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Master in Water Engineering Water Supply and Drainage Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Master in Water Engineering Water Supply and Drainage Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Master in Water Engineering Water Supply and Drainage Systems

2 Water Supply in a historical approach Professor in charge: Alberte Martínez

3 Aims To analyse the different concepts of water and think about their implications To analyse the water management in the long run and their economic, institutional and technological constraints To know the global issue of water nowadays and its debates To know the main stages in the water supply in Spain and its current situation

4 PROGRAMME (I) –What is Water? A comprehensive approach Different concepts of water Water, a perfect capitalist commodity The Water Debate A New Water Paradigm: The Soft Path for Water The tragedy of commons –From the Clasic to the Modern System of Drinking Water Clasic System (preindustrial times) Transition to the Modern System (first industrialization, XIX) Modern System (second industrialization, XX)

5 PROGRAMME (II) Water nowadays worldwide –The supply –The demand –Trends on drinking water access and sanitation, 1990-2010 –Water and biodiversity –Agreements and conflicts –Ways of management: the debate

6 PROGRAMME (III) Water supply and business management in Spain –Private management, 1840-1936 –Public intervention and municipalization, 1936-1975 –Privatizations, 1975-> –The sector in the recient years Generic data Supply Quality Drainage A case study: water supply in A Coruña

7 What is Water? A comprehensive approach For a chemist: H 2 O For a phisycist: a liquid For a engineer: a fluid For a politician: power (votes) For a tourist: leisure, health For urban people: comfort For peasants: harvest For an energy company: electricity For a businessman: an input For a “primitive”: life and religion

8 Water: a perfect capitalist product Rare and scarce –70% of the earth´s surface –But only 1% is avaliable water (2% in polar ice-caps) Indispensable for life –Human bodies are 45-75% water The supply can´t be increased No substitutes

9 Consequences Increasing demand –Population growth –Urbanization –Irrigation –Industrial development –Tourism and leisure Increasing prices

10 Water: a natural monopoly Similar to other network services No real choice for competition because economies of scale and efficiency Public management: more equity but problems of efficiency Private management: problems of monopoly-> ^prices and public regulation (information)

11 The Water Debate Debate not only academic but also social A commodity/production factor (Neoclasics) –Economic features –Assignment by the market: competition and price –Private Property rights –Search for efficency –Focused on expanding the offer

12 The Water Debate Social asset (institutionalist economists) –Symbolic, cultural, emotional values –Universal public good Universal access Government and citizens´ control Not free but political prices –Collective property rights/management –Assignement by the community Market limits to distribute it in different uses Public regulation Cooperation, equality –Focused in controlling the demand –Scarcity, Sustainability

13 A New Water Paradigm: The Soft Path for Water Focusing on ensuring water for human needs Focusing on ensuring water for ecological needs Matching the quality of water needed with the quality of water used Matching the scale of the infrastructure to the scale of the need Ensuring public participation in decisions over water Using the power of smart economics

14 From the Clasic to the Modern System of Drinking Water Clasic System (preindustrial times) Transition to the Modern System (first industrialization, XIX) Modern System (second industrialization, XX)

15 The Clasic System Preindustrial times Predominance of agricultural use (irrigation): Ancient High Cultures And for small cities: renaissance of commerce Diversification of supplies –Individuals: wells –Colective: aqueducts, fountains

16 The Clasic System (2) Constraints –Economic: lack of capital –Organizational: no experience –Technological: prescientific stage Materials Machines Projets design

17 The Clasic System (3) Not general accessibility: linear nature of aqueducts (simple nets) Scarce, biological, consumption (10 l/d) Lack of control on quality

18 Transition to the Modern System First industrialization, XIX century The standstill of the Clasic System –Stagnancy/fall and deterioration of drinking water supply New industrial uses Pollution –The rise of the demand Demographic growth Strong urbanization Industrialization Changes in body cleanliness habits

19 Transition to the Modern System Public financial, organizational and technological inability->resort to private companies Slow process –Coexistence of supplies Fountains and water-carriers (photo) Networked home supply –Users´ resistance: from a free good to a fare


