5Cont…LOCATIONPakistan is located between 23.5 degree North to 37 and 61 degree East to 77 degree East as far as the latitudinal and longitudinal extents are concerned.Geo-Strategic Position:Pakistan is surrounded by various countries:East……………………..IndiaWest and North West…. ..AfghanistanSouth West Iran….....……IranNorth…………………….ChinaSouth…………………….Arabian Sea
6GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISION 1. Northern Mountains2. Indus Plains3. Plateau ( Pothohar and Baluchistan)Pakistan has an area of square Kilometers. Area of Pakistan is four times larger than UK and one fourth of the size of India. 58% area of Pakistan consists of Mountains and plateaus, while 42% area of Pakistan consists of plains and deserts.
7STRATEGIC POSITIONPakistan is situated in the region of great political, economic and military importance. Among its neighboring countries, China is recognized as an emerging super power of the world’s politics.PAKISTAN AND CHINA:China is situated in the north of Pakistan. Length of common border between Pakistan and China is 600km. Silk route connects these two countries. These countries have warm relations, and their friendship is stronger than Himalayas. China has helped Pakistan in the development of many projects including the defense projects.
8Cont…PAKISTAN & INDIAIndia is another atomic power, which is also a neighboring countryof Pakistan.CENTER OF THE MUSLIM WORLDPakistan is situated in the center of the Muslim World. To thewest of Pakistan starting from Afghanistan and Iran, stretches along chain of Muslims countries and towards East the Muslim belt is spread upto Indonesia.
9Cont… TRADE ROUTE BETWEEN EAST AND WEST: On the southern side of Pakistan lies the Arabian sea, which is the part of the Indian Ocean. Pakistan links the east with the west. Most of trade between east and west is through Indian Ocean. So Pakistan lies on an important trade route of the World. Pakistan through Arabian sea is linked with the Muslims countries of Persian Gulf. All of them are rich in oil. The Persian Gulf has always been the center of the big power’s politics. Karachi, Bin Qasim and Gawader are the other important Sea Ports of Pakistan.
10Cont…These Muslims countries posses the wealth of oil, which has enhance their importance. Pakistan has cordial relations with these countries. RELIGIOUS CULTURAL AND TRADE IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN: In the north west of Pakistan, there is a narrow strip of Wakhan valley (9-14 km wide) that separates it from central Asian Islamic countries. These central Asian countries are land locked but rich in natural resource. Pakistan has religious, cultural and economic relations with these countries.
11POPULATION AND PEOPLEAccording to the census of 1998 total population of Pakistan was Millions but, current population is more than 180 Millions.98% of the total population is Muslim while 2% are Christians, Hindus, Parsis and Qadyanis.Density of population in Pakistan is approx 170 persons per sq km.
12SOCIETYPakistan has a multicultural, multiethnic and multi sect society. All societies are made up of different types of backgrounds of people who have interacted to form a whole. The process of fusion has been very slow in Pakistan: the ideas may be there but the will to improve conditions is not present. In a truly well amalgamated society, the people live by the same rules and under same laws. They identify themselves not by the regions but by their country.Religious identification is more supreme in an Islamic country like Pakistan but the sectarian divisions have greatly harmed the people, thecountry and the image of Islam as a religion in the eyes of the world.
13Cont…The society of Pakistan is ethnically diverse yet overwhelmingly Muslim. Islam is the factor that binds all strata of the society, but due to our own mistakes religion could not prove as a focal point for the development of a national identity. Pashtuns, Baloch, Sindhis, Muhajirs and Kashmiris are all Muslims, but are representatives of diverse cultural traditions and speak different languages.Loyalties, even after more than sixty seven years of independence, are measured in terms of ethnicity, regional connections, caste and baraadri and family obligations. National loyalties have yet to evolve on a scale where the people become united in all measures.
