Key themes Sustainable SportEnvironmental Sustainability Participation Revenue generation Expenditure Facilities Quality of surfaces Durability of surfaces Tenure Resource consumption Water Pollution Habitat Climate change Mitigation Adaptation
UKCP Climate change projections for 2080s All areas of UK warm, summer more than winter (SE England up to +4.2°C) Very little change in annual precipitation totals... Western UK +33% increase in winter precipitation Southern England -40% decrease in summer precipitation Source: UKCP09 Briefing Report June 2009 from ukclimateprojections.defra.gov.uk
Reacting to climate change (preferred model) Adaptation Mitigation Reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Adapting to projected effects such as drought and flooding
Reducing GHGs Greenhouse Gas Sink? Greenhouse Gas Source?
GHG Balance Mowing IrrigationFertiliserSpraying Trees Other vegetation Turf SoilAeration GHG Emission GHG Sequestration
Modelling greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions in g CO 2 e /m 2 /y CranTurfC Model Data CO 2 e
Carbon Footprints for Golf Courses Parkland Golf Course- 430 ± 90 g CO 2 e m -2 y -1 Links Golf Course 0 ± 20 g CO 2 e m -2 y -1 Parkland Golf Course (without trees) 70 ± 20 g CO 2 e m -2 y -1 Winter wheat (UK)242 g CO 2 e m -2 y -1
On the subject of footprints... 6-12 m 3 round -1 Water footprint for Spanish Golf Club 0.15 m 3 round -1 Water footprint for the Parkland Course Rodríguez-Díaz, J.A., Weatherhead, E.K., García Morillo, J., and Knox, J.W. (2010). Irrigation and Drainage (in press). Rodríguez-Díaz, J.A., Weatherhead, E.K., and Knox, J.W. (2007). Irrigation and Drainage, 56(5):541-549.
Case study: The Sustainable Cricket Project Funded by ECB Places With: Dr Andre Daccache, Dr Jerry Knox, Dr Keith Weatherhead, Andy Carmichael
Aims Develop a ‘Climate’ strategy for adaptation and mitigation of: Future climate projections Current climate variations Provide advice and guidance to clubs to achieve the ‘win-wins’ from reducing resource consumption and better preparedness.
Irrigation need (max potential soil moisture deficit) Based on UKCP09 50% scenario 1961-1990 (Current benchmark) 20302050 ClimateClubs with PSMD max > 200 mm % Current978/706413.8 20303519/706449.8 20505047/706471.4
Benchmarking survey Conducting structured interviews at clubs in: Essex/London (dry) Worcs/Warwks (experience of flooding) South West (high rainfall, warm) Wales (high rainfall, warm) North East (high rainfall, cooler) At each location: 1 x county ground (CCC) 1 x premier league (PL) 1 x small club (SC) 2 x intermediate clubs (IC)
Water use 14/16 clubs (surveyed so far) use mains potable water for irrigation 3/16 abstracting water for irrigation Grounds water use (10-20% of total water use): 1 – 25 m 3 y -1 (SC/IC) up to 250 m 3 y -1 (PL) 10 times this where outfields are irrigated (similar to a golf course irrigating tees and greens) Only 3 clubs have ever stopped watering due to water restrictions (1976) Clubs insensitive to current water costs
Mains water stress StressClubs% Low2012/680729.5 Moderate2150/680731.6 Serious2645/680738.9 Not classified257/68073.8 70%
Abstraction resource stress StressClubs (7064)% Water available178425.3 No (summer) water available 230032.6 Over licensed106415.1 Over abstracted104814.8 Not assessed620.9 Not classified80611.4
Water storage is key. Total rainfall is not changing – distribution is. Need to store water from excess winter rainfall Investment in water storage capacity for winter abstraction Water harvesting
Drought not the only problem Photograph from: Worcs CCC (www.wccc.co.uk)
Flooding 5/16 clubs surveyed to date affected by flooding Flooding only affects insurance of 3/16 clubs Clubs experiencing regular flooding appear well adapted (but there are limits) Only 1/16 clubs have a documented flooding procedure.
Adaptation Typically clubs are fundraising to survive not to invest. Premier LeagueSmall Club Cost of cricket£750 /mbr£142 /mbr Fees & subs£200 /mbr£54 /mbr Shortfall£550 /mbr (73%)£88 /mbr (62%) Shortfall funded by: Sponsorship (including donations) Fundraising Bar revenue and functions limited capacity to adapt
Initial thinking How can clubs generate more revenue so they can invest? e.g. more functions = more bar revenue?
Alternative model How can clubs cut costs to fund investment?
Costs 25 – 45% of costs on grounds 13 – 30% of costs on energy Cut input costs Reduce impact (mitigation) Improve balance sheetInvest (adaptation)
Cutting energy costs Q: Are your energy bills going up? A: Yes! Q: Is this because of price inflation or consumption? A: Not sure... Q: Would you consider adaptation such as insulation to reduce consumption? A: Yes but cannot afford cost...
Facilities survey Majority of building stock from 1960s-1980s. Designed for use in summer Difficult to heat cheaply, difficult to insulate... Common to find cricket clubs on the flood plain
Scales of adaptation Cranfield CC Flood and Water Management Plan Cost Building a flood wallMachinery replacement Planning & management Energy saving lighting
Integration of environmental and sport sustainability Sustainable SportEnvironmental Sustainability Participation Revenue generation Expenditure Facilities Quality of surfaces Durability of surfaces Tenure Resource consumption Water Pollution Habitat Climate change Mitigation Adaptation
How do we achieve this? Strategy at ECB level Strategy at club level Education: Helping clubs analyse current practice Signposting information & resources Providing guidance (Cranfield/ECB) Providing training/reinforcement (IOG/ECB)
Summary Sport needs to adapt and mitigate to effects of: Current climate Future climate Other challenges (resource shortfalls, population increase) Case study of how cricket are doing this reveals close relationship between environmental and sporting sustainability
Future sports facilities? Fewer, more intensively used facilities Greater sharing among clubs Alternative funding models Smaller resource footprints (carbon, water, minerals, chemicals) Greater participation? Increased population Participation = health and social well being (for now) ‘Better’ summer weather?
How sustainable are our sports facilities? Dr Iain James Senior Lecturer Centre for Sports Surface Technology Cranfield University email@example.com
Carbon foot-printing golf with CranTurfC From: Bartlett MD, James IT. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses. Science of the Total Environment
Other factors Source: DCMS Climate Change Plan 2010-2012
Pressures on sports facilities Current 1.Sustainable resourcing and funding 2.Weather patterns 3.Cost inflation 4.Sustainable participation 5.Land availability Future 1.Climate change 2.Water availability 3.Energy price inflation 4.Population growth & land pressure 5.Reduction in chemical use on turf