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Neurofeedback Steele Taylor

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1 Neurofeedback Steele Taylor

2 Part 1: 1.What is Neurofeedback? 2.Overview of the Nervous System 3.What are Brain Rhythms and What Functions do they Serve? 4.Tour the Major Bandwidths of the Nervous System 1.Rhythms of the Hippocampus 2.Beta Training for ADHD and Epilepsy 3.Alpha /Theta Training for Anxiety and PTSD 4.Non – Clinical Applications of Neurofeedback 5.The future of feedback-based therapy Part 2:

3 “Feedback therapy demonstrates and exploits our ability to exert and/or regain volitional control over aspects of physiology previously held to be inaccessible to consciousness”

4 Biofeeback and Mind-Body Axes 1.Autonomic Nervous System 2.Neuro-Muscular 3.Neurogenic Analgesia/Hyperalgesia 4.Neuro-Endocrine 5.Neuro-Immunological Will future feedback-based therapies be able to target the neuro-immunological axes?

5 Take Home Points Neurofeedback is biofeedback for the Central Nervous System –Targets firing patterns (brain rhythms) and regional blood flow Brain rhythms correspond to certain behavioral and cognitive states Cortical brain rhythms are detectable non-invasively (EEG) As the EEG inclines towards a desired frequency, a rewarding stimulus is applied The stimulus is auditory and/or visual Barry Sterman’s Story


7 Why Neurofeedback? 1.Neurofeedback and Pharmacotherapeutics 1.Accurate and non-invasive monitoring 1.Diagnosis and progress tracking 2.Eliminate adverse effects and toxicities 3.Sustained therapeutic benefit because the healing is self generated and penetrates core dysfunctions 2.Neurofeedback and Psychotherapy 1.The results are quantifiable 2.Specific targeting of correlated neurological deficits 3.‘Uncover’ unresolved issues for subsequent processing during a neurofeedback session Why Not Neurofeedback?

8 Neurofeedback Equipment Three essential components: 1.Input 1.Electrodes: EEG / SEMG 2.Infrared: Regional Cerebral Blood Flow 3.Functional MRI: Real Time fMRI 2.Processing Unit 1.Filter raw data and amplify 2.Set to desired bandwidths 1.May be general or very specific 1.Percentage goals for simultaneously occurring frequencies 3.Inhibit Threshold is equivalent to a limbo bar 4.Reward Threshold is equivalent to a hurdle 3.Output: The reward must occur at the appropriate time! 1.Auditory Stimuli 2.Visual Stimuli

9 What Is Required of Neuronal Information Processing? Recognize Patterns and Synthesize (Bind) Inputs Across Multiple Sensory Modalities Anticipate Future Events on Multiple Time Scales –Position Awareness in Context of Past and Future Generate, Refine, and Execute Motor Programs Store and Retrieve Memories Do all of this efficiently! (space and metabolic restrictions) How Can Oscillations Make These Possible?

10 Nervous System Overview http://www.dorlingkindersley- jpg$FILE/ Three%20Golden%20Columns_s.bmp

11 yang_13.png Blue = Yin = Calm = Inhibition Red = Yang = Arouse = Excitation

12 Classic Model of Information Flow Input (afferent) Somatic Sensory Special Sensory Visceral Sensory Processing (interneurons) Triune Processing Centers: 1. Cerebrum (cortex) 2. Limbic System 3. Spinal Cord and Brainstem Output (efferent) Somatic Motor Visceral Motor Glandular Secretions

13 Modifications to the Classic Model 1.The brain generates its own default organized activity that it inevitably reverts towards 1.Meaning that it is not bound to environmental stimuli 2.The brain emulates reality versus simply translating reality 3.Sensation Requires Movement “No perception without action”

14 Functional Localizations in the CNS n/game/specimens/images/wet_brain.gif a8f0d/brainstem.gif

15 m/coverfig.gif

16 The Thalamus Gateway to the cortex Filter of Sensory Data Arousal Regulator Cortical Pacemaker? –Equidistance from cortical structures would overcome lag times in communication

17 The Hippocampus Librarian of the Brain! “Navigation” of external space and internal memory space –Place Cells –Episodic/Declarative Storage Retrieval Hippocampal Theta –Lays ground for transient cell-assemblies –Lays ground for long-term- potentiation “Neurons that fire together, wire together.”

18 Oscillations Are Embedded in Our Inner and Outer Environments Day / Night Lunar Cycles Seasonal Cycles Predator - Prey Yearly Cycles Samsara! Heart Rate Respiratory Cycles Brain Rhythms Rhythmic Movement Voice Generation Daily Mood and Attention Flux Sleep / Wake Cellular Secretions

19 Oscillation Oscillations are back and forth rhythmic variations across an equilibrium point 1. Harmonic Oscillators 2. Relaxation Oscillators –Charge –Discharge –Refraction Pacemaker_potential.svg.png

20 yang_13.png Blue = Yin = Calm = Inhibition Red = Yang = Arouse = Excitation

21 Oscillations Help Satisfy the Requirements of the Nervous System 1.Synchronize distant regions through pacemaking 2.Conserve energy because less energy expenditure required to ‘charge’ downstream targets with yang 3.Conserve space by allowing neurons to participate in multiple circuits –Based on activity of channels –Based on synchrony with other neurons 4.Code and retrieve information in spatio- temporal sequences and auto-associations 5.Glue or bind multiple processing regions to form gestalt perceptions –Coupling gamma to hippocampal theta