14Cont…One of the binding forces for its society is its language: uniformity of a spoken language is an important aspect of cultural unity. Pakistan for which the movement of independence started with the issue of language did not have one language. Twenty-four years after independence, in 1971, the issue of national language resulted in the secession of East Pakistan. Language has remained an issue that evoked much public and private outcry frequently. Urdu began as lingua franca linking the Turkish andPersian speaking elite and the people of northern India during the periodbetween the eleventh and thirteenth centuries.
15CULTURESum total of the higher achievement of group life, which a community or nation has acquired through its historical experience in different fields like the physical sciences, social sciences, arts, crafts, religion, ethics, and social behavior; is called its culture.
16Cont… particular area or region. Human communities inhabiting Culture denotes the living patterns of the people living in aparticular area or region. Human communities inhabitingdifferent areas of the world have distinct characteristics whichdifferentiate them from each other. These characteristics hear theimprint of the historical process they have passed through; andthe land, climate and environment they live in.
17COMMON CHARACTERISTICS RELIGIOUS UNITY: Almost 98 percent of the people in Pakistan are Muslims. They have deep love for their faith and are ready to render any sacrifice in the name of religion. This love and devotion for Islam served as the basic motive force behind their struggle for a free homeland Pakistan. Only Islam is the basis of our survival. But living patterns of the people of Pakistan do not strictly conform to the standards set by Islam. Our social habits and rituals bear the importance of un-Islamic influences we have acquired our social interaction with other communities.
18NATIONAL RESOURCES NATURAL RESOURCES MINERAL RESOURCES Gas, Petroleum, Coal, Water and Nuclear EnergyForestsAgricultureMATERIAL RESOURSES i.e. Industries etceteraHUMAN RESOURCEMILITARY STRENGTH
19NATURAL RESOURCESNational resources of a country are backbone for its industrial and economical development which play a dominant role in accelerating the pace of progress and prosperity. Economic development of a country is not possible without the availability of natural resources. Natural resources means minerals, forests, hydro power, energy etcetera.
20Cont…Natural Gas:Natural gas is used in domestic cooking, thermal power stations and steel furnaces and as a raw material for fertilizer industry and as CNG for transport purpose. It is used almost in every industry. It is found in Sui, Attock, Pirkoh and Kandhkot.Petroleum:Petroleum or Crude oil is used in transport, power-generating stations and in iron/ steel furnaces. Petroleum is known as black gold. Of the total requirement only 40 percent is produced within the country and the rest is imported from Gulf Cuntries. Crude oil is found at Badin, Chakwal, Rawalpindi, Attock and Mianwali ie Pothohar Region.
21Cont…Coal:It is used in thermal power stations and in furnaces for making bricks. About 80 percent of cement industry has now switched over to indigenous coal from furnace oil that has saved considerable foreign exchange being spent on the import of furnace oil. Quality of coal is not very good. It is available at Dandot, Makerwal, Harnaai, Laakhra (Sindh).The coalfield in Thar has huge coal resources of about 175 billion tones. In view of the anticipated shortfall of electricity and other energy resources during the next 10 years, the maximum quantity of Coal would be required in power generation and gasification.
22Cont…To ascertain commercial viability of mining coal from Thar, German consultants have completed feasibility on a specific block in Thar Coalfield.Presently over 80 percent of coal is consumed by the bricks industry, therefore, it reduced the supply of Coal to power generation.In recent past approximately 80 percent of cement industry has been switched over to indigenous coal from furnace oil that has saved considerable foreign exchange spent on the import of furnace oil. The conversion of cement industry from furnace oil to coal has generated a demand for 2.5 to 3.0 million tons coal per annum.
23Cont…Chromite: Chromite is used in making Engineering tools and Stainless steel. It is found at Chaghi, Muslim Bagh, Malakand and Zhob. Copper: Copper is used in electrical equipment, power and communication transmission lines. It is found at Sandak, Chaghi and now in Chiniot. Lime Stone: It is used in manufacturing cement, bleaching powder, Glass and Paint industries. It is found in Hyderabad, Khewra Salt Ranges and Hazara Division.