21 Changes in the institutional framework From the Feudalism –Undefined, confused and complex property rights: shared, comunal, “imperfect” property –Immobilized good To the Capitalism –Privatization: individual property –Definition of property rights –“Perfect” (private) property –Liberalization: water as a commodity Aim: to promote the productive uses of water

22 Water, hygiene and mortality Higher mortality in cities (overcrowding) Higher mortality in popular neighborhoods (low areas, more unhealthy) Reinforcement of social segregation, also in water access (low and high areas) Persistence of epidemics, some of them related to the water quality: typhoid fever, malaria, cholera Close relation between mortality fall and quality water supply and drainage (graphic)

23 Mortality by typhoid fever in Spain (1900-1955), in so much for thousand, five-year average

24 Water, hygiene and mortality (2) High price of water, with rising tendency, both absolutely and relatively Lack of drainage Reluctance of houses and pieces of land owners to their modernization (water supply and drainage) due to the taxes Rivalry and emulation among cities

25 Water, hygiene and mortality (3) Progressive concern for public health in XIXth century Importance of the reformist and hygienist movement: air, water and sun Initial concern only for the quantity of water Concern for the quality from the middle of XIXth century, and for the drainage from the end of that century Scientific discoveries (bacteriology, Koch, Pasteur) in the late XIXth and legal and technical developments in the early XXth Different approaches from doctors, engineers, urbanists and chemists, who took time to agree

26 Modern System Second industrialization, XXth Linked to industrialization and urbanization Specialized in home supply Predominance of colective networks Public service High consumption (250 l/d)

27 Modern System (2) More financial resources: mixed banks Organizational improvements: managerial revolution New technological resources: the Second Industrial Revolution (steel, electricity, chemistry)

28 Basic bibliography AGUILERA, F., 1993: Economía del agua, Madrid: MAPA. Articles of Kelso, Brown and Ingram, Bromley, Chan, Aguilera, or Wade. BIGATTI, G., 1997: «La conquista dell’acqua. Urbanizzazione e aprovvigionamento idrico», en BIGATTI, GIUNTINI, MANTEGAZZA y ROTONDI, L’acqua e il gas in Italia, Milán: Francoangeli, 27-161. BLACK, Maggie, 2009. The atlas of water: mapping the world's most critical resource. Berkeley: University of California Press. GEORGE, S., 2008. Water and sustainable development. Expoagua Zaragoza. HASSAN, J. A., 1998: A History of Water in Modern England and Wales, Manchester: Manchester University Press. MARTÍNEZ, A. (dir.), GIADÁS, L., MIRÁS, J., PIÑEIRO, C. y REGO, G., 2004, Aguas de La Coruña, 1903-2003. Cien años al servicio de la ciudad. Madrid: Lid.

29 Basic bibliography MATÉS, J.M. (1998), Cambio institucional y servicios municipales. Una historia del servicio público de abastecimiento de agua. Editorial Comares, Granada. - (1999), La conquista del agua. Historia económica del abastecimiento urbano. Universidad de Jaén, Jaén. NACIONES UNIDAS, 2008. El Agua : una responsabilidad compartida: 2º informe de las Naciones Unidas sobre el desarrollo de los recursos hídricos en el mundo. Zaragoza: Sociedad Estatal Expoagua Zaragoza. NAREDO, J.M. (ed.), 1997. La economía del agua en España. Madrid :Fundación Argentaria. Articles of Naredo and Aguilera. SHIVA, Vandana, 2004. Las guerras del agua: contaminación, privatización y negocio. Barcelona: Icaria. SHIVA, Vandana, 2008. Water and Earth's biodiversity =El agua y la biodiversidad de la Tierra = La biodiversité de l'eau et de la Terre. Zaragoza: Sociedad Estatal Expoagua Zaragoza. SUEVOS, R., 1995. A Sede da terra. Economía da auga. Santiago de Compostela: Laiovento.

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