Presentation on theme: "Name Name - Date year (click your master to change) An Introduction to the Farming Advice Service Farm Business Competitiveness CAP reform and Greening."— Presentation transcript:
Name Name - Date year (click your master to change) An Introduction to the Farming Advice Service Farm Business Competitiveness CAP reform and Greening Update and Managing your climate and weather risks George Cook and David Harris
Click to edit Master title style Introduction: what will we cover What is the purpose of the session? CAP reform and Greening. Setting the context Introduce climate change and look at current weather projections Identify how climate and weather may impact on farm businesses. To do so we will look at the impacts of various climate scenarios with reference to model farm data. Understand the impact of climate change on soil management Identify how farmers can address and manage the risk that climate change poses to their business.
Click to edit Master title style Purpose Raise awareness of the potential impact of climate and weather on farm businesses Encourage preparation for increased uncertainty caused by weather Asses actions that could help reduce risks Risk is an uncertain event or condition that could lead to the loss of something of value This session is not intended to tell you what to expect on your farm, but to discuss measures that could help reduce risk to your business.
Click to edit Master title style CAP REFORM AND GREENING
Click to edit Master title style CAP REFORM SUMMARY Single Payment to become ‘Basic Payment’ -scheme starts 1 st January 2015 (1 st claim 15 th May 2015) SPS Entitlements rolled over to BPS Changes in minimum claim size - (5 Ha in England) Underlying themes of BPS and Rural Development Funding Biodiversity (incl. pollinators) – above and below ground Soil and Water Quality Climate Mitigation If we do not look after the above more regulation will follow.
Click to edit Master title style Greening Overview Three basic EU requirements; -Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) -Crop Diversification -protection of Permanent Grassland (not a farm-level issue) Organic land is exempt from Greening – -for mixed holdings organic / conventional portions split -claimants can chose not to use organic exemption Greening applies across whole BPS holding –even is made up of multiple units, UK wide test. Greening is an ongoing yearly test – recalculated each year
Click to edit Master title style LAND DEFINITIONS Permanent Grassland is land that has been out of arable rotation for five or more years 6 th time it appears on the form as grass = Permanent Grassland lucerne, sainfoin, vetches and clover are ‘herbaceous forage’ thus PG re-seeding does not break the sequence (catch crops do) arable reversion may well be PG Permanent Crops are those that yield repeated harvests (5 years) without replanting includes vines, orchards, asparagus, biomass crops, etc. Arable Land is the eligible BPS area excluding permanent grassland and permanent crops thus temporary grass and fallow are ‘arable’
Click to edit Master title style ECOLOGICAL FOCUS AREAS (EFA’s) Can be thought of as ‘environmental set-aside’ If a farm has more than 15 hectares of Arable Land an area equivalent to 5% of the Arable Land must be in EFA could rise to 7% after 2017 Do you qualify under one of the exemptions? -those with a large proportion of grass or leguminous crops (75%) DEFRA choices (for 2015; may change for 2016 →) 1. fallow; 2. hedges; 3. buffer strips; 4. green cover/catch crops; 5. nitrogen-fixing crops Field trees, copses, ditches, ponds, stone walls, agro- forestry, woodland margins, short-rotation coppice, forested areas
Click to edit Master title style EFA ~ 1. FALLOW No crop production or grazing 1 st January to 30 th June -minimal other management rules – can apply herbicides & do field drainage. Fertiliser / slurry spreading not allowed. -plantings of wild bird and nectar mixes allowed -planting of temporary grass allowed Temporary grass can be used for fallow -no production, but silage crop allowed after 1 st July Minimum 2m width, and 0.01 Ha area 1 Ha of fallow = 1 Ha of EFA
Click to edit Master title style EFA ~ 2. HEDGES No minimum or maximum width or height, newly planted hedges are eligible No maximum length, minimum length: 20m long (or less if connects to another hedge at both ends) -gaps in canopy up to 20m allowed, including gateways Hedge must be on, or adjacent to, arable land (physically touching) -not adjacent if BPS ineligible feature in the way (hard tracks, ditches over 2m wide). Separation be a fence is allowed. If responsible for both side can count the whole hedge - 1m run of hedge = 10m ² of EFA - even if one side is P Grass or a road If responsible for one side only – count half of hedge - 1m run of hedge = 5m ² of EFA DEFRA working on ‘an approach’ so payments wont be delayed- possible changes to application timings or verification of hedges
Click to edit Master title style EFA ~ 3. BUFFER STRIPS Must be next to a watercourse -or on a slope running parallel to a watercourse (in field buffer) -‘watercourse’ includes estuary, lakes, ponds, streams, canals and ditches (temporarily dry ditches allowed) Minimum 1m width – cross-compliance margins can count Remember, must be on, or adjacent to arable land -therefore could be on temporary grass -no features between ditch and buffer, i.e. track or hedges. 1m run of buffer = 9m 2 of EFA (regardless of actual width) 6m field margin; first 1m width = buffer strip for 9m 2, next 5m as fallow for 5m 2. Total value = 14m 2 -yes – but two areas must be visually distinguishable!