24Cont…Iron Ore: It is used in making steel and engineering products. It isfound at Kalabagh, Chitral, Hazara Division, Makerwal and Khuzdar.Now a big reservoir has been discovered in Chiniot.Rock Salt:Rock salt is used for cooking as well as in manufacturing Soda ash. Itis also used in Textile and Tanning industries. It is found at Khewra,Karak and Kalabagh.Marble and Granite: It is used for decoration in constructionindustry. It is available in great quantities at Chitral, Abbottabad,Mansehra and Ziyarat etc.
25FOREST RESOURCESForests play a very important role in the economy of a country. There is shortage of forests in Pakistan. Pakistan has 4.01 million hectares covered by forests, which is about 5 percent of the total land area. Eighty-five percent of this is a public forest, which includes 40 percent Coniferous and Scrub Forests on the northern hills and mountains. The balance is made up of irrigated plantations and forests along major rivers on Indus plains, mangrove forests on the Indus delta and trees planted on farmlands.
26Cont…Though the forest resources are meager, it plays an important role in Pakistan’s economy by employing half a million people and fulfills one-third of the nation’s energy needs. Forest and Rangelands support about 30 million herds of livestock. Forestry sector plays an important role in soil conservation, regulates flow of water for irrigation and power generation, reduction of sedimentation in water conveyances and reservoirs.
27IMPORTANCE OF FORESATS IN NATIONAL ECONOMY 1. Raw material for paper, Sports, Silk, Furniture and Tanning industries.2. Medical herbs and seeds for pharmaceutical industries.3. Recreation facilities for tourism and camping.4. Timber/wood for fire and Fodder for cattle.5. Reduce floods intensity.6. Cause rain and Increase fertilizer of land.7. Provide employment opportunities.8. Control soil erosion.9. Chemicals such as turpentine oil.
28ENERGYPakistan’s economy has been growing at an average rate of 7.6 percent per annum. Government is making efforts to address the challenges of rising energy demand. These include import of piped natural gas from Iran and Turkmenistan, import of LNG, increase in oil and gas exploration in the country, utilizing 175 billion tones of Thar coal reserves, setting up of new nuclear power plants, exploiting the affordable alternate energy resources and overhauling existing power generation plants to enhance their generation capacity.
29Cont…Pakistan meets its energy requirement of over 75 percent from domestic resources, around 50 % of its energy need is met by the indigenous gas, 29 % by domestic and imported oil and 13 by hydro electricity. Coal and nuclear contribution to energy use is limited to 7% and 1% respectively. While the widening of energy supply and demand gap remains a challenge for Pakistan. It also provides viable investment opportunities for both local and international investors.
31WATER RESOURCESThree multipurpose dams are: Warsak, Mangla and Tarbela.Many Barrages and Head Works have also been constructed.A vast system of Canals (the biggest in Asia) is functioning.Following Dams also form part of main water resources:Gomal Zam Dam, Hub Dam, Mirani Dam, Rawal Dam, Shadikor Dam and Diamer-Bhasha Dam.
33MANGLA DAMThe Mangla Dam in Azad Jammu Kashmir (Pakistani or Free Kashmir) is the twelfth largest dam in the world. It was built in 1967 with funding from the World Bank. It is 3140 M long and 138 M Wide with a reservoir of 97.7 square miles (253 km²). The main structures of the dam include 4 embankment dams, 2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a power station.
34TARBELA DAMTarbela Dam is a large dam on the Indus River in Pakistan. It has a height of 143 M and 2743 M wide above the river bed and a reservoir size of 95 sq miles makes it the largest earth filled dam in the world for irrigation and flood control, and for the generation of hydro-electric power.
35HUB DAMHub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the Hub River on the arid plains north of Karachi on provincial border between Balochistan and Sindh. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in Lasbela District of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi. It is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of water birds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water. The Mahseer (Tor putitora), an indigenous riverine fish found in the Hub River, can grow up to 9 feet in length and more than 110 lbs.
