2LAST POWERPOINT OF THE YEAR!!!!!!!!!! Modules 45-48
33 major criteria for diagnosing psychological disorders Deviance-behavior that is not considered to be in the normMaladaptive behavior-behavior that interferes with a person’s social or occupational functioningPersonal distress-how much distress it causes the individual
4Costs of Mental Illness - Costs more than $150 billion each year for treatment- Schizophrenia alone costs up to $30 billion- Lithium for Bipolar Disorder has saved approximately $145 billion since 1970- Clozapine for Schizophrenia has saved approximately $23,000/patient annually
5Youth and Mental Illness - U.S. adolescents appear to be at high risk for mental illness- Schizophrenia tends to manifest itself in adolescence or early adulthood- U.S. adolescents are the only group in which there continues to be an increase in the death rate, from accidents, suicide and homicide
6Warning Signs of trouble * - marked drop in school performance or increase in absenteeism- excessive use of alcohol and/or drugs- marked changes in sleeping and/or eating habits- many physical complaints (headaches, stomach aches)- aggressive or non-aggressive violations of the rights of others- withdrawal from friends, family and regular activities- depression demonstrated by continued, prolonged negative mood and often accompanied by poor- appetite and/or difficulty sleeping
7- frequent outbursts of anger or rage - low energy level, poor concentration, complaints of boredom- loss of enjoyment in what used to be favorite activities- unusual neglect of personal appearance
8Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) - Axis I-Clinical Syndromes-includes many of the disorders that are in chapter 14- Axis II-Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation (See personality disorders)- Axis III-General Medical Conditions-assesses any chronic physical disorders or conditions that may contribute to disorders- Axis IV-Psychosocial and Environmental Problems-negative life events, troubled relationships, trouble with the law, school, work, etc.- Axis V-Global Assessment of Functioning-After assessing axes 1-4, the psychologist makes a determination regarding a score that they would assess the person’s level of functioning. A score of a 10 means the person is in persistent danger of severely hurting themselves or others and a score of 100 means they are functioning at a superior level.
9Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) "I always thought I was just a worrier. I'd feel keyed up and unable to relax. At times it would come and go, and at times it would be constant. It could go on for days. I'd worry about what I was going to fix for a dinner party, or what would be a great present for somebody. I just couldn't let something go.""I'd have terrible sleeping problems. There were times I'd wake up wired in the middle of the night. I had trouble concentrating, even reading the newspaper or a novel. Sometimes I'd feel a little lightheaded. My heart would race or pound. And that would make me worry more. I was always imagining things were worse than they really were: when I got a stomachache, I'd think it was an ulcer."
10Anxiety DisordersClass of disorders marked by excessive or chronic anxiety or apprehensionGeneralized Anxiety Disorder- marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not due to anything specific. Age of onset may be between 10 and 14 years of age.- Causes-No specific threat, symptoms must be present for at least 6 months- Symptoms-Restlessness or feelings of being keyed up or on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance- Treatments-Benzodiazepines (Valium and Ativan), Tricyclic Antidepressants, Psychotherapy
11Panic Disorder"For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart pounds really hard, I feel like I can't get my breath, and there's an overwhelming feeling that things are crashing in on me.""It started 10 years ago, when I had just graduated from college and started a new job. I was sitting in a business seminar in a hotel and this thing came out of the blue. I felt like I was dying.""In between attacks there is this dread and anxiety that it's going to happen again. I'm afraid to go back to places where I've had an attack. Unless I get help, there soon won't be anyplace where I can go and feel safe from panic."