Click to edit Master title style EFA ~ 4. CATCH & COVER CROPS Catch Crops In place 31 st August to 1 st October in scheme year Mix of a cereal and a non-cereal (or undersown grass) -quick establishing, and uses nutrients -Rye, Barley, Oats, Vetch, Mustard, Lucerne, Phacelia Minimum area 0.01 Ha Cover Crops In place 1 st October in scheme year to 15 th January Same rules on areas and mixes as Catch Crops 1 Ha of Catch/Cover Crops = 0.3 Ha of EFA, 3.34 hectares of cover crops = 1 hectare for EFA Agreeing future land management at time of claim. Sorts out EFA retrospectively
Click to edit Master title style EFA ~ 5. NITROGEN-FIXING CROPS Covers all leguminous crops -arable: beans, chickpeas, cowpeas, fenugreek, lentils, lupins, peas, soyabeans -pasture legumes: clover, lucerne, sainfoin, and trefoil (but not in grass mixes) In place 1 st May to 30 th June Minimum 0.01 Ha area. No requirement for low or no inputs, or harvest 1 Ha of Nitrogen Fixing Crops = 0.7 Ha of EFA, 1.43 hectares of n- fixing crops = 1 hectare for EFA
Click to edit Master title style CROP DIVERSIFICATION (CD) KEY ISSUES / PROCESS Calculate your area of ‘arable land’ What CD band are you in? less than 10 hectares – exempt 10 to 30 hectares – minimum two crops required (main crop not more than 75% of Arable Land) over 30 hectares – minimum three crops required (main crop not more than 75%, two main crops not more than 95%) What cropping are you going to have during the cropping period 1st May to 30th June 2015? -remember fallow and temporary grass are both ‘crops’ -spring and winter varieties are separate (whenever planted) Do you qualify under one of the exemptions? -those with a large proportion of grass (75%) or fallow and temp grass. -‘new land, new crop’ rule Do you need to make cropping changes in spring 2015?
Click to edit Master title style CROP DIVERSFICITION RULES FLOW CHART CHECK Is there less than 10 hectares (25 acres) of ‘arable’ land? Yes Exempt from Crop Diversification No Is 75% of arable land in temporary grass or fallow? Note: This flow chart does not allow for the crop diversification exemption that applies to ‘New Land and Different Crops’. Yes Exempt from Crop Diversification Is 75% of total land in grass (permanent and temporary)? No Yes Minimum of three crops required Main crop cannot be more than 75% of arable area Two main crops together not more than 95% of arable area Therefore arable land is over 30 hectares (74 acres) Yes Exempt from Crop Diversification Minimum of two crops required Main crop cannot be more than 75% of arable area Yes Is the arable land on the holding between 10 and 30 hectares (25-74 acres)? No Is the remaining arable land less than 30 hectares (74 acres)? Yes Is the remaining arable land less than 30 hectares (74 acres)? Yes
Click to edit Master title style GREENING AND AGRI-ENV All ELS agreements starting after 1 st Jan 2012 will face ELS payment deductions (regardless of features’ EFA use or not) -can rescind without penalty -can change options to get back to £30 per Ha -can accept payment reduction ELS agreements starting before 1 st Jan 2012 and all HLS agreements will not face payment deductions -90% of all agreements - therefore double funding is allowed! Features in any ELS / HLS agreement can be used for EFA -all arable land features such as buffer strips and margins
Click to edit Master title style PENALTY REGIME Crop Diversif. and EFA penalties calculated separately -then added together at the end Penalties only apply to Arable Land, not PG or PC Penalties range from 0% to 15% of BPS for each element of greening (Crop Diversification / EFA) -based on how much of a shortfall there is against what is required -ignore it completely and full 15% of BPS lost (on Arable Land) -minor shortfall then penalty will be a little over 0% Max penalties for both elements sees full 30% BPS lost ‘Administrative penalties’ -waived for 2015 and max 120% of greening for 2017, 125% for 2018 onwards
Click to edit Master title style CAP REFORM ~ GREENING SUMMARY Many (most) farms will face little change in cropping -but a complex set of calculations to prove / know this Need to fully understand the (latest) rules – they evolve A yearly test – calculation will change every year There are management choices to be made Possible compliance / cropping problems for -contract farming agreements -those with very simple (wheat/rape) rotations -larger grassland farmers with >30 Ha of arable Complex – but there are solutions to most problems
