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Unit 4: Text A 21st Century College English: Book 2 Turning Failure into Success.

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2 Unit 4: Text A 21st Century College English: Book 2 Turning Failure into Success

3 Unit Four: Text A Lead-in Activities Lead-in ActivitiesLead-in ActivitiesLead-in Activities Text Organization Text OrganizationText OrganizationText Organization Reading and Writing Skills Reading and Writing SkillsReading and Writing SkillsReading and Writing Skills Language Points Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Guided Practice Guided PracticeGuided PracticeGuided Practice Assignment AssignmentAssignment

4 Lead-in Activities 1.What is success? And what is failure? How do you define them? 2.What do you think of the saying “Failure is the mother of success”? Questions for Discussion

5 Beginning --- introduce an extreme example of a common phenomenon of failure Development ---it is wrong to assume that any failure is bad and any success is good. Further development --- the reason why so many people are so afraid of failure Solution --- how to learn to use failure so that it makes a positive contribution to our live. Solution --- how to learn to use failure so that it makes a positive contribution to our live. Summary and a final touch --- Noble failure is a special heroism para. 1 para. 2-7 para para para. 13 Text Organization

6 Reading & Writing Skills 1. Effective Way of Argumentation First to present a view point. Then argue against it by presenting another point of view with supporting presenting another point of view with supporting ideas ( Examples :para 2 and 3 ) ideas ( Examples :para 2 and 3 ) 2. Reading between the lines Reading between the lines means drawing inferences about the author’s ideas from what is written and about the author’s ideas from what is written and from what is not written. from what is not written.

7 Turning Failure into Success Fredelle Maynard 1 Vicky — beautiful, talented, very bright, voted “Most Likely to Succeed” in college — got a promising job with a large company after graduation. Then, after two years without promotions, she was fired. She suffered a complete nervous breakdown. “It was panic,” she told me later. “Everything had always gone so well for me that I had no experience in coping with rejection. I felt I was a failure.” Vicky’s reaction is an extreme example of a common phenomenon. voted panicrejectiona failureVicky’s reaction is an extreme example of a common phenomenonvoted panicrejectiona failureVicky’s reaction is an extreme example of a common phenomenon Intensive Study

8 2 Our society places so much emphasis on “making it” that we assume that any failure is bad. What we don’t always recognize is that what looks like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial. When Vicky was able to think coolly about why she was fired, for example, she realized that she was simply not suited for a job dealing with people all the time. In her new position as a copy editor, she works independently, is happy and once again “successful.” What we don’t always recognize is that what looks like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial dealing withWhat we don’t always recognize is that what looks like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial dealing with Intensive Study

9 3 People are generally prone to what language expert S. I. Hayakawa calls “the two-valued orientation”. We talk about seeing both sides of a question as if every question had only two sides. We assume that everyone is either a success or a failure when, in fact, infinite degrees of both are possible. As Hayakawa points out, there’s a world of difference between “I have failed three times” and “I am a failure.” Indeed, the words failure and success cannot be reasonably applied to a complex, living, changing human being. They can only describe the situation at a particular time and place. People are generally prone to what language expert S. I. Hayakawa calls “the two-valued orientation”We talk about seeing both sides of a question as if every question had only two sidesa world ofIndeed, the words failure and success cannot be reasonably applied to a complex, living, changing human being People are generally prone to what language expert S. I. Hayakawa calls “the two-valued orientation”We talk about seeing both sides of a question as if every question had only two sidesa world ofIndeed, the words failure and success cannot be reasonably applied to a complex, living, changing human being

10 4 Obviously no one can be brilliant at everything. In fact, success in one area often precludes success in another. A famous politician once told me that his career had practically destroyed his marriage. “I have no time for my family,” he explained. “I travel a lot. And even when I’m home, I hardly see my wife and kids. I’ve got power, money, prestige — but as a husband and father, I’m a flop.” precludes Intensive Study

11 5 Certain kinds of success can indeed be destructive. The danger of too early success is particularly acute. I recall from my childhood a girl whose skill on ice skates marked her as “Olympic material”. While the rest of us were playing, bicycling, reading and just loafing, this girl skated — every day after school and all weekend. Her picture often appeared in the papers, and the rest of us envied her glamorous life. Years later, however, she spoke bitterly of those early triumphs. “I never prepared myself for anything but the ice,” she said. “I peaked at 17 — and it’s been downhill ever since.” I recall from my childhood a girl whose skill on ice skates marked her as “Olympic material”I recall from my childhood a girl whose skill on ice skates marked her as “Olympic material” Intensive Study