12Panic Disordercharacterized by sudden and unexpected attacks of anxiety. Age of onset usually between 15 and 19- Causes-defects in the brain (specifically the brain stem, limbic system and frontal cortex)- Symptoms-heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, feeling of choking, shortness of breath, fear of dying, chest pain or discomfort, feeling dizzy.- Treatments-Tricyclic Antidepressants, SSRI’s, MAOI’s, Antianxiety druges (e.g., Xanax, Ativan), Cognitive-Behavioral treatmentsPanicAttack
13Phobias"I'm scared to death of flying, and I never do it anymore. I used to start dreading a plane trip a month before I was due to leave. It was an awful feeling when that airplane door closed and I felt trapped. My heart would pound, and I would sweat bullets. When the airplane would start to ascend, it just reinforced the feeling that I couldn't get out. When I think about flying, I picture myself losing control, freaking out, and climbing the walls, but of course I never did that. I'm not afraid of crashing or hitting turbulence. It's just that feeling of being trapped. Whenever I've thought about changing jobs, I've had to think, "Would I be under pressure to fly?" These days I only go places where I can drive or take a train. My friends always point out that I couldn't get off a train traveling at high speeds either, so why don't trains bother me? I just tell them it isn't a rational fear."
14Phobic Disorder- marked by a persistent and irrational fear of things that don’t really pose a threat. Age of onset often between 7 and 9 years of age- Causes-may run in families and be present in females more often, usually a classically conditioned response- Symptoms-marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, intentional avoidance of object or situation- Treatment-Mostly behavior therapy, but can also use Antianxiety drugs (e.g., Valium), Tricyclic Antidepressants, MAOI’s, PsychotherapyPhobias
15Social Phobia"In any social situation, I felt fear. I would be anxious before I even left the house, and it would escalate as I got closer to a college class, a party, or whatever. I would feel sick in my stomach-it almost felt like I had the flu. My heart would pound, my palms would get sweaty, and I would get this feeling of being removed from myself and from everybody else.""When I would walk into a room full of people, I'd turn red and it would feel like everybody's eyes were on me. I was embarrassed to stand off in a corner by myself, but I couldn't think of anything to say to anybody. It was humiliating. I felt so clumsy, I couldn't wait to get out."
16Obsessive-Compulsive "I couldn't do anything without rituals. They invaded every aspect of my life. Counting really bogged me down. I would wash my hair three times as opposed to once because three was a good luck number and one wasn't. It took me longer to read because I'd count the lines in a paragraph. When I set my alarm at night, I had to set it to a number that wouldn't add up to a 'bad' number.""I knew the rituals didn't make sense, and I was deeply ashamed of them, but I couldn't seem to overcome them until I had therapy.""Getting dressed in the morning was tough, because I had a routine, and if I didn't follow the routine, I'd get anxious and would have to get dressed again. I always worried that if I didn't do something, my parents were going to die. I'd have these terrible thoughts of harming my parents. That was completely irrational, but the thoughts triggered more anxiety and more senseless behavior. Because of the time I spent on rituals, I was unable to do a lot of things that were important to me."
17Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder An unusual disorder of ritual and doubt.Obsessions are persistent and intrusive thoughts, images, ideas or impulses.Compulsions are repetitive, purposeful behaviors that are performed in response to an obsession.They understand that their actions are unreasonable, but cannot stop themselves. Age of onset is usually between 9 and 12 years of age.
18OCDCauses-may be genetic, may be due to neurotransmitter activity, there has been some indication that some have the onset of this disorder after having strept throat (they think that possibly the antibodies that are supposed to fight the infection actually attack the basil ganglia)
19OCD- Symptoms-Obsessions: recurrent and persistent thoughts, excessive worry about real-life problems, impulses which may be deemed inappropriate. Compulsions: repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform as a result of the obsession, behaviors done to reduce distress. Person recognizes that obsessions or compulsions are unreasonable. Marked distress, time consuming or significantly interferes with a person’s normal routine.
20OCD- Treatments-Behavior therapy (systematic des., flooding, thought stopping), Tricyclic Antidepressants, SSRI’s (today, Luvox is commonly used, also may use Prozac or Zoloft)
21Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder "I was raped when I was 25 years old. For a long time, I spoke about the rape as though it was something that happened to someone else. I was very aware that it had happened to me, but there was just no feeling.""Then I started having flashbacks. They kind of came over me like a splash of water. I would be terrified. Suddenly I was reliving the rape. Every instant was startling. I wasn't aware of anything around me, I was in a bubble, just kind of floating. And it was scary. Having a flashback can wring you out.""The rape happened the week before Thanksgiving, and I can't believe the anxiety and fear I feel every year around the anniversary date. It's as though I've seen a werewolf. I can't relax, can't sleep, don't want to be with anyone. I wonder whether I'll ever be free of this terrible problem."
22Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - display of persistent anxiety following an overwhelming traumatic event- Causes-traumatic event that is not a usual event in the normal human experience- Symptoms-traumatic event is persistently reexperienced, may have images or thoughts of the event, recurrent distressing dreams of the event, reliving the event, insomnia, exaggerated startle response.- Treatments-Psychotherapy (systematic des., flooding), Cognitive-Behavioral therapy
23Somatoform DisordersDisorders in which the person may feel physical pain or problems but there is no physiological basis for them, they are psychological in nature.Psychosomatic: when the person feels physical pain, and there is a biological reason for them – due to stress.
24Types of Somatoform Disorders Somatization Disorder: When the person experiences a wide variety of physical problems that are due to psychological problems.Conversion Disorder: When the person experiences a loss of physical functioning in a body part with no physical reason for this to happen. May effect, vision, hearing, use of limbs.Hypochondriasis: When the person is excessively worried about their health, worry about developing illnesses and often manufacture the symptoms of various illnesses in their head.
25Causes and TreatmentsCauses of these disorders: May be due to increased sensitivity of autonomic nervous system, while others feel it is a personality or cognitive defect. People who are histrionic, that is, self-centered, suggestible, excitable, and highly emotional may be more susceptible.Treatment: Psychoanalysis or cognitive therapy may be helpful.
26Dissociative Disorders When a person experiences bouts of memory loss, due to loss of consciousness and have disruptions in their sense of identity.Dissociative Amnesia: A sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too severe to be considered normal. May occur for one traumatic event or period of time.Dissociative Fugue: When a person loses their memory for their entire life along with who they are and what their identity is. May forget name, family, where they live, etc.
27Dissociative Identity Disorder: When there is the existence of two or more personalities coexisting in the same body (used to be called Multiple Personality Disorder). The host personality is supposedly unaware of any other personalities, however, some have reported that one or more of the other personalities may be aware of what is happening.Causes: It is thought that the cause of Dissociative Identity Disorder is some type of repeated, chronic psychological trauma during childhood. Dissociative amnesia or fugue may be brought on by excessive stress.Treatment: Psychoanalysis is usually a treatment
28Personality Disorders - May be characterized by any of the following: affects a person’s sense of self as well as others, lacks appropriate emotional responses, impersonal functions, lacks impulse control, behavior that is inflexible, inability to function in social, occupational and other functions of life, onset traced back to early adolescence or early adulthoodDisorders that are considered odd/eccentricSchizoid Personality Disorder- odd eccentric behavior, tend to be loners, may be perceived to be cold and unfeeling, trouble keeping jobs and maintaining relationships, show very little emotion
29Paranoid Personality Disorder - suspicious and mistrustful of others, refuse to accept criticism or blame, may be cautious, scheming, devious, or argumentative, does not like to confide in others, difficult to get along withSchizotypal Personality Disorder- suspicious, shows signs of paranoia, aloof and impersonal, shows signs of magical thinking, unusual perceptual thinking, may have speech that resembles schizophrenia (disorganized)
30Antisocial personality disorders failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrestdeceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasureimpulsivity or failure to plan aheadirritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaultsreckless disregard for safety of self or othersconsistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligationslack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another
31Borderline personality disorder frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.a pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluationidentity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of selfimpulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavioraffective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)chronic feelings of emptinessinappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms
32Histrionic personality disorder is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attentioninteraction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behaviordisplays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotionsconsistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to selfhas a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detailshows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotionis suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstancesconsiders relationships to be more intimate than they actually are
33Narcissistic personality disorder has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal lovebelieves that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)requires excessive admirationhas a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectationsis interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own endslacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of othersis often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or hershows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes
34Avoidant personality disorder avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejectionis unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being likedshows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculedis preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situationsis inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacyviews self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to othersis unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing
35Dependent personality disorder has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from othersneeds others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her lifehas difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval.has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own (because of a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy)goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasantfeels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself
36Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lostshows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental valueis reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing thingsadopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophesshows rigidity and stubbornness
37Mood Disorders1) Major Depression: A “whole body” illness involving body, mood and thoughts. Affects the way the person eats, sleeps and how they feel about themselves. Symptoms can last for weeks, months or years. Usually lasts around 9 months, but if it goes longer, it will usually dissipate within 2 years.
