Presentation on theme: "Lesson 9 Mark Twain --- Mirror of America Objectives of Teaching: 1. To comprehend the whole text 2. To learn and master the vocabulary and expressions."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives of Teaching: 1. To comprehend the whole text 2. To learn and master the vocabulary and expressions 3. To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences 4. To understand the structure of the text 5. To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.
5 aspects of our discussion Background information Type of writing Structural analysis Detailed study Rhetorical devices
I. Background Information: 1. Mark Twain (1835-1910) Mark Twain was the pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, the American humorist and writer. The phrase “ mark twain ”, meaning “ 2 fathoms deep ” (12 feet), was employed in making soundings on the Mississippi river boats to show the navigable depth. He was the author of popular and outstanding autobiographical works, travel books and novels.
I. Background Information: The first 36 years of Clemens ’ life as a boy in a little town in Mississippi, as a reporter on the far western frontier and as a traveler abroad supplied him with copious material which he used later for his best and most successful writings. Among his well-known works are Innocents Abroad, Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn.
I. Background Information: 2. National Geographic Magazine, with a circulation of more than 10 million copies annually, is the third biggest only next to TV Guide and Reader's Digest (more than 16 million ). It is a monthly journal run by the National Geographic Society based in Washington DC, a non-profit scientific and educational organization.
I. Background Information: 3. A brief outline of Tom Tom lives with his younger brother Sid and Aunt Polly in St. Petersburg, a remote town on the banks of the Mississippi river. While his brother Sid is a “model” boy, Tom is quite the opposite of his brother.
I. Background Information: At school he disobeys his teacher and always busies himself with outside matters at the lessons. Tom’s bosom friend is Huck Finn, a boy deserted by his drunkard of a father and looked upon as an outcast in the town.
I. Background Information: But Tom has read many books and wants to make his life just as bright as it is depicted in the stories. He devises games in which the boys play the role of brave outlaws and warlike Red Indians who are the terror of the rich and the oppressors.
I. Background Information: One night the boys involuntarily witness the murder of Dr. Robinson. An innocent man is charged with the crime. But on the day of the trial Tom fearlessly exposes the real criminal the Indian Joe who escapes through an open window of the courtroom.
I. Background Information: Another night, the boys went out to dig for hidden treasures near a deserted house three miles from town. There they almost fall into the hands of the murderer who accidentally finds a box filled with gold coins.
I. Background Information: Shortly after the incident Tom goes to a picnic with a party of schoolmates. Exploring a cave, he gets lost with Becky Thatcher, the daughter of the Judge. Tom behaves like a brave boy, calms Becky’s fears and finds the way out of the cave.
I. Background Information: In a few days’ time Tom and Huck return to the cave. They find the dead body of the murderer, who could not have found the way out of the cave and also the hidden treasures.
I. Background Information: 4. A brief outline of Huck Tom and Huck find the money. They each get six thousand dollars, which they deposit with Judge Thatcher. The Widow Douglas takes Huck for her son and tries to “civilize” him.
I. Background Information: In the meantime, Huck’s father tries to get the money and succeeds in kidnapping the boy and imprisons him in a lonely cabin. To free himself from both the boring widow and the brutal father, Huck runs away to a deserted island in the middle of the Mississippi river.
I. Background Information: In doing so, he makes it appear that he has been murdered by some robbers. On the island he meets Jim, Miss Watson’s runaway slave, and the two become close friends.
I. Background Information: They started down the river, come across all sorts of people and have lots of fun and adventures. Toward the end of the novel Jim is caught and imprisoned at a farm, and Huck and Tom make a spectacular but unsuccessful attempt to rescue him.
I. Background Information: At last it turns out that Huck’s father has died and Miss Watson has also died, but not before setting Jim free in her will.
II. Writing Type: Biography A biography is, by definition, an account of someone's life that has been written by someone else. Or a written history of someone's life. Generally, a biography is about sb. who enjoys certain reputation, who has acquired certain fame by his / her success in certain area. The protagonist can be a positive or negative character.