23 Paths of Least Resistance

24$FILE/ Three%20Golden%20Columns_s.bmp

25 “Neuronal ensemble activities shuttle back and forth between the interference prone complexity and robust predictable oscillatory synchrony… “…this switching behavior is the most efficient way for the brain to detect changes in the body and the surrounding physical world, while preserving its autonomous internal organization.” -Gyorgy Buzsaki Rhythms of the Brain

26 Slow Waves: Robust Predictable Oscillatory Synchrony Slow wave activity is the default mode of the brain, and enables a noise-free-circuit –This allows experiences to be replayed, consolidated, and integrated with pre-existing internal models –Synaptic connections are strengthened and remodeled During slow wave activity, the brain temporarily disables the process of being continually tossed about by external stimuli

27 Slow Waves: Robust Predictable Oscillatory Synchrony Delta: 1-3 Hz –Deep Sleep, Repair, Problem Solving (wake up with the answer!) –Reduced responsiveness to sensory perturbations –Predominates during infancy as connectivity is still weak Theta: 4-7 Hz –Sleep-wake transitions Hypnagogic hallucinations Hypnapompic hallucinations –Creativity, Insight, –Uncritical acceptance, self-correcting thoughts –Altered States, –Super-learning in young children –Slow wave disorders: foggy thinking, epilepsy, ADHD, coma

28 Alpha and SMR: Bridging Internal Operations with External Stimuli Alpha: 8-12 Hz –Calm Alertness, Meditation, Body Awareness, Daydreaming –‘Reduced during eye movements –More dominant posteriorly, however, years of meditation promotes spread to the pre-frontal cortex…neurofeedback can hasten this process Coherence, reflection, attunement, integrative thinking Bottom-Up Processing Resolution of cognitive dissonance Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR) or Mu –10-15 Hz within sensory-motor strip –Physically Relaxed, Poised for Action, Calm Vigilance

29 Faster Waves: Interference Prone Complexity Beta: 13-20 Hz –Focused Thought, Sustained Attention, Industrious Behavior –Characteristics of motor cortices actively engaged in directing movement –Brain is desynchronized due to attending to variety of tasks High Beta : 21-30 Hz –Hyperalertness, Anxiety…especially if right beta exceeds left beta

30 Faster Waves: Interference Prone Complexity Gamma –30-80Hz –Tend to be transient bursts of cognitive activity Sustained long enough for a subjective experience –Equivalent to the ‘AHA’ moment –Perfect frequency to enable long-term potentiation –Perfect frequency for construction and recall of cell assemblies = binding –Often deficient in learning disorders and mental retardation


32 How to Access These States: 1.Delta: Get some nice sleep, 2.Theta: Sustain the period before falling asleep (Edison style!), imagine passively flowing through a warm viscous medium 3.Alpha: Pay attention to your breath, continually scan your body 4.SMR: Play a sport such as baseball, tennis 5.Low Beta: Play penguin pursuit and color match on, read a book attentively (w/ speed-read eye-movements), juggle 6.High Beta: Hike in the dark…note your response to sudden unknown sounds! Panic, obsess. 7.Gamma: Do puzzles, play moneycomb, memory matrix on

33 Alpha / Theta Training 1.PTSD, Anxiety, Depression, Rage, Addiction, BDD and Anorexia? –Trauma and long-standing anxiety can lead to limbic ‘locking’ with accompanying reductions in pre-frontal lobe processing –Goal is to ‘unlock’ the dominant limbic circuits to restore normal information flow and processing between limbic + cortex –Enables resolution of long standing trauma »Described as witnessing the events versus experiencing them vividly and emotionally –Therapeutic benefit rests in the self-corrective intuitive thinking that emerges, however often vivid imagery also accompanies this state

34 Alpha / Theta Training –Non-Clinical Applications: Creativity and Inventiveness Insight Experiential Learning Performance Shamans

35 Training Beta 2. Beta Training: ADHD –Biochemical Etiology: Reduced dopaminergic and noradrenergic innervation of cognitive, attentive and reward centers Stimulus seeking behavior is sought out Benefits of medication are typically medication dependant, and may not generate actually physiological alterations Possible underlying deficiencies in cholinergic signaling –Electroencephalic Correlates: Inappropriate cortical slow wave (theta = alpha) dominance during cognitive activities Poor SMR –Neurofeedback Protocol: Reward beta, particularly left hemispheric and SMR

36 Training Beta 2. Epilepsy Invasion of slow (3Hz) and strongly synchronous activity throughout the cortex Can be partial (absence), or widespread –Strengthen cortical low beta –Strengthen SMR Net effect is to enhance the seizure threshold Barry Sterman did this with cats!

37 Training Beta 2. Performance Athletes Musicians Speakers/Politicians Medical Professionals

38 The Future of Feedback Medicine 1.Real-Time Functional MRI (fMRI) –Christopher DeCharms project Participant can observe functional MRI in real time to alter their neurological activity Based on known structure-function relationships in the brain –Immediate applications are for chronic pain management, but the possibilities are endless Useful for assessing vegetative status Versus Neurofeedback: Poor temporal resolution, good spatial resolution

39 The Future of Feedback Medicine 2. VTI of Neurophysiological Excellence 1.Real-time monitoring of biochemical markers and rewarding of favorable shifts as patient engages in a virtual reality game

40 Further Reading Demos, John. Getting Started With Neurofeedback. 2005 Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. 2000 Buzsaki, Gyorgy. Rhythms of the Brain. 2006 Llinas, Rudolfo. I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self. 2002 Ramachandran, V.S. A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness. 2004 Schwartz MS and Andrasik F (editors). Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide. 2003 Castaneda, Carlos. The Art of Dreaming.

41 Websites e_brain_in_real_time.html

42 Neurofeedback Steele Taylor

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