38DEPRESSION CONTINUEDCauses: 1) Some types run in families, 2) low levels of serotonin, 3) low self-esteem, 4) those who are pessimistic, 5) those overwhelmed by stress, 6) serious loss, 7) chronic illness, 8) difficult relationships, 9) financial problemsSymptoms: 1) persistent sad, anxious, “empty” mood, 2) feelings of hopelessness, 3) feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness, 4) loss of interest in pleasures or hobbies, 5) insomnia or oversleeping, 6) weight loss or weight gain, 7) decreased energy/fatigue, 8) thoughts of suicide or death
40Teen DepressionApproximately 1 in 33 children and 1 in 8 adolescents are affected by depression at any given timeSuicide is the 3rd leading cause of death for year olds and the 6th leading cause for 5-14 year olds70% of those diagnosed do not get any treatment
41High risk: loss, attention disorders, conduct or anxiety disorders High risk: Teenage girls, minoritiesTreatment is most effective when there is early intervention, yet most people do not know the symptoms of depression
42Often, a teen with depression may be seen as a “normal” teen angst as they may appear angry, belligerent, irritable and hostileWhen this extends beyond 6 months, however, this is considered to be a problem
43Bipolar DisorderBipolar Disorder: A disorder that is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.Causes: 1) runs in families, 2) many different genes may be working togetherSymptoms:Depression: See major depressionMania: 1) inappropriate elation, 2) inappropriate irritability, 3) severe insomnia, 4) increased talking, 5) disconnected and racing thoughts, 6) inappropriate social behavior, 7) feelings of grandiosity, 8) racing thoughts, 9) abuse of drugs and alcohol
44Bipolar is a continuous range. At one end is severe depression, above which is moderate depression and then mild low mood, which many people call "the blues" when it is short-lived but is termed "dysthymia" when it is chronic.
45Descriptions by Bipolars Depression: I doubt completely my ability to do anything well. It seems as though my mind has slowed down and burned out to the point of being virtually useless…. [I am] haunt[ed]… with the total, the desperate hopelessness of it all…. Others say, "It's only temporary, it will pass, you will get over it," but of course they haven't any idea of how I feel, although they are certain they do. If I can't feel, move, think or care, then what on earth is the point?
46Hypomania: At first when I'm high, it's tremendous… ideas are fast… like shooting stars you follow until brighter ones appear…. All shyness disappears, the right words and gestures are suddenly there… uninteresting people, things become intensely interesting. Sensuality is pervasive, the desire to seduce and be seduced is irresistible. Your marrow is infused with unbelievable feelings of ease, power, well-being, omnipotence, euphoria… you can do anything… but, somewhere this changes.
47Mania: The fast ideas become too fast and there are far too many… overwhelming confusion replaces clarity… you stop keeping up with it—memory goes. Infectious humor ceases to amuse. Your friends become frightened…. everything is now against the grain… you are irritable, angry, frightened, uncontrollable, and trapped.