12 6 Success that comes too easily is also damaging. The child who wins a prize for a carelessly-written essay, the adult who distinguishes himself at a first job by lucky accident faces probable disappointment when real challenges arise. distinguishes himself distinguishes himself 7 Success is also bad when it’s achieved at the cost of the total quality of an experience. Successful students sometimes become so obsessed with grades that they never enjoy their school years. They never branch out into tempting new areas, because they don’t want to risk their grade-point average. at the cost of They never branch out into tempting new areas, because they don’t want to risk their grade-point averageat the cost of They never branch out into tempting new areas, because they don’t want to risk their grade-point average Intensive Study

13 8 Why are so many people so afraid of failure? Simply because no one tells us how to fail so that failure becomes a growing experience. We forget that failure is part of the human condition and that “every person has the right to fail.” failure is part of the human conditionfailure is part of the human condition 9 Most parents work hard at either preventing failure or shielding their children from the knowledge that they have failed. One way is to lower standards. A mother describes her child’s hastily made table as “perfect!” even though it’s clumsy and unsteady. Another way is to shift blame. If John fails math, his teacher is unfair or stupid. shielding their children from the knowledge that they have failedshielding their children from the knowledge that they have failed Intensive Study

14 10 The trouble with failure-prevention devices is that they leave a child unequipped for life in the real world. The young need to learn that no one can be best at everything, no one can win all the time — and that it’s possible to enjoy a game even when you don’t win. A child who’s not invited to a birthday party, who doesn’t make the honor roll or the baseball team feels terrible, of course. But parents should not offer a quick consolation prize or say, “It doesn’t matter,” because it does. The youngster should be allowed to experience disappointment — and then be helped to master it. make the honor roll or the baseball teammake the honor roll or the baseball team Intensive Study

15 11 Failure is never pleasant. It hurts adults and children alike. But it can make a positive contribution to your life once you learn to use it. Step one is to ask, “Why did I fail?” Resist the natural impulse to blame someone else. Ask yourself what you did wrong, how you can improve. If someone else can help, don’t be shy about inquiring. 12 When I was a teenager and failed to get a job I’d counted on, I telephoned the interviewer to ask why. “Because you came ten minutes late,” I was told. “We can’t afford employees who waste other people’s time.” The explanation was reassuring (I hadn’t been rejected as a person) and helpful, too. I don’t think I’ve been late for anything since. Intensive Study

16 13 Success, which encourages repetition of old behavior, is not nearly as good a teacher as failure. You can learn from a disastrous party how to give a good one, from an ill-chosen first house what to look for in a second. Even a failure that seems total can prompt fresh thinking, a change of direction. Success, which encourages repetition of old behavior, is not nearly as good a teacher as failureprompt Success, which encourages repetition of old behavior, is not nearly as good a teacher as failureprompt Intensive Study

17 14 A friend of mine, after 12 years of studying ballet, did not succeed in becoming a dancer. She was turned down by the ballet master, who said, “You will never be a dancer. You haven’t the body for it.” In such cases, the way to use failure is to take stock courageously, asking, “What have I left? What else can I do?” My friend put away her toe shoes and moved into dance therapy, a field where she’s both competent and useful. turned downtake stockturned downtake stock Intensive Study

18 15 Though we may envy the assurance that comes with success, most of us are attracted by courage in defeat. There is what might be called the noble failure — the special heroism of aiming high, doing your best and then, when that proves not enough, moving bravely on. As Ralph Waldo Emerson said: “A man’s success is made up of failures, because he experiments and ventures every day, and the more falls he gets, moves faster on... I have heard that in horsemanship — a man will never be a good rider until he is thrown; then he will not be haunted any longer by the terror that he shall tumble, and will ride whither he is bound.” Intensive Study

19 votev. —(esp. passive) declare sb./sth. to be good, bad, etc. by general consent. e.g. The show was voted a great success.The show was voted a great success. The children all voted the trip the best they had ever had.The children all voted the trip the best they had ever had. Translate Translate他被公认为是全家最聪明的一个。 Key He is voted the smartest in the family.