36DIAMER-BHASHA DAMDiamer-Bhasha Dam is the name of a dam that has been planned in the Northern Areas of Pakistan on the River Indus. It is located about 314 km upstream of Tarbela Dam and about 165 km downstream of Gilgit. The dam is expected to create a large reservoir with a gross capacity of 7.3 million acre feet (9 km³) submerging large tracts of land in the Diamer district. The dam is supposed to have a power generation capacity of megawatts and is expected to considerable ease up the skewed hydro to thermal power generation ratio in Pakistan.
37RIVERS,BARRAGES &HEAD WORKS Indus: Chashma, Taunsa, Ghulam Muhammad andGuddu BarragesJhelum: Rasul Head WorkChenab: Marala, Khanki, Qadirabad and TrimmuHead WorksRavi: Balloki and Sidhnai Head WorksSutlej: Sulaimanki and Islam Head WorksPanjnad: Panjnad Head Works
38AGRICULTUREAgriculture is backbone and the largest sector of Pakistan’s economy, which plays a very important role in its development. Nearly 22% of total output (GDP) and 45% of total employment is generated in agriculture. It contributes substantially to Pakistan’s exports. Agriculture also contributes to growth as a supplier of raw materials to industry as well as market for industrial products.
39INDUSTRIESIndustry plays a dominant role in the economic development of a country. Western countries enjoy all comforts and luxuries of life due to higher productivity of goods and services in their countries. This is due to industrialization. Unfortunately there were no industries when Pakistan came into being but now wit the efforts of Governments and the people there is an improvement in this regard. However more is required to be done.
40Textile IndustryThe share of textile industry in the economy along with its contribution to exports, employment, foreign exchange earnings, investment and value added makes it the single largest manufacturing sector. It contributes around around 8.5% to GDP, employs 38% of total manufacturing labour force and contributes between 60-75% to total merchandise exports. Pakistan is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. The variety of products ranges from cotton yarn to knitwear.
41Automobile IndustryThe auto industry growing is fast and may soon begin to achieve economies of scale. The tremendous rise in automobile demand has resulted in increased production, giving a healthy impetus to industrial output and generating over 1,50,000 direct employment opportunities besides contributing tax revenue to the Govt. since the automobile market is growing rapidly by over 40% per annum. Long-term investment friendly policies of Govt. and up-gradation of production facilities considered as pre-requisite by experts.
42Fertilizer IndustryIn order to promote the use of fertilizer. Govt. offered various incentives, which ultimately resulted in excessive demand for fertilizer. The fertilizer use in Pakistan is a growth story in the field of agriculture. Presently they are10 manufacturing units in operation. Out of these, four units are located in public sector and six are in private sector. The average annual growth of the fertilizer sector is at 6% per annum. Its share in GDP is 0.5%.
43Cement IndustryCement industry has shown significant growth. At the moment there are 27 cement manufacturing units in the country. The boost during the period in the performance of cement industry activity is because of high level of construction activity in country and increased development expenditure of the government.
44HUMAN RESOURCEHuman resources are defined as the population of the country. It is an important asset and factor in the economic development of a country. From the experience of Japan, China, Malaysia etc we can observe the importance of human resources. The size of country’s population, its growth rate, fertility rate and its distribution in various age groups and evaluation in the context of income distribution is very important for assessing the productive capacity of its economy, and estimating the quantity and quality of goods and services, the nation is producing and likely to produce in future. Out of 180 Million people, more than 50 % are women who due to some taboos and cultural customs can not play effective part in Developmental Projects. Old age Human Resource has vey limited capacity to give substantial input.
45UNEMPLOYMENTManpower is a big resource and strength with us. We provide skilled and unskilled labour to Gulf Countries, Malaysia, Turkey, European Union and America. Despite that we do not have sufficient opportunities, therefore, a large number of our intelligentsia is drained out as we can not make use of it.On the other hand there is a continuous increase in unemployment rate due to increase in population. The labour market in the country is confronted with predominance of informal economy, low literacy, poor level of skills and mis-match between the demand and supply of educated and trained manpower.Women and youth comprising more than half of the population are at a disadvantaged position as well.