Key features of Polavaram Project VIKASA Cotton Barrage
Key features of Polavaram Project…(contd.) VIKASA Left flank : irrigation + drinking water en route to Visakhapatnam (25 TMC) & ors Right flank : irrigation - diversion of 80 TMC to Krishna Barrage (linking of Krishna & Godavari Rivers) Downstream : supplementing Godavari delta in case of shortfall Hydropower generation capacity 960 MW (= 12 x 80 MW) A dam across R. Godavari near Polavaram Vill. (WG Dist.) Would create 75.2 TMC Reservoir Irrigation for 7.2 lakh acres (projected)
II. Polavaram Project suffering from several key deficiencies VIKASA
Deficiencies of Polavaram Project VIKASA Current status: full project clearances not yet obtained! Main dam and storage structures not yet constructed. Submergence & environmental degradation: 2 lakh acres (1.5 lakh acres farm land & 0.5 lakh acres forest land); massive loss of rare flora & fauna; major loss to Papikonda Wildlife Sanctuary (Tiger habitat); loss of heritage and sacred structures Relocation and ‘forced impoverishment’ a snowballing issue: more than 2 lakh people (65% tribals & dalits) in over 300 villages; forced to migrate and lose assured livelihoods High and rising project cost estimates – a serious concern: capital (Rs. 16,000 crores and counting!) and recurring (due to lift component); sanctions withheld on financial grounds Inter-regional disputes (“Telangana vs. Coastal Andhra”) Inter-state disputes (Chattisgarh, Orissa vs. AP) – recent MoEF notices; CWC’s approval after OK by other States under GWDT
Deficiencies of Polavaram Project (contd.) VIKASA Violating Draft National Tribal Policy: mandatory principle of least displacement; any project which displaces more than 50,000 tribal people would not be taken up or be subject to more stringent norms Violating Environment Protection Act (1986) & EIA Notifications (1994, 1997 & 2004) : - project should not deprive livelihoods of poor and tribal people - mandatory to find out alternatives…to protect the environment Against National Water Policy: does not permit state-induced impoverishment due to forced displacement, acquisition of lands Against recommendations of Prof. Jayati Ghosh Commission, National and State Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy (2003 & 2005), etc.
VIKASA Deficiencies of Polavaram Project (contd.) Supreme Court’s Central Empowered Committee (CEC) on Polavaram: submergence of villages and forced displacement of large populations irreparable loss of invaluable wildlife zones & tiger habitat ‘a fresh appraisal’ & ‘a second thought required before sanctioning project’ ‘a strong case for exploring alternative location and design’ Ref: CEC’s Report dated (vide F. No. 1-19/CEC/SCA/2006 – PT XII dated ) in I.A. No and 1578 in the Supreme Court of India Outdated Model of Development? Priorities seen to be skewed project’s primary beneficiaries (relatively better-developed plain and delta) vs. primary losers (underdeveloped tribals and dalits in more backward regions)
VIKASA Deficiencies of Polavaram Project (contd.) Actual gains much lower than claimed ! Duplication of Polavaram Ayacut: Claimed area – 7.2 lakh acres But, 5.2 lakh acres of this area shown as covered under other projects: Yeleru, Torigedda LIS, Chagalnadu LIS, Tadipudi LIS, Pushkaram LIS! Tadipudi and Pushkaram LIS alone cover 3.92 lakh acres of same area ! Polavaram ayacut to be much lower
VIKASA Deficiencies of Polavaram Project (contd.) Dam design & safety issues - underestimated submergence area? Design assumption: 36 lakh cusecs flood would submerge 276 villages in AP But, in Aug. 2006, only 28.5 lakh cusecs flood submerged 369 villages Design max. flood of 50 lakh cusecs - likely submergence of 400 villages and affecting 2.5 lakh population Sedimentation problem in Godavari River likely significant reduction in projected storage capacity Nizam Sagar and Sriram Sagar Projects lost 60% of live capacity in 50 years Therefore, need to consider suitable alternatives…
III. The Alternative Proposal VIKASA
