Identities 148

149 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. India’s Quest for Home Rule Indian National Congress founded 1885, to promote self-rule Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims Original position in favor or collaboration with British, after World War I moved to opposition British encouraged development of Muslim League (1906) to blunt Congress Woodrow Wilson, Lenin inspirations to movement 149

150 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) Hindu, studied law in London, practiced in South Africa – Opposed apartheid Returned to India 1915, made Indian National Congress into a mass movement Titled Mahatma: “great soul” Opposed caste system 150

151 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Ghandi 151

152 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Ghandi’s Passive Resistance Ahimsa: non-violence Satyagraha: passive resistance (“truth and firmness”) Non-cooperation Movement (1920-1922) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) Boycott of British Institutions Armritsar Massacre (1919) 152

153 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Government of India Act (1937) Creation of autonomous legislature – 600 nominally sovereign princes refuse to cooperate Muslim fears of Hindu dominance – Traditional economic divide – Especially severe with Great Depression Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) proposes partition, creation of the State of Pakistan 153

154 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The End of Empire 154

155 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Decolonization in Asia 155

156 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. India The Jewel of the Crown – Legacy of British colonialism Deep division between Hindus, Muslims Role of Mohandas Ghandi 156

157 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. “Vivisection” of India (Ghandi) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim League Jawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party 1947 partition – 500,000 killed – 10 million refugees India moves toward nonalignment position – The “third path” 157

158 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Muslims leave India, 1947 158

159 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Indian Democracy Indian democracy flourishes under Indira Ghandi (1917-1984) – Daughter of Nehru, no relationship to Mohandas – “Green Revolution” increases agricultural yields – Repressive policies to slow population growth, including forced sterilization Assassinated by Sikh bodyguards after attack on Sikh extremists in Amritsar, 1984 159


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