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Early Societies in South Asia

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1 Early Societies in South Asia
AP World History Early Societies in South Asia

2 Harappan society and its neighbors, ca. 2000 B.C.E.

3 Foundations of Harappan Society
The Indus River Silt-enriched water from mountain ranges Major society built by Dravidian peoples, BCE Cultivation of cotton before 5000 BCE, early cultivation of poultry Decline after 1900 BCE Major cities: Harrapa (Punjab region and Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River) 70 smaller sites excavated (total 1,500)

4 Mohenjo-Daro Ruins Population c. 40,000 Regional center
Layout, architecture suggests public purpose Broad streets, citadel, pool, sewage Standardized weights evident throughout region Specialized labor Trade

5 Harapan Society and Culture
Evidence of social stratification Dwelling size, decoration Harappan Civilization: matriarchal? Influence on later Indian culture Goddesses of fertility Possible east/west distinctions

6 Mysterious End of Harappan Civilization
Reasons for disappearance unclear Excessive deforestation, loss of topsoil Earthquakes? Flooding? Evidence of unburied dead Disappearance by 1500 BCE

7 The Aryan “Invasion” Aryans, lighter-skinned invaders from the north
Dravidians, darker-skinned sedentary inhabitants of Harappa Color Bias Socio-Economic Implications Difficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquest

8 The Early Aryans Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle
Vegetarianism not widespread until many centuries later Religious and Literary works: The Vedas Sanskrit: sacred tongue Prakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, Bengali Four Vedas, most important Rig Veda 1,028 hymms to gods

9 The Vedic Age Conflicts between Aryans and indigenous dasas (“enemies,” “subjects”) Aryans fighting Dravidians Also Aryans fighting each other Chiefdoms: Rajas Early concentration in Punjab, migrations further south Development of iron metallurgy Increasing reliance on agriculture Tribal connections evolve into political structures

10 Varna: The Caste System
Origins in Aryan domination of Dravidians Brahmin, Priest Kshatriya, Warrior Vaishya, Merchant Sudra, Commoner Harijan: “Untouchables; Pariahs” Jati subsystem of castes Related to urbanization, increasing social and economic complexity

11 Brahmins from Bengal

12 Patriarchy in Ancient Indian Society
“rule of the father” Enforced in the The Lawbook of Manu Overwhelmed Harappan matriarchy? Caste, Jati, inheritance through male line

13 Sati (“Suttee”)

14 Aryan Religion Major deity of Rig Veda: Indra, war god
Elaborate ritual sacrifices to gods Role of Brahmins important C. 800 BCE some movement away from sacrificial cults Mystical thought, influenced by Dravidians

15 Teachings of the Upanishads
Texts that represent blending of Aryan and Dravidian traditions Composed BCE, some later collections until 13th century CE Brahman: the Universal Soul Samsara: reincarnation Karma: accounting for incarnations Moksha: mystical ecstacy Relationship to system of Varna

16 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India

17 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.

18 India Before the Mauryan Dynasty
520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west India Introduces Persian ruling pattern 327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in India Troops mutiny, departs after 2 years Political power vacuum

19 Kingdom of Magadha Most significant remaining kingdom after Alexander’s departure Central Ganges plain Economic strength Agriculture Trade in Ganges valley, Bay of Bengal Dominated surrounding regions in north-eastern India

20 Chandragupta Maurya Took advantage of power vacuum left by Alexander
Overthrew Magadha rulers Expanded kingdom to create 1st unified Indian empire Mauryan Dynasty

21 Chandragupta’s Government
Advisor Kautalya Recorded in Arthashastra, manual of political statecraft Foreign policies, economics Domestic policies Network of spies Legend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death

22 Ashoka Maurya Grandson of Chandragupta
Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r BCE Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for south Positive rulership integrated Indian society

23 Decline of the Mauryan Empire
Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenue Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries Regions begin to abandon Mauryan Empire Disappears by 185 BCE

24 Regional Kingdom: Bactria
Northwestern India Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns Intense cultural activity accompanies active trade

25 Regional Kingdom: Kush
Northern India/Central Asia C CE Maintained silk road network

26 The Gupta Dynasty Based in Magadha
Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CE Slightly smaller than Mauryan Empire Highly decentralized leadership

27 Gupta Decline Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5th c. CE
Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault lines Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16th c.