III. Structural Analysis Part 1: (the 1st para.): Introduction Part 2: (Paras 2- 19): his experiences and career Section 1. (paras2-3 ): the setting, background knowledge. Section 2. (paras4-6):early years of life on the Mississippi and as a Confederate guerrilla Section 3. (paras7-13): On his way to success Section 4. (paras14- 19):Comments on his best works. Part 3: (paras 20-22) : Personal tragedy and conclusion
IV. Detailed study of the title 1. Mirror of America: 1).A mirror : a person or a thing which reflects or reveals the truth of something or somebody. 2) Mark Twain ---- Mirror of America: ----- Mark Twain’s life and works are a reflection of the America of his time 3). Figure of speech: metaphor
IV. Detailed study of part 1 2. Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father... and adventure. 1). Rhetorical devices: Metaphor : Father : the author who creates Huck Finn. Hyperbole: Endless/ eternal: everlasting Parallelism: The whole sentence:.
IV. Detailed study of part 1 2). idyllic: [i / ai] a simple happy period of life, often in the country an idyllic setting, holiday, marriage 3). cruise: A cruise is a holiday during which you travel on a ship and visit lots of places. When it is used as a verb, it means to move at a constant speed that is comfortable and unhurried. He was on a world cruise. They spent the summer cruising in the Greek islands.
IV. Detailed study of part 1: 4 ) the meaning of the whole sentence: Mark Twain is famous to most Americans as the creator of Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer. Huck's sailing / travel on the river was so light-hearted, carefree and peaceful that it made his boyhood seem to be infinite, while Tom's independent mind and his exciting and dangerous activities made the summer seem everlasting.
Detailed study of part 1: 2. I found another Twain as well…a black wall of night. 1). cynical: A cynical person believes that all men are selfish. He sees little or no good in anything and shows this by making unkind and unfair remarks about people and things. cynic: n. a person who believes that people do not do things for good, sincere or noble reasons, but only for their own advantage a cynical remark, attitude, smile
Detailed study of part 1: 2). deal, dealt: to give, to give out, to strike, to distribute Who deals the cards next? to deal sb. a blow 3) obsess: to worry continuously and unnecessarily. If sth. obsesses you or if you are obsessed with it or by it, you keep thinking about it over a long period of time, and find it difficult to think about anything else. She is obsessed by the desire to become a great actress.
Detailed study of part 1 4). frailty: a weakness of character or behaviour. One of the frailties of human nature is laziness. That chair looks too frail to take a man's weight. There is only a frail chance that he will pass the examination. 5) Obsessed with the frailties of the human race: continually distressed by the moral weakness of the human race.
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 Section 1 (para2-3) 1 tramp: a person who has no home or permanent job and very little money. A woman who is thought to have sex with a lot of men is cursed to be a tramp.. There's a tramp at the door begging for food. 2. pilot: a person who with special knowledge of a particular stretch of water, esp. the entrance of a harbour, and who is trained and specially employed to go on board and guide ships that use it.
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 3. prospector: a person who examines the land in order to find gold, oil, etc. 4. starry: full of stars in the sky, indicating sparkling, glowing, and flashing. starry-eyed: full of unreasonable or silly hopes. If you are starry-eyed, you are so full of dreams or hopes or idealistic thoughts that you do not see how things really are. We were all starry-eyed about visiting London. 5. acid-tongued: If sb. is acid-tongued, he makes unkind or critical remarks.
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 6. range: to travel without any definite plan or destination 7. digest: If you digest information, you think about it, understand it, and remember it. The report contains too much to digest at one reading. He reads rapidly but does not digest very much.
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 8. adopt: to take and use as one's own The US decided to adopt a hard line towards terrorism. Having no children of their own, they decided to adopt an orphan / dog. adopt a name, a custom, an idea, a style of dress adept: n, ~ (in sth); ~ (at/in doing sth) He's an adept in carpentry. adapt: to make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc. This novel has been adapted for TV from the Russian original. Our eyes slowly adapted to the dark.