20 panicn. —a feeling or state of sudden uncontrollable and quickly spreading fear e.g. He got into a panic about examinations.He got into a panic about examinations. The thought of flying alone filled me with panic.The thought of flying alone filled me with panic. Translate When a fire started in the theater, there was a panic. Key 剧院失火时,引起一阵恐慌。

21 rejection n. —the act of refusing to grant or the state of being denied of (a request, demand, etc.) e.g I’ve applied for ten jobs, but all I’ve got is rejections.I’ve applied for ten jobs, but all I’ve got is rejections. He did not ask her to marry him out of fear of rejection.He did not ask her to marry him out of fear of rejection. Drill Make a sentence with “rejection”.

22 a failure —a person, an attempt or a thing that fails e.g. The project was a complete failure.The project was a complete failure. I’m a bit of a failure at painting.I’m a bit of a failure at painting. Fill in the blank He is _____ ( 不是个成功的艺术家), but a success as an art teacher. a failure as an artist

23 Vicky’s reaction is an extreme example of a common phenomenon. Paraphrase? —Such feelings people have (when rejected) are very common, but in Vicky’s case they are especially serious and unusual. —Such feelings people have (when rejected) are very common, but in Vicky’s case they are especially serious and unusual.

24 What we don’t always recognize is that what looks like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial. in the long run in the long run — eventually; in the end e.g. It pays to buy goods of high quality in the long run.It pays to buy goods of high quality in the long run. Studying may be difficult just now, but you will benefit in the long run.Studying may be difficult just now, but you will benefit in the long run. Translate Physical exercises will be for your health in the long run. Key 体育锻炼终究是对你的健康有益的。 More to learn More to learn

25 What we don’t always recognize is that what looks like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial. In the statement, the scope of negation extends from the negative word “not” itself only to the adverbial “always” rather than to the verb “recognize”, i.e. only the adverbial is within the stretch of language over which the negative meaning operates. More to learn More to learn

26 What we don’t always recognize is that what looks like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial. e.g. e.g. He is not always at home in the evening.He is not always at home in the evening. (=He’s often at home in the evening, but not always.) Things do not always go right.Things do not always go right. (=Things normally go right, but not always.)

27 deal with sth. —handle or attend to sth. (usu. sth. that needs attention or concern) e.g. Haven’t you dealt with that letter yet?Haven’t you dealt with that letter yet? The Finance Officer deals with all the finances of the university.The Finance Officer deals with all the finances of the university. Cf. cope with sth. — deal with sth. successfully (usu. sth. difficult or unpleasant that one must accept or endure) e.g. I had no experience in coping with rejection (Line 6, Para 1).I had no experience in coping with rejection (Line 6, Para 1). Poor families have to cope with a lot of problems.Poor families have to cope with a lot of problems.

28 Paraphrase? —People generally tend to look at things as having only two values, or two sides: anything that is not good must be bad, and that is not true must be false — this two valued logic is called “the two-valued orientation” by Hayakawa. —People generally tend to look at things as having only two values, or two sides: anything that is not good must be bad, and that is not true must be false — this two valued logic is called “the two-valued orientation” by Hayakawa. People are generally prone to what language expert S. I. Hayakawa calls “the two-valued orientation”. More to learn More to learn

29 e.g. He is prone to lose temper when others disagree with him. He is prone to lose temper when others disagree with him. Kids are all prone to eat junk food.Kids are all prone to eat junk food. Translate我妹妹易患感冒。 Key My sister is prone to flu. be prone to — be likely to (sth. or do or suffer from sth., esp. sth. bad or harmful) More to learn More to learn People are generally prone to what language expert S. I. Hayakawa calls “the two-valued orientation”.

30 Text-related information S. I. Hayakawa (1906 ~ 1992) Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa was a scholar, university president, and U.S. senator from California (1977 — 1983). He is best known for his popular writings on semantics (the study of the meanings of words and sentences) and for his career as president of San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University). His book, Language in Action (1941), was a popular treatment of semantic theories.