Click to edit Master title style Managing your climate and weather risks
Click to edit Master title style Assessment of risks Our approach Step 1: Review evidence Step 2: Consider potential scenarios Step 3: Review impacts Step 4: Develop and action plan to reduce negative impacts
Click to edit Master title style Review Evidence: Projected changes More extreme weather events. Increased storms and heavy rain. Sea level rise and saline intrusion. Increased Variability, uncertainty and unpredictability. Impacts vary across regions. Potentially warmer wetter winters and hotter drier summers.
Click to edit Master title style UK climate projections Higher temperatures o C higher by 2050s °C higher by 2080s More summer droughts 20-40% less rain by 2050s More winter rainfall 10-25% more by 2050s Note there is a high degree of uncertainty associated with these projections Higher CO 2 concentrations More extreme weather events Sea levels will rise by 36cm in London by 2080s
Click to edit Master title style Review Evidence: Two year cumulative rainfall
Click to edit Master title style What we have experienced
Click to edit Master title style Potential Impacts Crops Higher temperatures and CO 2 could increase crop yields New crops? – grain maize, sunflowers, pharmaceuticals Challenges for others – potatoes in the east New pests and diseases e.g. Colorado beetles Flooding Increased risk of flooding from rivers and seas
Click to edit Master title style Review Evidence: Current Business Risks Over 40% of farmers state they are already affected by climate change. 33% of farmers are already taking action to adapt. 57% of farmers expect to be affected in next 10 years. 43% of farmers actions are on soil management Actions taken depend on the risks to an individual business. * Source- Greenhouse gas mitigation practices - England Farm Practices Survey 2013, and Farm Business Survey 2011/12. What risks does a changing climate pose to your business? What action is required?
Click to edit Master title style Climate change mitigation measures Wide range of mitigation measures Most are good practice Can save money & reduce emissions Early payback – improve profitability Open to everyone Some require some initial investment Additional skill/knowledge or capital Short-medium term payback – improved profitability Suitable for most Others require higher initial investment E.g. Anaerobic digestion Not suited to everyone
Click to edit Master title style Overview of adaptation Priority adaptation practices: Planning and risk assessment Identify main risks and actions, insurance Water management Rain water harvesting, reservoirs, improved irrigation practices, sustainable drainage systems, protection of flood plains Changes in cropping and livestock Drought resistant crops – deep rooting, more crops in a rotation, new crops Diversify to reduce risks Changing production patterns Planting / harvesting timing, timing of lambing / calving Land and soil management Planting trees and hedges for shelter, protection of soils, flood storage, buffer strips, agro forestry Plan adaptation measures to protect against risk – don’t just react to specific events
Click to edit Master title style Loam Farm: Basic Details Located Suffolk – Cambridge Borders 600 Ha of combinable crops 300 Ha W. Wheat, 200 Ha W. OSR, 100 Ha S. Beans 240 Ha owned, 360 Ha farm business tenancies (FBTs), Staffing owner, 1 full-time (FT) worker & harvest casual workers. Grain Storage for 3000 Tonnes
Click to edit Master title style Meadow Farm: Basic Information Location; Almost anywhere lowland England 154 Ha mixed lowland farm 114 Ha owned, 40 Ha on FBT. Beef 50 suckler cows Finish 80 cattle pa, Sheep and arable. Proprietor, 1 FT family worker and casual labourers. Contractors for muck spreading and silage
Click to edit Master title style Friesian Farm Location Lowland almost anywhere where there is a need for winter housing 150 cows averaging 7,500 litres on 100 Ha Of which (part rented) Year-round calving, Calves sold at 10 days Liquid contract. Staffing Owner + worker Contractors for silage and muck
Click to edit Master title style Potential climate & weather scenarios Scenario 1 High summer temperatures, normal rainfall and sunshine levels. Scenario 2 High summer temperatures and low rainfall for a sustained period (A) Spring Drought; and (B) Summer Heat Wave. Scenario 3 Higher rainfall, with 25% more rainfall throughout the year. How would this affect your business?
