13The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”2,500 year old tradition.The 3 jewels of Buddhism:Buddha, the teacher.Dharma, the teachings.Sangha, the community.
14Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born in NE India (Nepal).Raised in great luxury to be a king.At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs.Rejecting this extreme, sat inmeditation, and found nirvana.Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
15What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
16Four Noble TruthsThere is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha)The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
17Four Noble TruthsThe cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)
18Four Noble TruthsThe solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
19Four Noble TruthsTo reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
20Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
26Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Tibetan BuddhismZen Buddhism
27Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. The “Way of the Elders” or the “Small Vehicle.”Found in southern Asia.The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana.Focus on wisdom and meditation.Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.”Buddha was a mortal man
29Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan).Buddhism “for the masses.”Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings.Often worship BuddhaGoal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.
33Tibetan Buddhism The “Diamond Vehicle.” [Vajrayana] Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE.A mix of Theravada and Mahayana.Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama.The Tibetan Book of the Dead [Bardo Thodol].
35zen Buddhism The “Meditation School.” Seeks sudden enlightenment through meditation, arriving at emptinessUse of meditation masters .Beauty, art, and aesthetics:Gardens.Archery.Tea ceremony.Calligraphy.
36Relieve Stress & Meditate: Get a Mantra ! Ohm...mani...padme...hung...Hail to the jewel in the lotus!
38What is Hinduism? One of the oldest religions of humanity The religion of the Indian peopleGave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, SikhismTolerance and diversity: "Truth is one, paths are many"Many deities but a single, impersonal Ultimate RealityA philosophy and a way of life – focused both on this world and beyond
39How did Hinduism begin? No particular founder Indus River Valley Civilization >5000 years agoAryans enter years agoVedic Tradition 3500 – 2500 years ago:rituals and many gods (polytheism)sacred texts (Vedas)social stratification (caste system)Upanishads (metaphysical philosophy) 2800 – 2400 years agoVedic Tradition develops into Hinduism
40What are the Sacred Texts? Shruti (“heard”) – oldest, most authoritative:Four Vedas (“truth”) – myths, rituals, chantsUpanishads - metaphysical speculationPlus other textsSmriti (“remembered”) – the Great Indian Epics:RamayanaMahabharata (includes Bhagavad-Gita)Plus others
41What do Hindus believe? One impersonal Ultimate Reality – Brahman Manifest as many personal deitiesTrue essence of life – Atman, the soul, is Brahman trapped in matterReincarnation – atman is continually born into this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara)Karma – spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad)Ultimate goal of life – to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman (Moksha)
42How does Hinduism direct life in this world? Respect for all life – vegetarianHuman life as supreme:Four “stations” of life (Caste) - priests & teachers, nobles & warriors, merchant class, servant classFour stages of life – student, householder, retired, renunciantFour duties of life – pleasure, success, social responsibilities, religious responsibilities (moksha)
43What are the spiritual practices of Hinduism? The Four Yogas - seeking union with the divine:Karma Yoga – the path of action through selfless service (releases built up karma without building up new karma)Jnana Yoga – the path of knowledge (understanding the true nature of reality and the self)Raja Yoga – the path of meditationBhakti Yoga – the path of devotionGuru – a spiritual teacher, especially helpful for Jnana and Raja yoga
44How do Hindus worship?Bhakti Yoga is seeking union with the divine through loving devotion to manifest deitiesIn the home (household shrines)In the Temples (priests officiate)Puja – making offerings to and decorating the deity imagesDarsan – “seeing” the deity (not idol worship)Prasad – taking the divine within your own being through eating of food shared with the deity
45Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma, the creator god
46Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Vishnu, the preserver god:
47Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Shiva, god of constructive destruction (the transformer)Appears as Shiva Nataraj, lord of the dance of creation…and with his wife, Parvati, and son Ganesha (the elephant headed remover of obstacles)
48What about the goddesses? Devi – the feminine divine Saraswati, goddess of wisdom, consort of Brahma
49What about the goddesses? Devi – the feminine divine Lakshmi, goddess of good fortune, consort of Vishnu
50What about the goddesses? Devi – the feminine divine Parvati, divine mother, wife of Shiva
51What about the goddesses? Devi – the feminine divine Durga, protectressKali, destroyer of demonsPlus about 330 million other deities
52All these deities are but Manifest forms (attributesand functions) of theimpersonal Brahman
53And we too are manifest forms of God! “We are not human beings having spiritual experiences; We are spiritual beings having a human experience!”“That art Thou”Hinduism is about recognizing the all pervasiveness of the divine
55Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE Unified northern India.Defeated the Persian general Seleucus.Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.He feared assassination [like Saddam Hussein] food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.301 BCE gave up his throne & became a Jain.
57Kautilya Chandragupta’s advisor. Brahmin caste. Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra.A guide for the king and his ministers:Supports royal power.The great evil in society is anarchy.Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!
58Asoka (304 – 232 BCE)Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in BCE.Dedicated his life to Buddhism.Built extensive roads.Conflict how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?
60Asoka’s law codeEdicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.10 rock edicts.Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
65Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I Chandra Gupta II Hindu revival. r. 320 – 335 CE“Great King of Kings”Chandra Gupta IIr CEProfitable trade with the Mediterranean world!Hindu revival.Huns invade – 450 CE
66Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c.He was following the path of the Buddha.He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.
70Kalidasa The greatest of Indian poets. His most famous play was Shakuntala.During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.
71Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture. Gupta ArtGreatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
72500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides Gupta Achievements1000 diseases classified500 healing plants identifiedPrinted medicinal guidesKalidasaLiteraturePlastic SurgeryMedicineInoculationsGupta IndiaC-sections performedSolar CalendarAstronomyMathematicsDecimal SystemThe earth is roundPI =Concept of Zero
73The Decline of the Guptas Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them.After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c.