Presentation on theme: "Work in groups. Discuss these questions. How were you taught to teach grammar? Has your approach changed at all since then? What do you think are the biggest."— Presentation transcript:
Work in groups. Discuss these questions. How were you taught to teach grammar? Has your approach changed at all since then? What do you think are the biggest problems your students have when trying to learn grammar? What are the biggest problems you feel YOU face when teaching grammar? What IS grammar anyway? How do you define it?
Teaching grammar lexically
Much of it demands too much too young. This will put pressure on teachers to rely on rote learning without understanding. Inappropriate demands will lead to failure and demoralisation. The learner is largely ignored. Little account is taken of children's potential interests and capacities, or that young children need to relate abstract ideas to their experience, lives and activity.
Little account is taken of …. that young children need to relate abstract ideas to their experience … … their experience, lives, and activity. Much of it demands too much too young.
"Presumably they mean something like 'demands too much when children are too young to be ready for so much', but, as worded, it simply is not English,… 'young' is an adjective, and cannot ever be an adverb. ” He that outlives this day, and comes safe home, Shall yearely on the vygill feast his friends, And say, to morrow is S. Cryspines day
My legal name is Alexander Perchov. But all of my many friends dub me Alex, because that is a more flaccid-to-utter version of my legal name. Mother dubs me Alexi-stop- spleening-me!, because I am always spleening her. If you want to know why I am always spleening her it is because I am always elsewhere with friends, and disseminating so much currency, and performing so many things that can spleen a mother. Father used to dub me Shapka, for the fur hat I would don even in the summer month. He ceased dubbing me that because I ordered him to cease dubbing me that. It sounded boyish to me, and I have always thought myself as very potent and generative.
Wrong words or wrong grammar? Are you want to travel a lot? He put down me for the problem. She’s been knowing him for a while. They need to rethink about their policies It’s no point trying to convince her. They look for shelter because it’s storming.
Michael Swan said: The role of ‘grammar’ in language courses is often discussed as if ‘grammar’ were one homogeneous kind of thing. In fact, ‘grammar’ is an umbrella term for a large number of separate or loosely related language systems, which are so varied in nature that it is pointless to talk as if they should all be approached in the same way. How we integrate the teaching of structure and meaning will depend to a great extent on the particular language items involved.
So what different types of grammar are there? (1)Grammar as types of words and their functions UP They’ll have to up their offer. The whole area is on the up. I was up till three last night. He’s up in his room. Up the Arsenal!
(b) Rules & Forms Obviously, this includes tenses, but also few / little, a few / a little... much / many / a lot of... don’t split infinitives... don’t say less, say fewer
(c) Slots that can be filled with words I drive cars.I drove cars. I’m driving cars.I was driving cars. I have driven cars.I had driven cars. I have been driving cars.I had been driving cars. Cars are driven.Cars were driven. Cars are being driven.Cars were being driven. Cars have been driven.Cars had been driven. Cars have been being driven! Cars had been being driven!!
(d) Syntax and the position of words in sentences No account was taken of changes in the population of each village that might have occurred since Little account has been taken of passengers' needs and priorities. I’ve had a really busy day. I haven’t even had time for a coffee! She doesn’t smoke, drink or even swear!
(e) Tenses and verb phrases The ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE ELT Canon. The present simple forms of the verb to be The present simple The past simple forms of the verb to be The past simple Irregular past simple verbs
More lexical ways of thinking about grammar (1)Grammar as lexis / phrases What’s it like? I’ve never seen it, but it’s supposed to be great. I wouldn’t bother if I were you. It was a total waste of time. You should’ve told me. I’ll do it later. I should’ve finished by five.
(2) Phrases providing slots Everything you ever wanted to know about grammar, but were afraid to ask! It’s grammar, Jim... but not as we know it! What’re you doing... tonight?... after this? There’s no pleasing some people. There’s no angering some people!
(3) Collocation (including prepositions?) I’m responsible for hiring and firing. I’m responsible for corporate and social responsibility I’m responsible for taking minutes at meetings It’s the responsibility of taxi drivers to know their way around. It’s the responsibility of each and every one of us to remain vigilant during these troubled times. It’s irresponsible of you to leave a gun in the house
(4) Colligation I was born in Tunbridge Wells. Bandung was once dubbed the Paris of the East. The building has been earmarked for demolition. I can’t be bothered. I can be bothered? It was really surprising. It wasn’t that surprising. It was quite astonishing. It was not that astonishing?
(5) Patterns Just because I’m a teacher it doesn’t mean I’ve failed at everything else. Just because I’m a man it doesn’t mean I can’t cook. Just because you're a black boy / Just because you're a white / It doesn't mean you've got to hate him / It doesn't mean you've got to fight GO across a place Much of the usage is taken by a very small number of verbs (go, move, travel) that primes other uses.
(6) Discourse While some believe that... it nevertheless seems true that... According to your website, the rooms were supposed to come with en-suite bathrooms. However, in reality, we ended up having to use outside toilets! Where are you from? Whereabouts? And are you from there originally?
(7) Genre dependence Texting, notes, informal conversation, advertising, letters to newspapers and so on all have their own their own conventions, and this includes grammatical (or lexico- grammatical) conventions. For example: a feature of letters to newspapers is ellipsis. Little account is taken of children's potential interests and capacities, or of the fact that young children need to relate abstract ideas to their experience, lives and activity.
Classroom implications (1)The road is long Competence clearly ISN’T simply learned by studying rules, forms and meanings. Rather, it’s learned slowly... from input. Whole sentences. Discourse. Lexis with the grammar it’s used with. Grammar with the lexis it’s used with. Priming and noticing. Reading!
Other things that might help (1)Explanation and learning rules Especially early on. Just be aware of limitations! (2) Context and eliciting PPP can also be for things like Sorry. I’m in a rush. (3) Noticing This includes noticing grammar in vocab exercises (4) Guided discovery / Inductive learning Basically, turning rules into questions.
Other things that might help (5) Two-way translation I haven’t seen you for ages! (6) Cloze exercises Good for the kind of off-canon bits we often miss (7) Gap fill / Choose the best form / Transformations I’d rather not (prefer) / Do you want to go out? (fancy) (8) Drills Showing phonetic envelopes and varying chunks (9) Negotiate meaning and correct Reformulate, interrupt, point out, TEACH!
A note of caution: ELF / Level / Interlanguage There’s an issue when it comes to thinking about ELF and what correct grammar is as grammar hardly ever causes problems in communication. Vocabulary and pronunciation does far more! Are we worrying about the right thing?
Some advice from an ex-poet laureate (and an example of creativity from slot filling!) They fuck you up, your language teachers. They may not mean to, but they do. They plague you with their rules of grammar With extra homework, just for you. But they were fucked up in their turn/ By fools in old-style hats and coat, Who half the time had games and fun And half Murphyed you round the throat. Man hands on misery to man. It deepens like a coastal shelf. Get out as early as you can, And don’t obsess ‘bout grammar yourself.