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 9. signal: a sign, gesture, sound, etc. that conveys a message a signal made with a red flag She flashed the torch as a signal. They signaled their discontent by refusing to vote. This is an event signaling a change in public opinion. 10. attest: to show to be true, to give proof of, to declare solemnly Historic documents and ancient tombstones all attest to the fact that this is a historic battlefield.
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 11. artery: blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body( 动脉 ) vein: any of the tubes carrying blood from all parts of the body to the heart ( 静脉 ) artery: main road, main channel. (metaphor) 12. commerce: the buying and selling of goods, trade. Commerce = commodities (synecdoche)
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 13. delta country: Delta is the 4th letter of the Greek alphabet, which is shaped like a triangle. Therefore anything in the shape of a delta, esp. a deposit of sand and soil formed at the mouth of some rivers is called a delta. 14. molasses: a thick dark to light brown syrup that is separated from raw sugar ( 糖浆 ) cf: syrup: a thick sticky solution of sugar and water, often flavoured ( 糖液 = 糖 + 水 )
Detailed study of part 2: section 1 15. westward expansion: When America became independent, there were only 13 states along the Atlantic Ocean. By 1850, the United States had expanded to the Pacific coast. Events in this westward expansion include: The massacre of the native Indians( 对土著印 第安人的大屠杀 ) The 1803 Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon‘s France.(1803 年路易斯安那购地 ) The 1845 Texas Annexation( 得克萨斯兼并 ) The 1848 Mexican Cession( 墨西哥领土割让 ) Also the California Gold Rush in 1848( 淘金热 )
Detailed study of part 2:section 1 16. basin: the Yellow River Basin The basin made up 3/4 of the populated area of the US of that time. 17. drain: to cause to become gradually dry or empty Boil the vegetable for 2 minutes and then drain the water. brain drain: movement of trained technical and scientific personnel for one county to another ( because of better opportunities ) 人才外流
Detailed study of part 2 : section 2 Section 2: paras 4 -- 6 1. cub: the young of various types of meat- eating wild animals, such as lion, bear; Here it means inexperienced youth. 2. cast of characters: the cast of a play or a film consists of all the people who act in it. Here it means: people of all sorts. Rhetorical device: alliteration
Detailed study of part 2 : section 2 3. cosmos: the whole universe considered as an ordered system. here it means a place where one can find all types of people rhetorical device: hyperbole 4. feud: long-lasting and bitter quarrel or dispute between two people or groups the feud between Romeo's family and Juliet's
Detailed study of part 2 : section 2 5. piracy: robbery of ships on the high seas pirate: a robber on the high seas copy right piracy 盗版 6. lynch: (esp. of a crowd of people) to attack and put to death, esp. by hanging, a person thought to be guilty of a crime without a lawful trial 私刑处死 7. slum: an area of a city where living conditions are very bad and where all the houses are overcrowded and need to be repaired.
Detailed study of part 2: section 2 8. soak up: to draw in by or as if by suction or absorption The soil soaked up a huge volume of water very rapidly. …he absorbed and digested the colourful language with an astonishing good memory which seemed to be able to record things like a phonograph / gramophone.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 2 9. teem with If a place teems with animals or people, it is very crowded and the animals or people are moving around a lot. The water teems with fish and shrimps. His mind teems with plans. 10. humanity: human beings in general
Detailed study of part 2: section 2 11. flotsam: rubbish, wreckage such as bits of wood, plastic, and other waste materials that is floating on the sea, parts of a wrecked ship or its cargo found floating in the sea. Here it refers to lawless people or social outcasts ( 社会残渣或是被社会驱逐的人 ) 12. hustler: streetwalker, prostitute 13. thug: a person who is very violent and rough, esp. a criminal, hooligan or villain
Detailed study of part 2: section 2 14. keen: a. sharp My hearing is not as keen as it used to be. He has a keen brain. 15. perception: natural understanding extra sensory perception perceive: realize, notice, see or hear sth. esp. when it is not obvious to other people Just as a good artist must have good perception of colour, a good musician must have good perception of sound. Alcohol reduces your perception of pain.