48Treatments:1) Lithium2) Antipsychotic drugs3) Psychosocial treatment4) Psychoeducation5) Family Therapy6) Psychotherapy (individual and group therapy)
49Seasonal Affective Disorder: Disorder in which there is some form of depression associated with the time of year (usually found in fall and winter.Causes: Thought that the pineal gland monitors the amount and quality of light that our eyes receive. The Pineal body secretes chemicals, which controls sleep and may switch the body into a “hibernating” mode for the winter months.Symptoms: 1) depression occurs during certain seasons in the year, 2) weight gain, 3) excessive sleeping, 4) loss of interest in pleasures or hobbiesTreatments: Light therapy (phototherapy)
51Psychological Disorders and Therapies MODULES (OKAY THIS IS REALLY THE LAST POWERPOINT OF THE YEAR!!!)
52Why does someone develop an eating disorder? DietingSportsControl issuesEmotional instability
53Very often, the female (or male) will also engage in the use of laxative, diuretics and /or diet pillsMay also engage in overexercisingMay be an addictive behavior
54Anorexia nervosa: the relentless pursuit of thinness Person refuses to maintain normal body weight for age and height.Weighs 85% or less than what is expected for age and height.In women, menstrual periods stop. In men levels of sex hormones fall.Young girls do not begin to menstruate at the appropriate age
55Person denies the dangers of low weight. Is terrified of becoming fat. Is terrified of gaining weight even though s/he is markedly underweight.Reports feeling fat even when very thin.often includes depression, irritability, withdrawal, and peculiar behaviors such as compulsive rituals, strange eating habits, and division of foods into "good/safe" and "bad/dangerous" categories.May be overly engaged with or dependent on parents or family. Dieting may represent avoidance of, or ineffective attempts to cope with, the demands of a new life stage such as adolescence.
56Research suggests that about one percent (1%) of female adolescents have anorexia. That means that about one out of every one hundred young women between ten and twenty are starving themselves, sometimes to death.
57Bulimia nervosa: the diet-binge-purge disorder Person binge eats.Feels out of control while eating.Vomits, misuses laxatives, exercises, or fasts to get rid of the calories.Diets when not bingeing. Becomes hungry and binges again.Believes self-worth requires being thin. (It does not.)
58May shoplift, be promiscuous, and abuse alcohol, drugs, and credit cards. Weight may be normal or near normal unless anorexia is also present.Like anorexia, bulimia can kill.Bulimics are often depressed, lonely, ashamed, and empty inside. Friends may describe them as competent and fun to be with, but underneath, where they hide their guilty secrets, they are hurting.
59Research suggests that about four percent (4%), or four out of one hundred, college-aged women have bulimia.About 50% of people who have been anorexic develop bulimia or bulimic patterns. Because people with bulimia are secretive, it is difficult to know how many older people are affected.
60What are the health risks? Nausea, irritability, fatigue, dizzyBody lacks essential nutrientsIrregular or cessation (amenorrhea) of menstrual cyclesBones may become brittle and susceptible to breakage – osteoporosis due to low estrogen levels
61Bones tend to age prematurely Skin may become dry and coldFine hair develops on arms, face, back and legs (lanugo)Depressed functioning of the brain
62Risk increased of heart failure RestlessnessKidney problems
63Changes in body metabolism associated with weight loss leads to a lowering of: Heart rateBlood pressureBreathing rateBody temperature (which may result in feeling cold)
64Self-induced vomiting and laxative abuse are associated with physical complications such as: Swollen salivary glands (evident by swelling on the sides of the face)Erosion of tooth enamel, increase in dental cavitiesFatigueBody fluid lossBloating, swelling of the feet and ankles
65Soreness or tears in the lining of the mouth or throat Constipation, stomach crampsNumbness and tingling in the limbsDizziness, weakness, fainting
66Binge eating disorder The person binge eats frequently and repeatedly. Feels out of control and unable to stop eating during binges.May eat rapidly and secretly, or may snack and nibble all day long.Feels guilty and ashamed of binge eating.Has a history of diet failures
67Tends to be depressed and obese. People who have binge eating disorder do not regularly vomit, overexercise, or abuse laxatives like bulimics do.They may be genetically predisposed to weigh more than the cultural ideal (which at present is exceedingly unrealistic), so they diet, make themselves hungry, and then binge in response to that hunger.Or they may eat for emotional reasons: to comfort themselves, avoid threatening situations, and numb emotional pain. Regardless of the reason, diet programs are not the answer. In fact, diets almost always make matters worse.
