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Project Management zDefine project, project management, RAD, JAD zDescribe project management activities zDescribe the advantages, disadvantages and characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Project Management zDefine project, project management, RAD, JAD zDescribe project management activities zDescribe the advantages, disadvantages and characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Management zDefine project, project management, RAD, JAD zDescribe project management activities zDescribe the advantages, disadvantages and characteristics of SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) and prototyping zDescribe the phases of SDLC zDescribe project dimensions affecting risk zDiscuss integration and project management tools to use in dealing with risk zDiscuss issues in managing behavioral factors

2 Project Management zProject - temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service ymay be divided into subprojects zProject management - application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project yT.A.N.S.T.A.A.F.L.

3 Project Management Activities zEnsuring progress of project using metrics zIdentifying risks and assessing the probability of them occurring zEnsuring progress toward deliverables within constraints of time and resources zRunning coordination meetings of the project team zNegotiating for resources on behalf of the project

4 Project Modeling zCommon vocabulary (beyond data repository) zTeamwork zCycle Plan zManagement yDemonstrated in SDLC and other approaches yProject planning & requirements identification yProject control (status, corrective action) yTeam management yOrganizational integration

5 Development Models zSystems Development Life Cycle zRapid Applications Development (RAD) zPrototyping zJoint Applications Development (JAD) (like RAD with users) zObject-Oriented

6 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) zOverview zSoftware Acquisition Choices zSDLC Overview zSDLC:Phases zAlternative Approaches

7 SDLC - Prior Problems zFailure to meet: yBudgets ySchedules yExpectations zTOO LITTLE…. TOO LATE

8 SDLC - Characteristics z“Problem” or “Opportunity” zMany names; Widely applicable z“Analysis” vs. “Synthesis” zVariance across stages zDisciplined approach zSystems approach zIterative (not sequential) zCyclical

9 SDLC - Advantages zFocus on tradeoffs zFocus on goals zControls: milestones, checklist, accountability zTools, models, CASE zHierarchical decomposition zDesigned for user & manager involvement

10 SDLC - Reasons for Failure zScope too broad or too narrow zLack of needed skills zIncomplete specifications zNo control/no framework zLack of management/user involvement zToo time-consuming

11 SDLC Phases zInitiation and Feasibility zRequirements Definition zFunctional Design zTechnical Design and Construction zVerification zImplementation zMaintenance & Review

12 I. Initiation & Feasibility zProject objectives & Scope zPreliminary survey & feasibility yTechnical yEconomic yOperational zProject proposal and schedule zIdentify assumptions & constraints

13 II. Requirements Definition zProblem/Opportunity definition zAnalyze current system zFocus on decisions and related information needs zDefine business functionality zPlan for training, user acceptance

14 Problem/Opportunity Definition zSymptoms vs. real problems zQuestion decision maker’s statement of problem zBound problem realistically zTry to ascertain actual cause zSometimes figuring out the problem is half the solution

15 Analyze Current System z+ Understand activities involved z+ Identify decision points z+ Help identify problems & deficiencies z+ Be aware of history z- Bias thinking

16 III. Functional Design zFocus on business needs yusability, reliability zLogical design yOutputs yInputs yPresentation yProcesses yDatabases yPersonnel

17 IV. Technical Design and Construction zFinalize architecture and acquire hardware zComplete technical definition of data access and other system components zMake (program) vs. buy zDevelop test plans zRevise schedule, plan and costs

18 V. Verification zProgram Testing yStructured walkthrough yCode inspection yUnit test yPairs testing zVerification, stress, user and security testing

19 VI. Implementation zCut-over yParallel conversion yDirect cut-over yPilot conversion yPhased conversion zUser training

20 VII. Maintenance and Review zPost-implementation audit yEnds - information requirements (information, performance) yMeans - process zMaintenance (correcting bugs & scheduled maintenance) zEnhancement (adding functionality)

21 Rapid Applications Development (RAD) zLike prototyping, uses iterative development zUses tools to speed up development yGUI yreusable code ycode generation yprogramming, language testing and debugging

22 Iterative Development System Concept Version “1” Version “2” Version “N” Software Development Process

23 Uses of Prototyping l Verifying user needs l Verifying that design = specifications l Selecting the “best” design l Developing a conceptual understanding of novel situations l Testing a design under varying environments l Demonstrating a new product to upper management l Implementing a new system in the user environment quickly

24 Prototyping Proposed Advantages yImproved user communication yUsers like it yLow risk yAvoids over-design yExperimentation and innovation ySpreads labor to user department Disadvantages in practice yPrototypes are used “as is” xIntegration often difficult xDesign flaws xPoor performance yDifficult to manage process yCreates unrealistic expectations yDocumentation is difficult

25 Observed Effects of Prototyping zease of use (+) zuser needs (+) zunrealistic user expectations (-) zadded features (?) zpoorer performance (-) zmixed design quality zmixed maintainability yless need ymore difficult to do zeffort decreased (+) zdifficult cost-estimation (-) zend-user participation increased (+) zmore expertise needed (-) zdifficult planning & control (-) Software ProductSoftware Process

26 Examples of Software Risk Items zpersonnel shortfalls zunrealistic schedules/budgets zdeveloping wrong functionality zdeveloping wrong user interface z“gold plating” zcontinuing stream of requirements changes zshortfalls in externally furnished components zshortfalls in externally performed tasks zreal-time performance shortfalls zstrained technical capabilities

27 Project Dimensions Affecting Risk zProject Size (relative to others) yInterchangeable man months yThe pregnant lady zExperience with Technology zProject structure yHigh vs. Low zComplexity???

28 Low Company- Relative Technology

29 High Company- Relative Technology

30 Tools for Project Management zExternal integration tools (beyond project team) zInternal integration tools ( within project team) zFormal planning tools zFormal results-control mechanisms

31 Integration Tools zEXTERNAL zUser project manager zUser specification approval process zUser-managed control process zUsers as team members zUser responsibility for education&installation z INTERNAL z IT professional team leader z Frequent team meetings z Regular technical status reviews z Outside technical assistance z Goal setting by team

32 Tools of Project Management zFormal Planning Tools zPERT, CPM zMilestones zSystems specification standards zFeasibility study specifications zProject approval processes zPostaudit procedures z Formal Control Tools z Periodic formal status reports vs. plan z Change control disciplines z Regular milestone presentation meetings z Deviations from plan reports

33 Project Management Tools - Low Structure

34 Project Management Tools - High Structure

35 LimitedExtensiveModerateExtensiveModerate High In-House Development Extensive Moderate Extensive Difficult Complex LimitedModerate High Enterprise- Wide Systems Limited Extensive Not Applicable LimitedModerate High Outsourced Development Limited Extensive Moderate Extensive ModerateLimited Extensive Moderate High Customized Software LimitedModerate LimitedLow Moderate Low Moderate Packaged Applications Firm- Wide Impact Maintenance Ease of Installation Meets Needs RiskCostMethod Comparison of Software Acquisition Choices

36 Managing Behavioral Factors zBalance goals of stakeholders yproject manager ycustomer yend-user (there’s a difference) ysponsor zSustain commitment yproject ypsychological (personal responsibility, biases) ysocial (rivalry, norms for consistency) yorganizational (political support, culture)


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