Detailed study of part 2: section 2 16. trade: job, esp. one needing special skill with the hands I am a fisherman by trade. They work in the cotton / tourist / shoemaking / jewellery trade. trade union
Detailed study of part 2 : section 2 17. acknowledge: recognize the fact, agree to the truth. If you acknowledge a fact or situation, you accept or admit that it is true or that it exists. This is a fact even our enemies abroad have to acknowledge. He is an acknowledged expert on antique- examination.
Detailed study of part 2: section 2 express thanks for sth. His services to the country were never officially acknowledged. acknowledgement: We are sending you some money in acknowledgement of your valuable help. If you quote somebody’s theory, you must send him your acknowledgement.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 2 18. acquaint: cause to know personally, make familiar with, You must acquainted yourself with your new duties. be acquainted with I have heard about your friend but I am not acquainted with him.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 2 make acquaintance of sb. / make sb's acquaintance Where did you make his acquaintance? Very pleased to have made your acquaintance. nodding acquaintance / bowing acquaintance
Detailed study of part 2: section 2 19. motley: having or composed of many different or clashing elements a motley crowd / crew, ie a group of many different types of people 20. band: a group of people joined together for a common purpose (derog.)
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 Section 3 : paras 7-- 13 1. succumb: 1). (fml) stop resisting (temptation, illness, attack, etc) He finally succumbed to the temptation to have another cigarette / drink. The city succumbed after only a short offence. Several children have measles （麻疹）, and the others are bound to succumb to it. 2). to die (because of) He succumbed to Sars
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 2. epidemic: the occurrence of a disease which affects a very large number of people living in an area and which spreads quickly to other people an influenza epidemic Here it means: fashion / popularity
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 3. flirt 1). If you flirt with someone, you behave as if you are sexually attracted to them, in a not very serious way. Don't take her seriously, she is only flirting with you. She flirts with every man in the office. 2). If you flirt with the idea of doing or having sth., you consider doing or having it, without making any definite plans. We flirted with the idea of going abroad.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 4. rebuff: refuse unkindly and contemptuously cf: refuse The friendly dog was rebuffed by a kick. He refused / rebuffed the suggestion. He can't refuse (vi.) / *rebuff (vt.) if you ask politely. 5. broke: adj. sl. complete without money, penniless, bankrupt
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 6. endure: continue to exist without any loss in quality or importance His fame will endure eternally. enduring memories / peace His influence was the most enduring of all. To literature’s enduring gratitude: If Twain had not accepted that job offered to him by Territorial Enterprise, literature world might have lost that literary giant. Therefore the literature world is forever gratitude to this turn of events. to one’s gratitude/ surprise/ satisfaction…
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 7. digging his way to regional fame: working hard to gain local fame. 8. for making money, his pen would prove mightier than his pickax.: His reporting brought him more money than his unsuccessful mining. Rhetorical device: metonymy. 9. mining strike: sudden discovery of mine strike: sudden discovery of oil, gold,etc. a lucky strike: fortunate discovery
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 10. hone: n. a stone used to sharpen knives and tools. v. to sharpen to hone one's wit 11. scathing: (of speech or writing) bitterly cruel in judgement, sharp and hurtful; cutting, scornful She could be...scathing in her criticism. his scathing rejection of violence
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 12. column: a. one of two or more vertical sections of printed material on a page Each page of this dictionary has two columns of text. b. part of a newspaper or regularly dealing with a particular subject or written by the same writer the fashion / financial column columnist: journalist who regularly writes an article commenting on politics, current events, etc. for a newspaper or magazine a political columnist
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 13. ring familiarly in modern world accustomed to trend setting on the West Coast: produce a familiar impression on people in modern world. People in the modern world (people in the settled United States, people on the East coast and along the Mississippi River) are now used to following the ways of doing things of the West Coast. be accustomed to: be in the habit of, be used to, be familiar with He is accustomed to working hard. You will soon get accustomed to that kind of thing.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 14. trend: a general direction or course of development, fashion, tendency Today's trend is toward less formal clothing. Young women are always interested in the trends of fashion. If someone sets a trend, they do something that becomes accepted or fashionable, and that is copied by a lot of other people. trendy: very fashionable and modern He was into jazz long before it became trendy.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 15. get up: arrange or perform If you get something up, you organize something such as a public event, esp. with very little preparation. Who is going to get up the concert? The students got up a countrywide campaign in support of the nuclear disarmament.