First Principles of the Alternative Proposal VIKASA 1.Diversion of water from higher elevations feasible a. Sabari, Sileru, Sokuleru, Pamuleru ( on left flank) b. at Dummugudem Anicut (on right flank) c.Water needs met through gravity only – no need for lift 2.Capturing reliable water sources feasible - perennial flow (regulated discharge) from hydroelectric schemes 3.Protecting stakeholder interest & meeting the water needs of all sides 4.Resource optimization & environment protection – lowering costs; minimizing social and environmental costs; utilizing existing canal network 5.Tunneling technology – recent advances 6.Overall approach for win-win solution: adhering to the Constitutional mandate - Directive Principles of State Policy and statutory/regulatory requirements
VIKASA A Left Flank : -through Tunnel + Canal from Sileru R. into Yeleru R. A B B Right Flank : -Major Canal + Tunnel from Dummugudem Anicut. Alternative Proposal to Polavaram Balancing/Carryover Reservoirs (Storage) - on Sokuleru R. and Pamuleru R. C
The Alternative Proposal (details) VIKASA A Left Flank : Proposed Scheme -5,000 cusecs regulated flow available for 9 months at 700 ft MSL in Sileru R. - below Lower Sileru Hydroelectric Scheme -Flow can be diverted through Tunnel (20 km) + Canal from Sileru R. into Yeleru R. – linked to main canal -Yeleru Project can serve as storage reservoir -Will fully meet irrigation and water supply requirements of Visakhapatnam & ors. (100 TMC water) – by gravity only -Hydropower generation possible by harnessing fall of 500 ft
The Alternative Proposal (details) VIKASA B Right Flank : Proposed Scheme -Diversion from Dummugudem Anicut at ft FRL -35,000 cusecs flow for 9 months i.e. 600 TMC available at 75% dependability at Dummugudem -Can divert 100 TMC for right flank irrigation + 80 TMC for transfer to Krishna basin -Entire water available through gravity only -Major Canal + Tunnel (approx. 40 km) to cross Godavari-Krishna ridge
The Alternative Proposal (details) VIKASA C Downstream : Supplementing Godavari Delta in case of shortfall - Balancing/Carryover Reservoirs (Storage) - on Sokuleru R, Pamuleru R & other minor basins - Total storage up to 25 TMC for exigencies of delta, drinking water requirements -Projected downward trend in irrigation water demand for delta - conservation of water through modern irrigation, cropping methods (eg: ‘Sri’ paddy cultivation) -These reservoirs actually serve as water bodies wildlife requirements
VIKASA Sustainable model for development; Win-Win Solution for all stakeholders Necessity of Polavaram Reservoir dispensed with Submergence of forest and tribal lands avoided Displacement of people avoided Assured water for all sides : left flank, right flank & delta/downstream Entire scheme based on gravity flow only – no need for lift; significant cost savings Hydropower generation feasible In conformity with all environmental and project norms Inter-region, inter-state disputes avoided Benefits of Alternative Proposal - Summary Harmonious and optimal reconciliation of needs of various stakeholders + protecting the environment
VIKASA Silent Valley Project, Kerala - proposal in 1928, project initiation in 1958, dropped in 1983); eco-friendly alternatives taken up Heran Reservoir in Gujarat Yes, Alternative to Polavaram Project can be adopted even now. Mandatory project clearances not yet obtained! Main dam structure and storage structure not constructed anyway – are not inevitable SC’s Central Empowered Committee (CEC): “…there is a strong case for a second thought…CWC should take into consideration suitable alternatives…” On previous occasions too India dropped projects for better alternatives: Alternative to Polavaram - at this stage?
VIKASA Summary of major arguments PolavaramOther Proposals This Alternative Irrigation Water Drinking water Power generation Costs (capital and recurring) Sunken costs – existing canals? Environmental impact & Submergence: - People - natural habitat Legal and Regulatory requirements
from… to… It is time for a WIN – WIN SOLUTION for all Stakeholders Why consider Alternative Proposal to Polavaram? VIKASA
Contact : Vivekananda Seva Samithi (VIKASA) HNo /C, Vidya Nagar Hyderabad Phone: ; Mobile: THANK YOU !