Click to edit Master title style Arable business impacts Scenario 1 - hot summer, normal rainfall Spring beans (SB) yield -10%, winter wheat (WW) yield +10%, winter oilseed rape (OSR) yield un-changed. Fungicide costs +10% on WW. Electricity costs +5% and labour +2%: crop cooling in store.
Click to edit Master title style Arable business impacts Scenario 2a - spring drought SB yield -35% (poor germination), OSR and WW yields un-changed. Spray costs on SB -20% due to lower yield potential. No other input/overhead impacts. Scenario 2b - summer heat wave WW yield -25%, OSR yields -15%, SB yields -25%. £20/t price reduction on SB due to specification failure. Less fuel - faster harvesting, less haulage, drying & cultivations. Electricity costs +5% due to more cooling of grain in store.
Click to edit Master title style Arable business impacts Scenario 3 - wet year 75% of planned WW area drilled, 25% of OSR failed, 9% of farm in Spring Barley, 9% of farm fallow. All yields reduced (-25%). Increased crop costs due to slugs and diseases (sprays). £5/t reduction in wheat prices (bushel weights), only 50% of milling wheat meets specification. Increase in property repairs and contractors due to drainage repairs.
Click to edit Master title style LOAM FARM MODEL 600 Ha of combinable crops (W. Wheat, W. OSR, S. Beans) 240 Ha owned, 360 Ha farm business tenancies (FBTs), owner, 1 full- time (FT) worker & harvest casual workers. 600 Ha of combinable crops (W. Wheat, W. OSR, S. Beans) 240 Ha owned, 360 Ha farm business tenancies (FBTs), owner, 1 full- time (FT) worker & harvest casual workers. Normal Year (N), Hot & Normal Rain (1), Spring Drought (2a), Hot Summer (2b), Wet Year (3) Source: Andersons Output Variable Costs Gross Margin Overheads Rent and finance Drawings Margin from production Single Payment & ELS £ per Ha Business surplus 1, (43) N 1, (110) a (299) 217 (82) 2b 1, (93) (282) 217 (75) Business Surplus Total (£) 102k 75k 65k (49k) (45k)
Click to edit Master title style Dairy business impacts Scenario 1 - hot summer with normal rainfall 9% increase in AI costs due to reduced conception rates. Increased vet and medicine costs due to increased mastitis. Contractor costs +5% due to more silage volume. Water costs +5% due to increased consumption. Increased electricity costs for milk cooling etc. Concentrate feed costs - good forage availability and quality.
Click to edit Master title style Dairy business impacts Scenario 2 - hot spring and summer with low rainfall. Milk yield reduced (-4%). Concentrate costs +6%: forage output down, bulk feed costs up (+23%). AI costs +12%: lower conception rates due to heat stress. Water costs +12% due to increased consumption. Electricity costs +10% for milk cooling etc. Reduced straw costs due to extended grazing period.
Click to edit Master title style Dairy business impacts Scenario 3 - wet year Milk yield reduced (-7%), reduced low dry matter forage and poor silage quality, therefore concentrate costs increased (+15%). Straw cost and fuel cost increased (+15%) and labour cost increased (+4%) due to longer housing period. Contractor costs increased (+10%) due to greater silage volume and grassland structural repair work/re-seeding. Reduced water costs due to lower consumption (-5%).
