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Fuel Cells Thomas G. Benjamin J. David Carter Argonne National Laboratory Technology Management Association of Chicago Arlington Heights, IL February 5,

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Presentation on theme: "Fuel Cells Thomas G. Benjamin J. David Carter Argonne National Laboratory Technology Management Association of Chicago Arlington Heights, IL February 5,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fuel Cells Thomas G. Benjamin J. David Carter Argonne National Laboratory Technology Management Association of Chicago Arlington Heights, IL February 5, 2007

2 2 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- Definition and History Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Parting Shots Hydrogen Storage Resources

3 U.S. Energy Flow in Quadrillion BTUs

4 4 U.S. Domestic Energy Deficit (2004) Total Energy Use= 99.7 Quadrillion BTU* Total Energy Production = 70.4 Quadrillion BTU Shortfall =29.5 QBTU Petroleum shortfall=27.7 QBTU 2/3 of oil consumption is related to transportation *101.9 Quads used in 2005

5 5 U.S. Demand and Dependence on Foreign Oil Driven by Transportation Sector Note: Domestic production includes crude oil, NG plant liquids, refinery gain, and other inputs, consistent with AER Table 5.1. Source: Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24, ORNL-6973, and EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2006, Feb Million barrels per day

6 6 01,0002,0003,0004,0005,0006,000 H2 from Central Nuclear to H2 FCV H2 from Central Coal with Seq. to H2 FCV Central Wind Electro to H2 FCV Central Biomass to H2 FCV Distributed Wind Electro to H2 FCV NG Distributed H2 FCV Diesel HEV Gasoline HEV Current GV Well-to-Wheel Petroleum Energy Use (Btu/mi.) Well to Pump Pump to Wheel Comparative Vehicle Technologies: Well-to- Wheels Petroleum Energy Use

7 H2 from Central Nuclear to H2 FCV H2 from Central Coal with Seq. to H2 FCV Central Wind Electro to H2 FCV Central Biomass to H2 FCV Distributed Wind Electro to H2 FCV NG Distributed H2 FCV Diesel HEV Gasoline HEV Current GV Well-to-Wheel Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g/mi.) Well to Pump Pump to Wheel Comparative Vehicle Technologies: Well-to- Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions

8 Domestic use Computer = 150 W Refrigerator = 800 W House = 2-10 kW Small Building = 250 kW Transportation Honda Insight = 60 kW Corvette = 300 kW Hummer = 420 kW Heavy Truck = kW How much power do we need? 1 horsepower (hp) = 2500 BTU/h 3/4 kilowatt (kW)

9 9 Power Generation Options Nuclear Plant 1 GW Hoover Dam 120 MW Photovoltaic Plant 4 MW Fuel Cell Modules 1W to 2 MW Largest windmills 3 MW Coal-fired Power Plant 1 GW

10 10 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- History and Definition Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Parting Shots Hydrogen Storage Resources

11 11 Reid describes first Alkaline FC (using KOH electrolyte) Sir William Grove invents first fuel cell ( H 2 SO 4 + Pt Electrodes, H 2 and O 2 ) Jacques develops FC for household use Nernst first uses Zirconia as a solid electrolyte Baur constructs first Molten Carbonate FC Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company demonstrates a 20-horsepower FC powered tractor General Electric develops first Polymer Electrolyte FC (PEFC) Nafion first introduced – more stable PEM FC constructed Space applications: AFC used in Apollo missions, PEM used in Gemini missions Oil crisis creates new impetus for FC funding, PAFC and MCFC developed initially First commercial power plant begins operation (200kW PC25 PAFC) FC systems entering several test markets

12 12 Photographs from FC History US Army MCFC, 1966 Allis-Chambers PAFC engine, 1965 William Grove's drawing of an experimental “gas battery“, 1843 William Jacques' carbon battery, 1896

13 A Fuel Cell is similar to a rechargeable battery Fuel cell: reactants supplied continuously and electrodes invariant Overall Fuel Cell Reactions: H 2 + O 2  H 2 O + heat + electrons Fuel Cell _ + Air H2H2 H2OH2O Storage cell: reactants self contained and electrodes consumed Lead-Acid Battery Reaction Pb + PbO 2 + H 2 SO 4  2 PbSO H 2 O + _ H 2 SO 4 Pb Storage Cell Fuel Cell – Electrochemical energy conversion device in which fuel and oxidant react to generate electricity without any consumption, physically or chemically, of its electrodes or electrolyte.

14 14 Bipolar Plate Cathode + Anode - Electrolyte H+ HYDROGEN (H 2 ) OXYGEN (O 2 ) Bipolar Plate O- e - H+ O- e - WATER (H 2 O) + HEAT H 2 2H + + 2e - ½O 2 + 2H + + 2e - H 2 O H+ PEMFC: Protons formed at the anode diffuse through the electrolyte and react with electrons and oxygen at the cathode to form water and heat.