28 Economy: Towns and Manufacturing
Manufactured goods in big demand Developed in dense network of small workshops Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India

29 Long-Distance Trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius
Massive road-building projects under Persian rule Alexander extends trade west to Macedon Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads

30 Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin
Seasonal sea trade expands Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean

31 Society: Gender Relations
Patriarchy entrenched Child marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s) Women encouraged to remain in private sphere

32 Social Order Caste system from Aryan times Brahmins (priests)
Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats) Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants) Shudras (serfs)

33 The Vedic Age (1500 – 500 B.C.E.) 1. After the demise of the Indus Valley civilization, Indo-European warriors migrated into India. Organized in patriarchal families, herded cattle in the northwest. After 1000 b.c.e., some of them began to push into the Ganges Valley, using new iron tools to fell trees and cultivate the land. The oral tradition of these light-skinned Arya tribes tells of a violent struggle between themselves and the darker-skinned Dravidian-speaking Dasas 2. The struggle between Aryas and Dasas led to the system of varna, meaning “color” but equivalent to “class.” People were born into one of four varna: (1) Brahmin (priests/scholars), (2) Kshatriya (warriors), (3) Vaishya (merchants), and (4) Shudra (peasant/laborer). Fifth group, Untouchables, was outside the system and consisted of persons who did demeaning or ritually polluting work such as work that involved contact with the dead bodies of animals or humans.

34 Varna (Social Hierarchy) Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables
Brahmins karma Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables

35 Castes and Guilds Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes Enforced social order “outcastes” forced into low-status employment

36 Wealth and the Social Order
Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras Wealth challenges varna for status

37 Religions of Salvation in Classical India
Social change generated resentment of caste privilige e.g. Brahmins free from taxation 6th-5th c. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo Charvakas: atheists Jainists, Buddhists

38 Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE
Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes 7th c. movement based on Upanishads Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings

39 Ahimsa Principle of extreme non-violence
Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)

40 Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste, jati distinctions
Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups But asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement

41 Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE
Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk

42 Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment
Intense meditation, extreme asceticism 49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title Buddha: “the enlightened one”

43 The Buddha and his Followers
Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCE Followers owned only robes, food bowls Life of wandering, begging, meditation Establishment of monastic communities

44 Buddha and his Disciples

45 Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma
The Four Noble Truths all life is suffering there is an end to suffering removing desire removes suffering this may be done through the eight-fold path (right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration)

46 Buddhism

47 Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE)
Born in NE India (Nepal). Raised in great luxury to be a king. At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs. Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana. Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.

48 The essence of Buddhism
The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.” 2,500 year old tradition. The 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the teachings. Sangha, the community.

49 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering?
Desire! Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.

50 Four Noble Truths There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha) The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.

51 Four Noble Truths The cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha) The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)

52 Four Noble Truths To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.

53 Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality.
Escape from the cycle of rebirth.

54 Religions of South Asia

55 Buddhism in the Subcontinent

56 Theravada Buddhism

57 Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities
No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit

58 A Buddhist Monastery

59 Ashoka’s Support of Buddhism
Personal conversion to Buddhism Disillusioned after violent war with Kalinga Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities

60 Changes in Buddhist thought
3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE Buddha considered divine Institution of Boddhisatvas (“saints”) Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity

61 Spread of Mahayana Buddhism
Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer development India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier version Ceylon, Burma, Thailand

62 Nalanda Buddhist Monastery
Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine Peak at end of Gupta dynasty Helped spread Indian thought E.g. mathematical number zero

63 Emergence of Popular Hinduism
Composition of epics from older oral traditions Mahabharata Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations

64 The Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord”
Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war

65 Hindu Ethics Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma)
Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha) Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama) Salvation of the soul (moksha)

66 Popularity of Hinduism
Gradually replaced Buddhism in India Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support

67 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

68 Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World
Lack of police enforcement outsied of established settlements Changed in classical period Improvement of infrastructure Development of empires

69 Trade Networks Develop
Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of Monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes

70 Trade in the Hellenistic World
Bactria/India Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls Persia, Egypt Grain Mediterranean Wine, oil, jewelry, art Development of professional merchant class

71 The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China
Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire Sea Lanes and Maritime trade as well

72 The Silk Roads, 200 BCE-300 CE

73 Organization of Long-Distance Trade
Divided into small segments Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage

74 Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism
Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE

75 The Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE

76 Buddhism in China Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5th c. CE

77 Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia
Sea lanes in Indian Ocean 1st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia Rulers called “rajas” Sanskrit used for written communication Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths

78 Christianity in Mediterranean Basin
Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3rd c. CE Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, Europe Sizeable communities as far east as India Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced

79 Christianity in SW Asia
Influence of ascetic practices from India Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies After 5th c. CE, followed Nestorios Emphasized human nature of Jesus

80 The Spread of Epidemic Disease
Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency

81 Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism
During the years of disorder following the collapse of the Han Dynasty: Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation

82 India and The Ocean Basin

83 India after the Fall of The Gupta Dynasty
Invasion of White Huns from Central Asia beginning 451 CE Gupta State collapsed mid-6th c. Chaos in northern India Local power struggles Invasions of Turkish nomads, absorbed into Indian society

84 King Harsha (r CE) Temporary restoration of unified rule in north India Religiously tolerant Buddhist by faith Generous support for poor Patron of the arts Wrote three plays Assassinated, no successor able to retain control

85 Introduction of Islam to Northern India
Arabs conquer Sind (north-west India), 711 Heterodox population, but held by Abbasid dynasty to 1258

86 Merchants and Islam Arabic trade with India predates Islam
Dominated trade between India and the west to 15th century Established local communities in India E.g. Cambay

87 Mahmud of Ghazni Raids into India, 1001-1027
Plunders, destroys Hindu and Buddhist temples Often builds mosques atop ruins

88 The Sultanate of Delhi Consolidation of Mahmud’s raiding territory
Capital: Delhi Ruled northern India Weak administrative structure Reliance on cooperation of Hindu kings 19 out of 35 Sultans assassinated

89 Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India
Chola Kingdom, Maritime power Not highly centralized Kingdom of Vijayanagar Northern Deccan Originally supported by Sultanate of Delhi Leaders renounce Islam in 1336 Yet maintain relations with Sultantate

90 Agriculture in the Monsoon World
Spring/summer: rains, wind from south-west Fall/winter: dry season, wind from north-east Seasonal irrigation crucial to avoid drought, famine Especially southern India Massive construction of reservoirs, canals, tunnels

91 The trading world of the Indian Ocean basin, 600-1600 C.E.

92 Population Growth in India

93 Trade and Economic Development in Southern India
Indian regional economies largely self-sufficient Certain products traded throughout subcontinent Iron, copper, salt, pepper Southern India profits from political instability in north

94 Temples and Indian Society
More than religious centers Center of coordination of irrigation, other agricultural work Some Temples had large landholdings Education providers Banking services

95 Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin
Trade increases in post-classical period Larger ships Dhows, junks Improved organization of agricultural efforts Establishment of Emporia Cosmopolitan port cities serve as warehouses for trade Specialized products developed (cotton, high-carbon steel)

96 The Kingdom of Axum Example of trade-driven development
Founded 1st c. CE Adopted Christianity Displaces Kush as Egyptian link to the south Axum destroys Kushan capital Meroë c. 360 CE Major territorial expansion to late 6th c.

97 Obelisk at Axum

98 Challenges to Caste and Society
Migrations Growth of Islam Urbanization Economic development Development of Jati (subcastes) Similar to worker’s guilds Caste system expands from north to south Promoted by Temples, educational system

99 Decline of Buddhism Buddhism displaced as Turkish invasions destroy holy sites, temples 1196 Muslim forces destroy library of Nalanda Thousands of monks exiled

100 Development of Hinduism
Growth of devotional cults Esp. Vishnu, Shiva Promise of salvation Especially popular in southern India, spreads to north

101 Devotional Philosophers
Shankara, Brahmin philosopher of 9th c. CE Devotee of Shiva Synthesized Hindu writings in Platonic form Preferred rigorous logical analysis to emotional devotion Ramanuja, Brahmin philosopher 11th-early 12th c. Challenges Shankara’s emphasis on intellect Laid philosophical foundations of contemporary Hinduism

102 Conversion to Islam 25 million converts by 1500 (1/4 of total population) Possibilities of social advancement for lower-caste Hindus Rarely achieved: whole castes or jatis convert, social status remains consistent

103 Sufis Personal, emotional, devotional approaches to Islam
Important missionaries of Islam to India Some flexibility regarding local customs

104 The Bhakti Movement Attempt to bring Hinduism and Islam closer together 12th c. southern Hindu movement, spread to north Guru Kabir ( ) Taught that Shiva, Vishnu, Allah all manifestations of one Deity Largely unsuccessful

105 Indian Influence in Southeast Asia
Influence dates from 500 BCE Evidence of Indian ideas and traditions Kingship Religions (Hinduism, Buddhism) Literature Caste system not as influential

106 Early States of Southeast Asia
Funan Lower Mekong River, 1st-6th c. CE Kingdom of Srivijaya Centered in Sumatra, CE Kingdom of Angkor Cambodia, CE Magnificent religious city complexes