68Anorexia athletica (compulsive exercising) Not a formal diagnosis. The behaviors are usually a part of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, or obsessive-compulsive disorder.The person repeatedly exercises beyond the requirements for good health.May be a fanatic about weight and diet.Steals time to exercise from work, school, and relationships.Focuses on challenge. Forgets that physical activity can be fun.Defines self-worth in terms of performance
69Is rarely or never satisfied with athletic achievements. Justifies excessive behavior by defining self as a "special" elite athlete.Compulsive exercising is not an official diagnosis as are anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder.The real issues are not weight and performance excellence but rather control and self-respect.
70Body dysmorphic disorder BDD is thought to be a subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is not a variant of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.The person with an eating disorder says, "I am so fat." The person with BDD says, "I am so ugly."BDD often includes social phobias. Sufferers are shy and withdrawn in new situations and with unfamiliar people.BDD affects about two percent of the people in the United States. It strikes males and females equally. Seventy percent of cases appear before age eighteen.Sufferers are excessively concerned about appearance, in particular perceived flaws of face, hair, and skin. They are convinced these flaws exist in spite of reassurances from friends and family members who usually can see nothing to justify such intense worry and anxiety.
71BDD sufferers are at elevated risk for despair and suicide BDD sufferers are at elevated risk for despair and suicide. In some cases they undergo multiple, unnecessary plastic surgeries.BDD is treatable and begins with an evaluation by a physician and mental health care provider.Treatments that have been found to be effective include medication (especially meds that adjust serotonin levels in the brain) and cognitions
72Orthorexia nervosaNot an official eating disorder diagnosis. A pathological fixation on eating "proper" or "pure" or "superior" food.People with orthorexia nervosa feel superior to others who eat "improper" food, which might include non-organic or junk foodsOrthorexics obsess over what to eat, how much to eat, how to prepare food "properly," and where to obtain "pure" and "proper" foods.Eating the "right" food becomes an important ,or even the primary, focus of life. One's worth or goodness is seen in terms of what one does or does not eat. Personal values, relationships, career goals, and friendships become less important than the quality and timing of what is consumed.Perhaps related to, or a type of, obsessive-compulsive disorder
73Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-disorder in which the individual may experience periods of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and difficulty concentrating. Age of onset may be earlier than 6 or 7, but not clearly diagnosed until this time.- Causes-implications regarding various areas of the brain
74Symptoms-Inattentive type: inattention that has persisted for at least 6 months which becomes maladaptive, may lack attention to detail, make careless mistakes, difficulty maintaining attention for in tasks or play, difficulty following directions, often loses things, often forgetful in their daily activities.
75Hyperactivity-impulsive type-fidgeting with hands or feet, squirms in seat, leaves seat in classroom, runs about or climbs excessively when inappropriate, has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities, often talks excessively.Combined type: symptoms of the above two.
76Symptoms were present before the age of 7 and some impairment must be present in two or more settings.-Treatments-behavioral therapy, pharmacological (usually Ritalin)See a nutritionist
77Schizophrenic Disorders Class of disorders that may be characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and maladaptive behavior. People are often on medications for life.4 types:1. Paranoid type: marked by delusions of persecution and delusions of grandeur.2. Catatonic type: marked by either long periods of motionlessness and unaware of environment or periods of hyperactive movement and incoherent speech.
783. Disorganized type: marked by emotional indifference, incoherent speech, random babbling and silliness4. Undifferentiated type: demonstrates behaviors from the other three categories.Causes: May be the only disorder that people agree has a genetic component. May be related to neurotransmitter activity, especially an excess of dopamine. May have structural abnormalities of the brain.Treatments: Medications are usually effective.
