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Collaborating with Virtuality: Leveraging Enabling Conditions to Improve Team Effectiveness. Written by Cristina Gibson Presented by Rhyan Paquette Group.

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Presentation on theme: "Collaborating with Virtuality: Leveraging Enabling Conditions to Improve Team Effectiveness. Written by Cristina Gibson Presented by Rhyan Paquette Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Collaborating with Virtuality: Leveraging Enabling Conditions to Improve Team Effectiveness. Written by Cristina Gibson Presented by Rhyan Paquette Group Dynamics & Work Teams

2 Cristina B. Gibson Bio 1990 B.A. from Scripps College; Claremont, CA. Major: Psychology 1995 Ph.D. from University of California, Irvine.Ph.D. from University of California, Irvine. Major: Organizational BehaviorMajor: Organizational Behavior

3 Positions Held Assistant Professor of Management at the University of Wisconsin, Madison Assistant Professor of Management at the University of Wisconsin, Madison Associate Research Professor at The Center for Effective Organizations, USC Associate Research Professor at The Center for Effective Organizations, USC Associate Professor, University of California, Irvine Associate Professor, University of California, Irvine Present - Full Professor, University of California, Irvine at the Paul Merage School of Business 2007-Present - Full Professor, University of California, Irvine at the Paul Merage School of Business

4 Professional Affiliations Academy of ManagementAcademy of Management Academy of International BusinessAcademy of International Business Society for Industrial Organization BehaviorSociety for Industrial Organization BehaviorAccomplishments Published 34 Articles 2 Books Virtual Teams that Work Multinational Teams

5 Article Shortfall The following portions of Chapter 11 that is covered does not differentiate between “Groups” and “Teams.”The following portions of Chapter 11 that is covered does not differentiate between “Groups” and “Teams.” According to Katzenbach and Smith (1993), “Team” has replaced “group” in organizational psychology. They have determined that, “a group becomes a team when they develop a sense of shared commitment and strive for synergy among members.”According to Katzenbach and Smith (1993), “Team” has replaced “group” in organizational psychology. They have determined that, “a group becomes a team when they develop a sense of shared commitment and strive for synergy among members.”

6 Group Vs. Team Assuming we believe the previous statement about a group morphing into a team, how long or when does this transformation from group to team take place?Assuming we believe the previous statement about a group morphing into a team, how long or when does this transformation from group to team take place??

7 OUTLINE Development of TechnologyDevelopment of Technology Virtual TeamsVirtual Teams 4 Factors that make virtual teams unique4 Factors that make virtual teams unique Electronic DependenceElectronic Dependence Geographic DispersionGeographic Dispersion Cultural DiversityCultural Diversity Dynamic StructureDynamic Structure

8 OUTLINE Framework for Virtual Collaboration Design Factors Design Factors Context, team structure, technologiesContext, team structure, technologies Enabling Conditions Enabling Conditions Shared Understanding & Identity, Integration & Adjustment,Shared Understanding & Identity, Integration & Adjustment, Trust & Supportive Communication ClimateTrust & Supportive Communication Climate Outcomes Outcomes BusinessBusiness HumanHuman ConclusionConclusion

9 Development of Technology Allows people to collaborate from almost any location and has contributed to the increasing use of Virtual Teams.Allows people to collaborate from almost any location and has contributed to the increasing use of Virtual Teams. “Virtual Team” “Virtual Team” Is a collection of individuals who are interdependent in their tasks, who share responsibility for outcomes, who see themselves and are viewed by others as a team.Is a collection of individuals who are interdependent in their tasks, who share responsibility for outcomes, who see themselves and are viewed by others as a team.

10 1 st Factor that makes virtual team unique 1.Electronic Dependence a. Virtual Teams rely on electronically mediated communication to stay in touch & get work done. b.Just the use of technology does not make a team “virtual,” it’s the high degree of dependence on technology that makes them virtual. c. Tools : Telephone, fax, teleconference, , videoconference, collaborative design tools, knowledge management systems

11 2 nd Factor 2.Geographic Dispersion a.The Second most prominent characteristic of a virtual team is the high degree of dispersion of the team members. b.They are often spread over different Cities, Times Zones and Continents. c.Members of a virtual team need to share information in much greater detail than they would if they worked in the same location.

12 3 rd Factor 3.Cultural Diversity a. a.Virtuality often brings together members that represent highly divers groups including different nations, regions, organizations, or professions. Each of which can have there own understanding, beliefs, expectations, and behaviors. b. b.Different cultures often view silence, lack of response, and absence differently. These different meanings can have an adverse impact on virtual team members. Example: London and Chicago virtual meeting and the Hamburger Style of Management. ( Olson & Olson, 2003)

13 4 th Factor 3.Dynamic Structure Virtual teams must have the ability to adjust and adapt to changing situations. Participants may be unavailable due to other meetings, or may choose not to attend based on other priorities. Therefore a ridged sequence of events cannot be imposed on the work, meetings cannot be structured to assume the presence of any one individual. Initial structure, startup, and formation are often more important than with teams that are co-located because they provide common ground and highlight any need to bridge differences and develop basic operating structure.

14 Framework for Virtual Collaboration In order for a Virtual Team to be effective leaders/managers need to create conditions that support effectiveness.In order for a Virtual Team to be effective leaders/managers need to create conditions that support effectiveness. Comprehensive framework includes:Comprehensive framework includes: Design Factors that managers facilitate, contribute to the establishment of Enabling Conditions, which in turn increases the effectiveness of the Outcomes. Features of Virtuality - that amplify the effects of the design factors on enabling conditions

15 Comprehensive Framework

16 Design Factors Context Context How a reward system is structured may make it more or less likely a team will succeed. The reward must be for the whole group not just an individual; otherwise it could have a detrimental impact on the team. Team Structure Team Structure Virtual teaming typically lengthens the workday for team members, and time zone dispersion narrows the window for real time interaction Technologies Technologies Can ensure that team member from any location can effectively coordinate their work. The challenge for mangers is to figure our which technologies are most appropriate for their teams.

17 Enabling Conditions Shared Understanding & Identity Shared Understanding & Identity It is important to establish commonalities in beliefs, expectations, and perceptions Integration & Adjustment Integration & Adjustment At the most basic level, team members need to be able to send and communicate through different forms of communication. Policies, structure, and systems also shape employees perspective and worldviews on what is and is not important. A high degree of differentiation requires a higher need for integration. Trust & Supportive Communication Climate Trust & Supportive Communication Climate When team members have established trust with one another they are more willing to take risks and let their vulnerabilities show.

18 Outcomes of a Comprehensive Framework 2 Types Business Outcomes Business Outcomes Goal achievement, productivity, timeliness, customer satisfaction, and innovation. Human Outcomes Human Outcomes Commitment, Satisfaction, cohesion, longevity, and the ability to work together in the future.

19 Conclusion Using technology to operate virtaully can magnify the benefits of teamwork. Virtuality reduces the limiting factors of location, allowing the best talent to be applied to solve business problems, create products, and deliver services.Using technology to operate virtaully can magnify the benefits of teamwork. Virtuality reduces the limiting factors of location, allowing the best talent to be applied to solve business problems, create products, and deliver services.

20 QUESTIONS ?

21 REFERENCES Katzenbach, J.R., Smith, D.K. (1993). The Discipline of Teams. Harvard Business Review –120. Olson, G.M., & Olson, J.S. (2000). Distance Matters. Human-Computer Interaction, 15(2/3), 139–178. Web.merage.uci.edu/~cgibson/Gibson%20CV.pdf


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