Click to edit Master title style FRIESIAN FARM MODEL 150 cows averaging 7,500 litres on 100 Ha (part rented) Year-round calving, liquid contract. Owner + worker 150 cows averaging 7,500 litres on 100 Ha (part rented) Year-round calving, liquid contract. Owner + worker N Milk Price26.6 Total Output 29.5 Variable Costs 13.1 Overheads11.2 Rent, Finance & Drawings 5.6 Cost of Production 29.9 Margin From Production (0.5) Pence Per Litre Single Payment and ELS 1.7 Business Surplus1.2 Business Surplus Total (£) 14,897 5,226 (30,866) (16,789) (1.3) (4.7) 1.9 (2.8) (3.3) 1.8 (1.5) 3 Normal Year (N), Hot & Normal Rain (1), Spring Drought (2a), Hot Summer (2b), Wet Year (3) Source: Andersons
Click to edit Master title style Livestock business impacts (mixed farm- beef, sheep and cereals) Scenario 1 - hot summer with normal rainfall. Increased vet and medicine costs due to higher incidence of foot issues and fly strike. Feed wheat and barley yields increased (+5%). Increased cereal fungicide costs (+10%). Fuel usage increased due to greater requirement for grass topping. Water costs increased (+5%) due to greater consumption. Increased electricity costs (feed cereal cooling etc.).
Click to edit Master title style Scenario 2 - hot spring and summer with low rainfall. Reduced cattle price (-1%) as fewer cattle meet desired specification. Some lambs finished earlier off dryer grass, meaning the balance required late season feed (lamb feed costs +10%). Concentrate feed costs increase (+10%) as reduced forage availability. Vet and medicine costs increased (+8%). Lower contractor costs due to smaller silage volume (less wrap), but purchases of bulk feed are required. Water use and therefore costs increased (+10%). Livestock business impacts (mixed farm- beef, sheep and cereals)
Click to edit Master title style Scenario 3 - wet year Increased lamb mortality: -3% finished lambs, late sales: -7% price. Feed wheat and barley yields reduced by 30%. Straw cost increased (+34%). Sheep vet and medicine use increased (+10%). Purchased feed cost +24%: difficult finishing and longer housing. Fuel and labour costs up due to the longer housing period. Livestock business impacts (mixed farm- beef, sheep and cereals)
Click to edit Master title style MEADOW FARM MODEL 154 Ha mixed lowland farm (114 Ha owned, 40 Ha on FBT). Beef (suckler cows, and finishers), sheep and arable. Proprietor, 1 FT family worker and casual labourers. 154 Ha mixed lowland farm (114 Ha owned, 40 Ha on FBT). Beef (suckler cows, and finishers), sheep and arable. Proprietor, 1 FT family worker and casual labourers. N Livestock Gross Margin518 Crop Area Gross Margin 762 Total Gross Margin 624 Overheads500 Rent, Finance & Drawings309 Margin From Production(185) £ per Ha Single Payment and ELS209 Business Surplus24 Business Surplus Total (£) 3,696 3, (188) (182) , (275) 209 (66) (10,164) 3 Normal Year (N), Hot & Normal Rain (1), Spring Drought (2a), Hot Summer (2b), Wet Year (3) Source: Andersons
Click to edit Master title style Soil Management problems -Soil is a key asset for all businesses -On many farms soil and soil organic matter (SOM) are being lost -Movement of soil means movement of nutrients as well as the mineral particles. -Losses of soil volume in arable situations 1% to 10% per annum -SOM on many soils now below 2% -SOM vital for: -Nutrient and water retention -Soil stability and general utilisation of manures and wastes
Click to edit Master title style Droplet impact on bare soils
Click to edit Master title style Erosion rates v/s soil type
Click to edit Master title style Key Actions: Possible actions to limit impacts of persistent and heavy rain -Avoid bare soil – use cover crops or leave trash -Use Greening options to mop up nutrient, stabilise soil surfaces -Avoid sheet run off -Consider impacts of drainage changes +ve & -ve -Surface loosening techniques in grassland -Develop flexible strategies based on weather risks not just date. -MANY MORE
Click to edit Master title style Risk reduction steps Identify vulnerabilities in the farming system. Monitor - your outputs and inputs. Focus - on the timeliness of operations, this is critical to success. Research and study - to stay up to date. Turn legislation to advantage - nutrient planning, soil management and livestock recording. Optimise the use of technology.
