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**Risk, Return, and the Historical Record**

Chapter Five Risk, Return, and the Historical Record Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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**Chapter Overview Interest rate determinants**

Rates of return for different holding periods Risk and risk premiums Estimations of return and risk Normal distribution Deviation from normality and risk estimation Historic returns on risky portfolios

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**Interest Rate Determinants**

Supply Households Demand Businesses Government’s net demand Federal Reserve actions

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**Real and Nominal Rates of Interest**

Nominal interest rate (rn): Growth rate of your money Real interest rate (rr): Growth rate of your purchasing power Where i is the rate of inflation

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**Figure 5.1 Determination of the Equilibrium Real Rate of Interest**

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**Equilibrium Nominal Rate of Interest**

As the inflation rate increases, investors will demand higher nominal rates of return If E(i) denotes current expectations of inflation, then we get the Fisher Equation:

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**Taxes and the Real Rate of Interest**

Tax liabilities are based on nominal income Given a tax rate (t) and nominal interest rate (rn), the real after-tax rate is: The after-tax real rate of return falls as the inflation rate rises

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**Rates of Return for Different Holding Periods**

Zero Coupon Bond: Par = $100 Maturity = T Price = P Total risk free return

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**Example 5.2 Annualized Rates of Return**

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**Effective Annual Rate (EAR)**

EAR: Percentage increase in funds invested over a 1-year horizon

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**Annual Percentage Rate (APR)**

APR: Annualizing using simple interest

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Table 5.1 APR vs. EAR

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**Table 5.2 T-Bill Rates, Inflation Rates, and Real Rates, 1926-2012**

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Bills and Inflation, Moderate inflation can offset most of the nominal gains on low-risk investments A dollar invested in T-bills from 1926– grew to $20.25 but with a real value of only $1.55 Negative correlation between real rate and inflation rate means the nominal rate doesn’t fully compensate investors for increased in inflation

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**Figure 5.3 Interest Rates and Inflation, 1926-2012**

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**Risk and Risk Premiums Rates of return: Single period**

HPR = Holding period return P0 = Beginning price P1 = Ending price D1 = Dividend during period one

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**Rates of Return: Single Period Example**

Ending Price = $110 Beginning Price = $100 Dividend = $4

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**Expected Return and Standard Deviation**

Expected returns p(s) = Probability of a state r(s) = Return if a state occurs s = State

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**Scenario Returns: Example**

State Prob. of State r in State Excellent Good Poor Crash E(r) = (.25)(.31) + (.45)(.14) + (.25)(−.0675) + (0.05)(− 0.52) E(r) = or 9.76%

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**Expected Return and Standard Deviation**

Variance (VAR): Standard Deviation (STD):

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**Scenario VAR and STD: Example**

Example VAR calculation: σ2 = .25(.31 − ) (.14 − .0976)2 + .25(− − ) (−.52 − .0976)2 = .038 Example STD calculation:

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**Time Series Analysis of Past Rates of Return**

True means and variances are unobservable because we don’t actually know possible scenarios like the one in the examples So we must estimate them (the means and variances, not the scenarios)

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**Returns Using Arithmetic and Geometric Averaging**

Arithmetic Average Geometric (Time-Weighted) Average = Terminal value of the investment

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**Estimating Variance and Standard Deviation**

Estimated Variance Expected value of squared deviations Unbiased estimated standard deviation

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**The Reward-to-Volatility (Sharpe) Ratio**

Excess Return The difference in any particular period between the actual rate of return on a risky asset and the actual risk-free rate Risk Premium The difference between the expected HPR on a risky asset and the risk-free rate Sharpe Ratio

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**The Normal Distribution**

Investment management is easier when returns are normal Standard deviation is a good measure of risk when returns are symmetric If security returns are symmetric, portfolio returns will be as well Future scenarios can be estimated using only the mean and the standard deviation The dependence of returns across securities can be summarized using only the pairwise correlation coefficients

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**Figure 5.4 The Normal Distribution**

Mean = 10%, SD = 20%

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**Normality and Risk Measures**

What if excess returns are not normally distributed? Standard deviation is no longer a complete measure of risk Sharpe ratio is not a complete measure of portfolio performance Need to consider skewness and kurtosis

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**Figure 5.5A Normal and Skewed Distributions**

Mean = 6%, SD = 17%

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**Figure 5.5B Normal and Fat-Tailed Distributions**

Mean = .1, SD = .2

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**Normality and Risk Measures**

Value at Risk (VaR) Loss corresponding to a very low percentile of the entire return distribution, such as the fifth or first percentile return Expected Shortfall (ES) Also called conditional tail expectation (CTE), focuses on the expected loss in the worst-case scenario (left tail of the distribution) More conservative measure of downside risk than VaR

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**Normality and Risk Measures**

Lower Partial Standard Deviation (LPSD) and the Sortino Ratio Similar to usual standard deviation, but uses only negative deviations from the risk-free return, thus, addressing the asymmetry in returns issue Sortino Ratio (replaces Sharpe Ratio) The ratio of average excess returns to LPSD

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**Historic Returns on Risky Portfolios**

The second half of the 20th century, politically and economically the most stable sub-period, offered the highest average returns Firm capitalization is highly skewed to the right: Many small but a few gigantic firms Average realized returns have generally been higher for stocks of small rather than large capitalization firms

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**Historic Returns on Risky Portfolios**

Normal distribution is generally a good approximation of portfolio returns VaR indicates no greater tail risk than is characteristic of the equivalent normal The ES does not exceed 0.41 of the monthly SD, presenting no evidence against the normality However Negative skew is present in some of the portfolios some of the time, and positive kurtosis is present in all portfolios all the time

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**Figure 5.7 Nominal and Real Equity Returns Around the World, 1900-2000**

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**Figure 5.8 SD of Real Equity & Bond Returns Around the World**

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**Figure 5.9 Probability of Investment with a Lognormal Distribution**

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**Terminal Value with Continuous Compounding**

When the continuously compounded rate of return on an asset is normally distributed, the effective rate of return will be lognormally distributed

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