15 15 Single cells are arranged into “stacks” to increase total voltage and power output Cathode: O 2 + 4H + + 4e -  2H 2 O 1.2 V Anode: 2H 2  4H + + 4e V Total Cell: 2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O 1.2 V per cell Power = Volts X Amps Ballard PEFC Stack

16 16 Fuel Cell System Fuel Processor Fuel Cell Stack Spent-Gas Burner Thermal & Water Management Air Fuel H2H2 Exhaust Electric Power Conditioner

17 17 Fuel Processor Power Fuel Processor BARRIERS Fuel processor start-up/ transient operation Durability Cost Emissions and environmental issues H 2 purification/CO cleanup Fuel processor system integration and efficiency On-Board Fuel Processing

18 18 Fuel Cell Challenges Durability Cost Electrode Performance Water Transport Within the Stack Thermal, Air and Water Management Start-up Time and Energy Cost and durability present two of the more significant technical barriers to the achievement of clean, reliable, cost-effective systems. Power

19 19 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- Definition and History Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Parting Shots Hydrogen Storage Resources

20 20 Five major types of fuel cells Fuel Cell Type Temperature Applications Electrolyte / Ion Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ° C Electric utility Portable power Transportation Perfluorosulfonic acid / H+ Alkaline (AFC) 90 – 100° C Military Space KOH / OH- Phosphoric Acid (PAFC) 175 – 200° C Electric utility Distributed power Transportation H 3 PO 4 / H+ Molten Carbonate (MCFC) 600 – 1000° C Electric utility Distributed power (Li,K,Na) 2 CO 3 / CO 2 - Solid Oxide (SOFC) 600 – 1000° C Electric utility Distributed power APUs (Zr,Y) O 2 / O-

21 21 Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) Applications Space Transportation Features High performance Very sensitive to CO 2 Expensive Pt electrodes Status “Commercially” available AFCs from Apollo & Spaceshuttle Spacecrafts-- NASA Equations Cathode: ½O 2 + H 2 O + 2e¯ → 2OH¯ Anode: H 2 + 2OH¯ → 2H 2 O + 2e¯

22 22 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Equations Cathode: ½O 2 + 2H + + 2e¯ → H 2 O Anode:H 2 → 2H + + 2e¯ Applications Distributed power plants Combined heat and power Some buses Features Some fuel flexibility High efficiency in cogeneration (85%) Established service record Platinum catalyst Status Commercially available but expensive Excellent reliability and availability Millions of hours logged UTC Fuel Cells 200-kW

23 23 Equations Cathode: ½O 2 + CO 2 + 2e¯ → CO 3 = Anode: H 2 + CO 3 = → 2H 2 O + CO 2 + 2e¯ Fuel Cell Energy MCFC stack Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells Applications Distributed power plants Combined heat and power Features Fuel flexibility (internal reforming) High efficiency High temperature good for cogeneration Base materials (nickel electrodes) Corrosive electrolyte Status Pre-Commercially available but expensive

24 24 Equations Cathode:O 2 + 2e¯ → 2O = Anode: H 2 + O = → H 2 O + 2e¯ Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Applications Truck APUs Distributed power plants Combined heat and power Features Slow start – subject to thermal shock High temperature High power density (watts/liter) Can use CO and light hydrocarbons directly “Cheap” components, solid electrolyte Low-yield manufacture Status Vehicle APUs

25 25 Equations Cathode: ½O 2 + 2H + + 2e¯ → H 2 O Anode: H 2 → 2H + + 2e¯ Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Applications Transportation, Forklifts, etc. Power backup systems Consumer electronics with methanol fuel Features Quick start Low temperature Expensive Pt electrodes Easy manufacture Operating window limits 53-67% thermal efficiency Status Vehicle demonstrations underway Stationary/backup power “commercially” available Toyota Fuel Cell Forklift

26 26 Direct Methanol Polymer Electrolyte FC (DMFC) Applications Miniature applications Consumer electronics Battlefield Features A subset of Polymer Electrolyte Modified polymer electrolyte fuel cell components Methanol crossover lowers efficiency Status Pre-Alpha to Beta testing Equations Cathode: 1.5 O 2 + 6H + + 6e¯ → 3H 2 O Anode:CH 3 OH + H 2 O → CO 2 + 6H + + 6e¯

27 27 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- Definition and History Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Parting Shots Hydrogen Storage Resources

28 28 Anatomy of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and Challenges Electrocatalyst: High cost of platinum-based electrocatalyst Catalyst support: Loss of surface and electrode contact of amorphous carbon under oxidative environment Component: Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) and bipolar plates account for 10% of stack cost Electrolyte Anode GDL Cathode GDL H2H2 e-e- e-e- H+H+ H2H2 e-e- e-e- O2O2 H2OH2O H2H2 Carbon support Platinum catalyst