Click to edit Master title style Risk Assessment and Best Practice Arable Business Seasonal Planning Expert advice on any of these practices is available through the FAS helpline
Click to edit Master title style Arable risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Spring Nutrient management plans. Timeliness of spraying and manure applications. Ag-chem strategy and effectiveness. Cultivation plan relevant to season. Appropriate crop rotations Drought tolerant crops. GPS - cost effective. Riparian Buffer strips Rainwater harvesting Storage reservoir & sharing with other abstractors. Mole ploughing.
Click to edit Master title style Arable risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Summer Clean/service stores and driers. Consider timing of drying activity. Review grain handling process. Tyres type and pressures Cultivation strategies field by basis. If you have a reservoir consider whether you can take high flows in summer. Irrigation equipment and management. Assess flood risks: Map fields according to risk and develop crop rotation accordingly: consider crop cover and financial risks.
Click to edit Master title style Arable risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Autumn Post harvest management: e.g. winter cover crop Import organic matter where required. Do not over-cultivate soils - safe soils. Use effective stale seedbeds Set slug traps and treat accordingly. Sprays - timeliness. Maintain drains, ditches and watercourses. Minimise traffic on waterlogged soils – record in SPR. Dig soil pits, remove compaction asap.
Click to edit Master title style Arable risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Winter Assess labour and machinery profile and capacity. Assess and plan future cropping mix and varieties. Service and calibrate sprayers and spreaders. Consider benefits of precision farming techniques. Consider water capture for irrigation. Identify areas of waterlogging and an appropriate remediation strategy.
Click to edit Master title style Livestock risk assessment and best practice Livestock Business Seasonal Planning Expert advice on any of these practices is available through the FAS helpline
Click to edit Master title style Livestock risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Spring Assess/improve field tracks/drinking infrastructure. Undertake soil and manure sampling. Apply slurries and manures using optimum techniques. Consider the benefits of a borehole. Prepare and use your nutrient management plan Dig soil pits, remove compaction asap.
Click to edit Master title style Livestock risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Summer Consider soil restructure techniques. Plan autumn reseeding. Consider fields for ‘deferred’ grazing. Identify optimum fields for shade/shelter. Assess conserved forage yield/quality and consider winter forage crops. Match calving/lambing dates to forage growth. Ensure you have sufficient slurry storage capacity - meet NVZ requirements
Click to edit Master title style Livestock risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Autumn Analyse forage. Is livestock replacement policy costs effective? Introduce improved genetics. Reassess grazing system ready for spring. Use seed variety and mixes for your conditions - recommended list Consider calving/lambing pattern control. Maintain drains, ditches and watercourses - BUT Be aware of wider environmental, ecological and water retention requirements
Click to edit Master title style Livestock risk assessment and best practice Summer Autumn WinterSpring Seasonal Planning: Winter Consider the use of ‘sacrifice’ fields. Monitor soil damage from poaching. Review forage varieties. Review complex feeding regimes for housed animals. Assess housing/facilities and processes. Review manure storage. Consider rain-water harvesting. Identify areas of waterlogging, take action.
Click to edit Master title style Common farm business issues Lack of strategy, what the business is trying to achieve? What goals? A certain level of profit? To become non-reliant on subsidies? A business structure that will provide a retirement income? High power and labour costs, often out of proportion. Capital employed, profitable business but a low return on capital. Lack of focus on profit. Profit after owner’s salary, rent on owned land and return on capital. Too much focus on the tax bill!
Click to edit Master title style Common features of successfulbusinesses There is no quick fix; this involves getting a lot of things right: ensure timeliness and technical efficiency; identify clear objectives; ensure office time is productive; look for new opportunities and act upon them; take appropriate advice to challenge and add focus; consider profit, scale’ isn’t everything; and plan and monitor performance (budgeting etc.).
Click to edit Master title style Benefits of taking action on climate change Benefits of taking action on climate change include: Reducing the disruption of extreme events on your business. Increasing productivity and profitability. Capitalising on new opportunities. Minimising the impacts of changing weather patterns.
Click to edit Master title style Farming Advice Service Access to expert advice through a technical helpline. Regional and national events, tailored to reflect the needs of different groups and advice themes. Helpline number: Website:
Name Name - Date year (click your master to change) An Introduction to the Farming Advice Service Farm Business Competitiveness CAP & Greening Update and Weather and Climate Risks