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 16. astound: to shock with surprise 17. enterprise: a plan, business, task, something daring and difficult 18. rush through: to complete (a job) hastily We will try to rush your order through before Saturday. 19. dash: a combination of bravery and style, enthusiasm and courage She conducted the orchestra with a great deal of fire and dash.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 20. reck: (neg. or inter. only) care or mind They recked little of the danger. reckless Someone who is reckless shows a complete lack of care about danger or about the results of their actions. Many young motorcyclists are very reckless.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 21. consequence: result, outcome The rise in lung cancers is a consequence of cigarette smoking. The consequence of the flood is still under estimation. Some films may have / produce bad consequences. cf: The results of the research are to be published soon. The result of the match was 1 - 0. The consequence of the war is doubtful. （后果 ) The outcome of the war is doubtful. （结局）
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 consequence: (fml) importance Someone or sth. that is of consequence is important or valuable. He may be a man of consequence in his own country, but he’s nobody here. 22. all over: in every respect, thoroughly She is her mother all over. That sounds like my sister all over.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 The meaning of the sentence: “It was that population that … a recklessness of cost and consequence, ” It was these pioneers that brought California a reputation. California was made famous for organizing surprising businesses and developing them with great bravery and courage, without caring cost or result.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 The meaning of “, which she bears unto this day-- -- … well, that is California all over.” And California keeps this fame until now. When she makes plans for a new surprise, the dull, solemn, dignified people in other parts of the States smile as usual and say: “Well, that's typical of California, that's just California style.”
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 23. notations: a brief note jotted down, as to remind one of something The Duchess found the notation left by the Duke. 24. genius: (pl. geniuses) exceptionally great mental or creative ability a man of genius Einstein was a mathematical genius. 25. celebrated: well-known, famous a celebrated actress, writer, pianist, etc. Burgundy is celebrated for its fine wines. celebrity: famous person celebrities of stage and screen
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 26. distinct: easily heard, seen, or understood The footprints are quite distinct; they must be fresh. ~ (from sth) different in kind Although they look similar, these plants are actually quite distinct. Mozart's style is quite distinct from Haydn's.
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 27. -logue: (also) –log a. forming ns: talk or speech dialogue monologue b. = -logist, ideologue (ideologist) 思想家 Sinologue Sinologist, 汉学家
Detailed study of part2: section 3 27. unimpressed: If you are unimpressed by sb. or sth, you do not think they are very good, or worth your attention. impress: ~ sb (with sth) have a favourable effect on sb We were most impressed with / by your efficiency.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 3 28.. debunk: (infml) to point out the truth about (over-praised people, ideas, etc). If you debunk an idea or belief, you show that it is false or not important. debunk fashionable opinions bunk: sl. nonsense Don't talk bunk! de: to remove from debunk: to remove the nonsense
Detailed study of part 2: section 3 29. revered: (fml) to give great respect and admiration to He was a revered figure with a great national reputation. They revered him.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 3 30. version: a form of sth in which certain details are different or have been changed from the previous forms Did you read the short or full version of the book? There have been several translations of the Bible, including the Authorized Version and the Revised Version.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 4 1. classic: having the highest quality; of the first or highest class or rank cf: classical: being in accordance with ancient Greek or Roman models in literature or art （古典） classical music as opposed to popular, jazz, or folk music. Chinese classical books: The Four Books (The Great Learning, The Doctrine of Mean, The Analects of Confucius and Mencius)( 四书 : 大学 / 中庸 / 论语 / 孟子 ) The Five Classics (The Book of Songs, The Book of History, The Book of Changes, The Book of Rites, and The Spring and Autumn Annals): 五经（诗经，书经， 易经，礼记，春秋）
Detailed study of part 2 : section 4 2. shape: outer form or appearance He's a devil in human shape. She's in good shape after months of training. shape: give a shape or form to shape the wet clay on a potter’s wheel to shape the sand into a castle
Detailed study of part 2 : section 4 3. mischievous: eager to have fun, esp. by playing harmless tricks cf: naughty: behaving badly & disobediently A mischievous child is often naughty but does not do any real harm. He was called in before the principal for his mischievous deeds. 4. ingenuity: cleverness in arranging things The boy showed ingenuity when solving the difficult maths problem.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 4 5. puritan: (usu. derog.) person who is extremely strict in morals and who tends to regard pleasure as sinful puritanical: extremely or excessively strict id matters of morals and religion. 6. panorama: a. a complete view of a wide stretch of land b. continuously changing view or scene c. a thorough representation in words or picture This book gives a panorama of life in Shenzhen.