79Abnormal Psych-Therapies PsychotherapyLikely to seek therapy are: insured, divorced/separated, single, over 16 years of age, femalesPsychologists may earn a Ph.D., Psy.D., or Ed.D. They have 5 to 7 years of training beyond bachelor’s degree. Also there is a requirement of 1 to 2 years in a clinical setting.Psychiatrists earn an M.D. degree. Graduate training requires 4 years of coursework in medical school. There is also a requirement of a 4 year apprenticeship in a residency at a hospital.
80Insight Therapies1) Psychoanalysis-deals with unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference. (Freud)a) free association: where the client spontaneously express their thought and feelings exactly as they occur, with very little censorship.b) dream analysis: when therapist interprets symbolic meanings of client’s dreams
81c) talking therapies: in which the client talks, trying to reach catharsis (release of emotions) Possible negative problems during therapya) resistance: a mostly unconscious defense mechanism that may hinder the progress of therapyb) transference: when the client transfers feelings for their critical relationships onto the therapistc) countertransference: when the therapist transfers feelings they have for others onto the client
822) Client-centered therapy-therapy in which the client plays a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. The client is thought to be “their own best therapist”. Therapist serves as a facilitator, they provide clarification. Carl Rogers, founder of this method of therapy, states:
83“It is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial, what experiences have been deeply buried. It began to occur to me that unless I had a need to demonstrate my own cleverness and learning, I would do better to rely upon the client for the direction of movement in the process”
84Rogers believed that the therapist should be: genuineempathetic (feeling for the client)have unconditional positive regard (be nonjudgmental towards the client regardless of what they tell the therapist)
853) Cognitive therapy: helps the client to recognize and overcome negative thoughts about themselves. (Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis). Client is trained to detect their automatic thought processes. Often utilized with behavioral therapy today.4) Group therapy: when several clients are treated at the same time. Participants often act as the “therapist” while the therapist serves as a facilitator.Advantages:1) saves time and money2) clients realize that their misery is not unique3) participants can work on social skills
86Behavior Therapies-based on the principles of classical, operant and observational learning. 1. Aversion therapy-an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that brings on an undesirable response.2. Systematic desensitization-clients slowly faces phobic stimulus in a step-by-step process in which they relieve themselves of anxiety at each step3. Flooding-clients are quickly exposed to phobic stimulus not allowing for time to relieve anxiety
873. Token economies – giving tokens for correct behavior that can be later exchanged for desired goods.4. Social skills training-designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal and shaping (reinforcing each step towards desired goal behavior)5. Biofeedback-a bodily function (such as heart or blood pressure) is monitored, and information about the bodily function is given back to the client. Helps control physiological processes.
88Biomedical Therapies1. Psychopharmacotherapy-treatment of mental disorders with medicationa) Antianxiety drugs: relieve tension, apprehension and nervousness. Effects are seen rather immediately and can last for several hours. Most popular are Xanax and Valium.
89b) Antipsychotic drugs: primarily used to treat Schizophrenia, but may be given to those with severe mood disorders who become delusional.appear to decrease the levels of dopamine in a person’s system.Most popular are Thorazine, Mellaril and Haldol.Antipsychotics may have a negative side effect called tardive dyskinesia, which has symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease (involuntary writing and ticklike movements of the mouth, tongue, face, hands and feet).
90c) Antidepressant drugs: drugs that gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression. Takes several weeks to see improvement. There are three types:1. Tricyclics: the first group of antidepressant drugs. Have a tendency to have more side effects than SSRI’s. (Elavil)2. MAOI’s (monoamine oxidase inhibitors)-Second group of antidepressant meds. One has to be very careful about certain foods and meds taken with these drugs as they could have potentially fatal results. (Nardil)3. SSRI’s (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)-Newest class of antidepressant drugs. Include meds such as Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft.
91d) Lithium-chemical used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium levels in the blood must be monitored carefully because high levels could be toxic or even fatal.
922. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)-treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions. Primarily used on those with severe depression. May lead to gaps in memory or short-term memory loss. Seems to “rewire” the brains circuitry.3. Lobotomy-Procedure in which cells in the forebrain are lesioned. Has been used to treat severe schizophrenics.