107 Later states of Southeast Asia: Angkor, Singosari, and Majapahit, 889-1520 C.E.

108 Islam in Southeast Asia
Early populations of Muslim traders Increasing popularity with Sufi activity Many convert, retain some Hindu or Buddhist traditions

109 Chinese and European voyages of exploration, 1405-1498.

110 Reaching Out: Cross-Cultural Interactions

111 Patterns of Long-Distance Trade
Silk roads Sea lanes of Indian Ocean basin Trans-Saharan caravan routes Development of trading cities, emporia Nomadic invasions cause local devastation but expand trade network E.g. Mongols in China, 13th c.

112 Travel and trade from the twelfth to the fourteenth century.

113 European Exploration in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
Motives: profit, missionary activity Portugese early leaders in Atlantic exploration Search for sea route to Indian Ocean basin Prince Henrique (Henry the Navigator) siezes Strait of Gibraltar, 1415 Begins encouragement of major Atlantic voyages

114 Indian Ocean Trade Attempt to avoid using Muslim middlemen in trade with east 1488 Bartolomeu Dias sails around Cape of Good Hope Vasco de Gama sails this route to India and back Portuguese gunships attempt to maintain trade monopoly Beginnings of European imperialism in Asia

115 The Islamic Empires

116 The Islamic empires,

117 The Mughal Empire Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger), Chagatai Turk, invades northern India for plunder, 1523 Gunpowder technology gives Babur advantage Founds Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynasty Expands through most of Indian subcontinent

118 Akbar (r. 1556-1605) Grandson of Babur
Wins fear and respect after throwing Adham Khan, leader of the army, out the window twice Second time just to make sure he was dead Created centralized government Destroyed Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar Religiously tolerant, promoted “Divine Faith” Syncretic form of Islam and Hinduism

119 Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707) Expands Mughal empire into southern India
Hostile to Hinduism Demolished Hindu temples, replaced with mosques Tax on Hindus to encourage conversion

120 Common Elements of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires
Empires based on military conquest (“gunpowder empires”) Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the ruler Close relations with Sufism, ghazi tradition Steppe Turkish traditions Issuance of unilateral decrees Intra-family conflicts over power 1595 Sultan massacres 19 brothers (some infants), 15 expectant women (strangulation with silk)

121 Women and Politics Women officially banned from political activity
But tradition of revering mothers, 1st wives from Chinggis Khan

122 Agriculture and Trade American crops effect less dramatic change in Muslim empires Coffee, tobacco important Initial opposition from conservative circles, fearing lax morality of coffee houses Population growth also reflects territorial additions and losses Trade with English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch VOC

123 Population Growth

124 Religious Diversity Ottoman Empire: Christians, Jews
Safavid Empire: Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians Mughal Empire: Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Christians, Sikhs Mughal Akbar most tolerant Received Jesuits politely, but resented Christian exclusivity Enthusiastic about syncretic Sikhism, self-serving “Divine Faith”

125 Status of Religious Minorities
Non-Muslim protected people: dhimmi Payment of special tax: jizya Freedom of worship, property, legal affairs Ottoman communities: millet system of self-administration Mughal rule: Muslims supreme, but work in tandem with Hindus Under Akbar, jizya abolished Reaction under Aurangzeb

126 Capital Cities Akbar builds magnificent Fatehpur Sikri
Chooses site without sufficient water supply, abandoned Taj Mahal example of Mughal architecture

127 The Building of Global Empires

128 Imperialism in Asia, ca. 1914

129 The idea of Imperialism
Term dates from mid-19th century In popular discourse by 1880s Military imperialism Later, economic and cultural varieties US imperialism

130 Motivation for Imperialism
Military Political Economic European capitalism Religious Demographic criminal populations Dissident populations

131 Manifest Destiny Discovery of natural resources
Exploitation of cheap labor Expansion of markets limited

132 The “White Man’s Burden”
Rudyard Kipling ( ) Raised in India, native Hindi speaker Boarding school in England, then return to India (1882) French: mission civilisatrice Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child. In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit And work another's gain. The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine, And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest (The end for others sought) Watch sloth and heathen folly Bring all your hope to nought. No iron rule of kings, But toil of serf and sweeper-- The tale of common things. The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread, Go, make them with your living And mark them with your dead. Take up the White Man's burden, And reap his old reward-- The blame of those ye better The hate of those ye guard-- The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-- "Why brought ye us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?" Ye dare not stoop to less-- Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloak your weariness. By all ye will or whisper, By all ye leave or do, The silent sullen peoples Shall weigh your God and you. Take up the White Man's burden! Have done with childish days-- The lightly-proffered laurel, The easy ungrudged praise: Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years, Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers.