Detailed study of part 2 : section 4 7. pace: speed, esp. of walking or running She slowed down her pace so I could keep up with her. He gave up his job in advertising because he couldn't stand the pace, ie found the pressure of work too great. Are wages keeping pace with inflation? 8. energy-sapping sap: gradually weaken sb/sth by taking away I was sapped by months of hospital treatment. She's been sapped of her optimism. Stop sapping her confidence!
Detailed study of part 2 : section 4 9. clamour: a continuous strong demand or complaint The government has made a decision in defiance of the public clamour. The public are clamouring for a change of government. The baby clamoured to be fed. 10. edge: sharp cutting part of a knife a knife with a sharp edge renew our edges: to remodel, re-sharpen our edges, to recharge the battery
Detailed study of part 3 1. haunt: to visit, appearing in a strange form The old house is said to be haunted by a headless ghost. A spirit haunts the castle. The memory still haunts me. 2. -itis: disease or inflammation bronchitis appendicitis hepatitis
Detailed study of part 3 : 3. Bitterness fed on the man who… Bitterness exhausted, used up all the energy of the man… 4. pad: to make more comfortable by filling with soft material a jacket with padded shoulders He padded the seat of the chair with some foamed plastics.
Detailed study of part 3 : 5. Now the gloves came off with biting satire the gloves are off: ready for a fight biting: causing a smarting pain a biting wind satire: ridicule or irony or sarcasm that is used to show how foolish or wicked some people's behaviour or ideas are. Now Mark Twain threw away the pretended softness and gentleness he used to adopt and became outspoken, bitter and sarcastic.
Detailed study of part 3 : 6. illusion: the condition of seeing things wrongly The magician made us think he cut a woman in half, but it was an illusion. Perfect happiness is an illusion. 7. vanish: to disappear, go out of sight The thin mysterious woman passenger vanished. As soon as you put the dog-skin plaster on, your pain will vanish.
Detailed study of part 3 : 8. crumble: be broken into very small pieces crumble one's bread Their marriage is crumbling. 9. lament: If you lament sth., you express your sadness, regret or disappointment about it. They lamented the death of their mother. His examination results were lamentable.
VI. Rhetorical devices Metaphor Mark Twain --- Mirror of America saw clearly ahead a black wall of night... main artery of transportation in the young nation's heart the vast basin drained three-quarters of the settled United States All would resurface in his books...that he soaked up... Hyperbole...cruise through eternal boyhood and...endless summer of freedom... The cast of characters…--- a cosmos.
VI. Rhetorical devices Personification life dealt him profound personal tragedies... the river had acquainted him with......to literature's enduring gratitude... Bitterness fed on the man... America laughed with him.
VI. Rhetorical devices Antithesis...between what people claim to be and what they really are......took unholy verbal shots at the Holy Land......a world which will lament them a day and forget them forever
VI. Rhetorical devices Euphemism...men's final release from earthly struggle Alliteration...the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths stayed at home...with a dash and daring......a recklessness of cost or consequences...
VI. Rhetorical devices Metonymy...his pen would prove mightier than his pickaxe Synecdoche Keelboats,...carried the first major commerce.