31 We talk about seeing both sides of a question as if every question had only two sides. “As if” can introduce either a likely or an unlikely guess. When “as if” is used to introduce something that is unreal or unlikely to happen, we normally use the subjunctive mood. This structure is often used to make comparative description. More to learn More to learn

32 e.g. It looks as if a bad storm is coming.It looks as if a bad storm is coming. (= A bad storm seems likely.) The horses are acting as if a bad storm were coming.The horses are acting as if a bad storm were coming. (= A bad storm seems unlikely, but the horses’ behavior reminds me of their behavior before a storm.) We talk about seeing both sides of a question as if every question had only two sides. More to do More to do

33 Drill Complete each of the following sentences in two ways: a) with a likely guess or prediction, and b) with an unlikely or untrue comparative description. 1.Their laughter and conversation sound as if a)enjoying each others’ company b)in the same room with us 1.Their laughter and conversation sound as if a)enjoying each others’ company b)in the same room with us 2.You’re so pale! You look as if a)getting sick b)seen a ghost We talk about seeing both sides of a question as if every question had only two sides. they’re enjoying each other’s company they were in the same room with us you’re getting sick you had seen a ghost

34 a world of — a large amount of; lots of e.g. There’s a world of difference in the performance of the two cars.There’s a world of difference in the performance of the two cars. That experience gave him a world of good.That experience gave him a world of good. Fill in the blank There’s truly _____ ( 天壤之别 ) between the old Chinese society and the new. a world of difference

35 Indeed, the words failure and success cannot be reasonably applied to a complex, living, changing human being. Paraphrase? —It is certainly unfair just to call someone a failure or a success, for a human being is a complex, living thing that keeps changing. —It is certainly unfair just to call someone a failure or a success, for a human being is a complex, living thing that keeps changing. More to learn More to learn

36 . apply to — use (a particular word or name) to describe (sth. or sb.) Drill Make a sentence with “apply to”. e.g. e.g. I’d never apply the word “readable” to any of his books.I’d never apply the word “readable” to any of his books. The term “mat” can be applied to any small rug.The term “mat” can be applied to any small rug. Indeed, the words failure and success cannot be reasonably applied to a complex, living, changing human being.

37 e.g These conditions prelude us from joining in this event.These conditions prelude us from joining in this event. Age alone will not prelude him from standing as a candidate.Age alone will not prelude him from standing as a candidate. Key 这项合同并未排除我为你工作的同时受雇于其他人。 Translate This contract does not prelude my being employed by others at the same time I am working for you. prelude vt. —make sth. impossible

38 I recall from my childhood a girl whose skill on ice skate marked her as “Olympic material”. Paraphrase? — distinguished her as a potential Olympic athlete More to learn More to learn

39 e.g These qualities mark the film as exceptionally good.These qualities mark the film as exceptionally good. Hard work has marked Asian Americans as a model minority.Hard work has marked Asian Americans as a model minority. Drill Make a sentence with “mark as”. Make a sentence with “mark as”. mark…as — be a distinguishing feature of … as I recall from my childhood a girl whose skill on ice skate marked her as “Olympic material”.

40 distinguish oneself —deserve to be noticed by doing sth very well e.g. He distinguished himself in the debate. He distinguished himself in the debate. McEnroe first distinguished himself by winning a junior tournament at Wimbledon.McEnroe first distinguished himself by winning a junior tournament at Wimbledon. Fill in the blank The young officer _____ ( 屡建战功 ). distinguished himself many times in battle

41 e.g He saved the children from the fire at the cost of his own life.He saved the children from the fire at the cost of his own life. The poor fox escaped from the trap at the cost of a leg.The poor fox escaped from the trap at the cost of a leg. at the cost of — involving the loss of Paraphrase the underlined part The businessman enjoyed a successful career but his relationship with his wife suffered. Key at the cost of his relationship with his wife at the cost of his relationship with his wife

42 They never branch out into tempting new areas, because they don’t want to risk their grade-point average. Paraphrase? —They always stick to what they are learning and never try anything new and interesting because they don’t want to do anything that may result in a lower GPA. More to learn More to learn

43 e.g The bookstore has decided to branch out into selling records and tapes.The bookstore has decided to branch out into selling records and tapes. She’s leaving the company to branch out on her own.She’s leaving the company to branch out on her own. branch out —extend or expand one’s activities or interests into another direction; begin doing other things also They never branch out into tempting new areas, because they don’t want to risk their grade-point average. More to do More to do

44 Translate First Jim collected stamps; then he branched out and collected coins, too. Key吉姆起初收集邮票,随后又把收集范围扩大到了硬币。 They never branch out into tempting new areas, because they don’t want to risk their grade-point average.

45 failure is part of the human condition —failure is one of the things that human existence depends on

46 shielding their children from the knowledge that they have failed —protecting their children from knowing that they have failed

47 make the honor roll or the baseball team — earn a place in the honor roll or become a member of the baseball team

48 Success, …, is not nearly as good a teacher as failure. Paraphrase? — Success … teaches you to perform better far less than failure does. More to learn More to learn

49 e.g. There is not nearly enough for all those people!There is not nearly enough for all those people! (= There is much too little for all those people.) They don’t have nearly so many foods to choose from as we do.They don’t have nearly so many foods to choose from as we do. not nearly — far from; much less than Success, …, is not nearly as good a teacher as failure.