133 Geopolitical considerations
Strategic footholds Waterways Supply stations Imperial rivalries

134 Domestic Political Considerations
Crises of industrialism Pressure from nascent Socialism Imperial policies distract proletariat from domestic politics Cecil Rhodes: imperialism alternative to civil war

135 Technology and Imperialism
Transportation Steamships Railroads Infrastructure Suez Canal ( ) Panama Canal ( )

136 Weaponry muzzle-loading muskets Mid-century: breech-loading rifles
Reduce reloading time 1880s: Maxim gun, 11 rounds per second

137 Communications Correspondence Telegraph 1830 Britain-India: 2 years
After Suez Canal, 2 weeks Telegraph 1870s, development of submarine cables Britain-India: 5 hours

138 The Jewel of the British Crown: India
East India Company Monopoly on India trade Original permission from Mughal emperors Mughal empire declines after death of Aurangzeb, 1707

139 Home of a Wealthy Family in Calcutta

140 British Conquest Protection of economic interests through political conquest British and Indian troops (sepoys)

141 British Colonial Soldiers

142 Sepoy Revolt, 1857 Enfield rifles
Cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fat Problem for Hindus: beef Problem for Muslims: pork Sepoys capture garrison 60 soldiers, 180 civilian males massacred (after surrender) Two weeks later, 375 women and children murdered British retake fort, hang rebels

143 Britain establishes direct rule
Pre-empts East India Company Established civil service staffed by English Low-level Indian civil servants

144 British Rule in India Organization of agriculture
Crops: tea, coffee, opium Stamp of British culture on Indian environment Veneer on poor Muslim-Hindu relations

145 Imperialism in Central Asia
British, French, Russians complete for central Asia France drops out after Napoleon Russia active after 1860s in Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand, and approached India The “Great Game”: Russian vs. British intrigue in Afghanistan Preparation for imperialist war Russian Revolution of 1917 forestalled war

146 Imperialism in Southeast Asia
Spanish: Philippines Dutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) British establish presence from 1820s Conflict with kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established colonial authority by 1880s Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of Melaka Base of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s-1880s French: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Encouraged conversion to Christianity

147 Nationalism and Anticolonial Movements
Ram Mohan Roy ( ), Bengali called “father of modern India” Reformers call for self-government, adoption of selected British practices (e.g. ban on sati) Influence of Enlightenment thought, often obtained in European universities Indian National Congress formed 1885 1906 joins with All-India Muslim League

148 Nationalism and Political Identities

149 India’s Quest for Home Rule
Indian National Congress founded 1885, to promote self-rule Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims Original position in favor or collaboration with British, after World War I moved to opposition British encouraged development of Muslim League (1906) to blunt Congress Woodrow Wilson, Lenin inspirations to movement

150 Mohandas K. Gandhi ( ) Hindu, studied law in London, practiced in South Africa Opposed apartheid Returned to India 1915, made Indian National Congress into a mass movement Titled Mahatma: “great soul” Opposed caste system

151 Ghandi

152 Ghandi’s Passive Resistance
Ahimsa: non-violence Satyagraha: passive resistance (“truth and firmness”) Non-cooperation Movement ( ) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) Boycott of British Institutions Armritsar Massacre (1919)

153 The Government of India Act (1937)
Creation of autonomous legislature 600 nominally sovereign princes refuse to cooperate Muslim fears of Hindu dominance Traditional economic divide Especially severe with Great Depression Muhammad Ali Jinnah ( ) proposes partition, creation of the State of Pakistan

154 The End of Empire

155 Decolonization in Asia

156 India The Jewel of the Crown Deep division between Hindus, Muslims
Legacy of British colonialism Deep division between Hindus, Muslims Role of Mohandas Ghandi

157 “Vivisection” of India (Ghandi)
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim League Jawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party 1947 partition 500,000 killed 10 million refugees India moves toward nonalignment position The “third path”

158 Muslims leave India, 1947

159 Indian Democracy Indian democracy flourishes under Indira Ghandi ( ) Daughter of Nehru, no relationship to Mohandas “Green Revolution” increases agricultural yields Repressive policies to slow population growth, including forced sterilization Assassinated by Sikh bodyguards after attack on Sikh extremists in Amritsar, 1984

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