29 29 Significant Barriers to PEM Fuel Cell Commercialization Durability Membranes, catalysts, gas diffusion media, fuel cell stacks, and systems over automotive drive cycles Cost Materials and manufacturing costs: catalysts, membranes, bipolar plates, and gas diffusion layers Performance Tolerance to impurities such as carbon monoxide, sulfur compounds, and ammonia Operation under higher temperature, low relative humidity conditions as well as sub-freezing conditions

30 30 Key ChallengesUnits 2006 Status2015 Target Cost$/kW11030 Lifetime (durability w/ cycling)hours~1,0005,000 Other Challenges Precious Metal Loadingg/kW (rated) Power DensityW/L Start-up Time to 50% of Rated Power at: - 20 o C ambient temp sec o C ambient temp<105 Start-up and Shut Down Energy at: - 20 o C ambient temp MJ o C ambient tempn/a1 PEM Fuel Cell System (80kWe) Development Targets for Transportation Applications

31 31 Cycling range: 0.4 to 0.9 V Particle diameters: 2 to 4 nm Some particles have a diameter of 6 nm Particle diameters: 2 to 6 nm Some particles have a diameter of 10 nm Cycling range: 0.4 to 1.2 V Effect of potential cycling on Pt dissolution/agglomeration Increase in Pt particle size with cycling Particle size increases with increasing potential Increased particle size leads to decreased surface area and decreased activity Improved durability with no performance loss

32 32 Mitigation of sulfur poisoning of PEMFC LANL H 2 S on H 2 S off Air on Air off N 2 purge H 2 on Anode poisoned with 1 ppm H 2 S Anode is at OCV before air exposure Air bled overnight Cell recovered almost fully Improved performance of Pt-alloy catalyst Increased Activity: > 10x

33 33 Current Membranes Have Poor Conductivity at Low Relative Humidity Membranes with good conductivity (~0.1 S/cm) at low (25-50%) RH would reduce or eliminate external humidification requirements Simpler system lowers cost and improves durability

34 34 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- Definition and History Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Parting Shots Hydrogen Storage Resources

35 35 Key Transportation Fuel Cell Targets Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power System (80 kW e ) Operating on Direct Hydrogen $45/kW by 2010 $30/kW by ,000 hours durability by 2010 (80 O C) – 150,000 miles at 30 mph

36 36 Objectives –Validate H 2 FC Vehicles and Infrastructure in Parallel –Identify Current Status of Technology and its Evolution –Assess Progress Toward Technology Readiness –Provide Feedback to H 2 Research and Development Key Targets Performance Measure Fuel Cell Stack Durability 2000 hours 5000 hours Vehicle Range 250+ miles 300+ miles Hydrogen Cost at Station $3/gge$2-3/gge Photo: NREL Hydrogen refueling station, Chino, CA Technology Validation Learning Demonstrations

37 37 Technology Validation learning demonstrations Courtesy K. Wipke, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

38 38 Representative Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure LAX refueling station Hydrogen and gasoline station, WA DC Chino, CA DTE/BP Power Park, Southfield, MI Courtesy K. Wipke, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

39 39 Refueling Stations Test Vehicle/Infrastructure Northern California Southern California Florida Additional Planned Stations (3) Additional Planned Stations (4) SE Michigan Mid-Atlantic Additional Planned Stations (2) Courtesy K. Wipke, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

40 40 First 5 quarters of project completed:  69 vehicles now in fleet operation. An additional 62 planned for with 50,000-mile fuel cell systems.  10 stations installed  deployment of new H 2 refueling stations for this project is about 50% complete.  No major safety problems encountered. Fuel cell durability: Maximum: 950 hours (ongoing) Average: 715 hours Range: 100 to 190 miles

41 41 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- Definition and History Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Parting Shots (of fuel cells) Hydrogen Storage Resources

42 42 Stationary Fuel Cell Power Systems Fuel Cell Energy 2 MW MCFC Siemens-Westinghouse 100kW SOFC UTC Fuel Cells 200kW PAFC Ballard 250kW PEFC Plug Power 7kW Residential PEFC Plug Power 10 kW Residential unit Courtesy of Breakthrough Technologies Institute:

43 43 Portable Fuel Cell Power Systems Plug Power FC powered highway road sign Ballard FC powered laptop Plug Power FC powered video camera Fraunhofer ISE Micro-Fuel Cell Courtesy of Breakthrough Technologies Institute: MTI Micro Fuel Cells RFID scanner

44 44 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- Definition and History Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Parting Shots (of fuel cells) Hydrogen Storage Resources

45 45 Current Status of Hydrogen Storage Systems No storage technology meets 2010 or 2015 targets Status vs. Targets

46 46 Outline The US Energy Picture Fuel Cells- Definition and History Types of Fuel Cells PEM Fuel Cells Learning Demonstration Hydrogen storage Resources

47 47 For More Information Fact sheets available in the web site library Find.... The latest news, reports & announcements Status information about program solicitations Fuel cell and hydrogen "basics" information

48 48 Fuel Cells 2000

49 49 US Fuel Cell Council

50 50 Thank You for your attention Fuel Cells Coming to an application near you


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