50 e.g Her remarks were prompted by her worries about the future.Her remarks were prompted by her worries about the future. What prompted you to do such a silly thing?What prompted you to do such a silly thing? prompt vt. —inspire or cause (a feeling or reaction) Translate这封信唤起了他对遥远的家的思念。 Key The letter prompted thoughts of his distant home.

51 turn down — refuse to accept (sb. or sth. usu. an offer, request or invitation); reject e.g. She turned him down; she wouldn’t marry him.She turned him down; she wouldn’t marry him. Pauline has turned down offers from several different law firms.Pauline has turned down offers from several different law firms. Paraphrase the following sentence We politely turned down the invitation.

52 e.g. It’s time to take stock of your life and decide where you want to go.It’s time to take stock of your life and decide where you want to go. It the age of 25, I began to take stock of my career so far.It the age of 25, I began to take stock of my career so far. take stock (of) —1) examine or evaluate what one possesses, what one needs, etc. More to learn More to learn

53 e.g. The grocery store took stock every week on Monday morning.The grocery store took stock every week on Monday morning. The stores are closed so they can take stock of their inventory.The stores are closed so they can take stock of their inventory. take stock (of) — 2) count exactly the items of merchandise or supplies in stock

54 Guided Practice Vocabulary VocabularyVocabulary Cloze ClozeCloze Translation TranslationTranslation Structure Writing Structure WritingStructure WritingStructure Writing

55 III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 1.After Henry lost his job, he couldn’t even _____ the necessities of life.  afford 2.Our current economic circumstances _____ any nonessential purchases.  preclude Vocabulary emphasispronedistinguishobsesspreclude alikeapplyaffordpractically promptimpulseenquire

56 3.The article puts a lot of _____ on the value of failure as a learning experience.  emphasis 4.Success that comes too easily makes people more _____ to failure when real challenges arise.  prone III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. emphasispronedistinguishobsesspreclude alikeapplyaffordpractically promptimpulseenquire Vocabulary

57 Vocabulary emphasispronedistinguishobsesspreclude alikeapplyaffordpractically promptimpulseenquire 5.Scientific discoveries would make greater contributions to society if all of them are properly _____ to industrial production.  applied 6.Nancy _____ herself as an ice-skater at a very early age, winning three national competitions before she was fifteen.  distinguished III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.

58 Vocabulary emphasispronedistinguishobsesspreclude alikeapplyaffordpractically promptimpulseenquire 7.She was so _____ with ice-skating that she never had time for normal childhood activities and experiences.  obsessed 8.Failure is painful for adults and children _____, but it can also be a good teacher.  alike III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.

59 Vocabulary emphasispronedistinguishobsesspreclude alikeapplyaffordpractically promptimpulseenquire 9. Sam called the interviewer to _____ about why his application had been turned down.  enquire 10.My first _____ was to tell him he was a fool, but I controlled myself.  impulse III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.

60 Vocabulary emphasispronedistinguishobsesspreclude alikeapplyaffordpractically promptimpulseenquire III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. 11.Years of living overseas had made her _____ a foreigner in her own country.  practically  prompted 12.The lecturer’s remarks _____ a storm of excited questions from the audience.

61 Ex. VIII, p. 111 《读写教程 II 》 : Ex. VIII, p. 111 VIII. Choose the best word from each pair to complete the passage below. Cloze

62 It’s natural for parents to want their children to achieve great things in life, but not at the expense of the child’s happiness and personal development. How can you tell if your child is prone/bound to the kind of “achievement orientation” that leads to frustration and failure at last/in the long run? There are some signs that parents can watch after/for, and some steps a parent can take to promote/preclude the most destructive effects. Is your daughter obsessed/complex with winning, instead of being able to enjoy a game even although/though she loses? Encourage her to take part of/in activities that have no clear goal, as if/such as going for walks or just daydreaming. Cloze

63 Cloze Do all of your son’s “when-I-grow-up’s” involve distinguishing/promising himself in a glamorous career? By pointing out the positive/probable aspects of the simple life, you can let him know that real success isn’t measured in achievements. And don’t forget the beneficial/glamorous effects that frequent contact with nature has on/for children. Even if/Ever since you can’t afford to take your kids on camping holidays, you can make time for a day in the park or at the beach. It’s great therapy/contribution for the whole family. Do all of your son’s “when-I-grow-up’s” involve distinguishing/promising himself in a glamorous career? By pointing out the positive/probable aspects of the simple life, you can let him know that real success isn’t measured in achievements. And don’t forget the beneficial/glamorous effects that frequent contact with nature has on/for children. Even if/Ever since you can’t afford to take your kids on camping holidays, you can make time for a day in the park or at the beach. It’s great therapy/contribution for the whole family.

64 X. Translate the following sentences into English. Translation Ex. X, p. 112 《读写教程 II 》 : Ex. X, p. 112

65 1. 庇护孩子不让他们知道自己已经失败对于他们的成长是 绝对无益的。 绝对无益的。 anything but beneficial Shielding children from the knowledge that they have failed is anything but beneficial to their development. development Translation shield children from the knowledge

66 2. 爱默生认为在失败与成功之间并无天壤之别。 Emerson does not think there is a world of difference between success and failure. between success and failure a world of difference Translation

67 3. 一个成熟的人是一个善于把失败变成成功的人。 be good at doing A mature man is one who is good at turning failure into success. turn … into Translation

68 4. 她醉心于自己在溜冰方面的成功,从未对现实世界的挑 战作好准备。 战作好准备。 be obsessed with be obsessed with She was obsessed with becoming a success in ice skating that she never prepared herself for the challenges of the real world. success in prepare oneself for Translation

69 5. 当他得知自己的公司已经破产 ( go bankrupt ) 时,神经完 全崩溃了。 learn learn He suffered a complete nervous breakdown when he learned that his company had gone bankrupt. to suffer a complete nervous breakdown Translation

70 Translation 6. 史密斯先生在谈到他的成功时,往往夸大其辞 ( exaggeration) 。 when talking about When talking about his success, Mr.Smith is very prone to exaggeration. be very prone to

71 Translation 7. 这家公司开始只卖收音机,但现在已扩大营业范围,销 售电脑了。 start by selling The company started by selling radios but now has branched out into selling computers as well. branch out into

72 Translation 8. 事实上,失败并不是可怕的东西。一旦我们学会运用它, 它就能对我们的成长和发展作出积极的贡献。 nothing to be afraid of In fact, failure is nothing to be afraid of. Once we learn how to use it, it can make a positive contribution to our growth and development. learn how to use it make a positive contribution

73 Try the same thing as you write your own paragraph. You’ve just learned an effective way of argumentation: first to present a viewpoint and then to argue against it by presenting another point of view with supporting ideas. Try the same thing as you write your own paragraph. Structured Writing Outline and Sample Paragraph Outline and Sample Paragraph Topics for You to Choose Topics for You to Choose

74 Structured Writing Presentation of one point of view students / generally prone / what psychologists call “comfort orientation” / talk as if / comfortable chairs / good lighting / important to studying well Presentation of a contrasting view Support for the contrasting view in fact / chairs / lights / not at all essential / studying / creative work Hemingway, Socrates, for example / their best work standing up Students are generally prone to what psychologists call “comfortable orientation”. They talk as if comfortable chairs and good lighting were important to study well. In fact, chairs and lights are not at all essential to studying or to creative work. Hemingway and Socrates, for example, both did their best work standing up.

75 Here is one pair of contrasting viewpoints for you to develop your own paragraph: Ex. XII, p. 114 《读写教程 II 》 : Ex. XII, p. 114 Structured Writing One point of view: people / generally prone / belief / silent room / the best place to study / act as if quiet surroundings / crucial to concentration vs. Contrasting view: In fact / noisy rooms / more educational / quiet ones In my dorm room / for example / constant noise / my roommates / actually helps / think supporting

76 Structured Writing Other pairs of contrasting viewpoints: success through intelligence vs. success through diligence success through intelligence vs. success through diligence English is the most important language vs. Chinese is much more important than English English is the most important language vs. Chinese is much more important than English Winston Churchill is remembered mainly as a great war hero vs.Winston Churchill is mainly remembered as a person of strong will and perseverance Winston Churchill is remembered mainly as a great war hero vs.Winston Churchill is mainly remembered as a person of strong will and perseverance

77 Assignment 1.Ex. VIII, p Ex. X, p Preview Text B


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