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การจัดการช่องทางการจัด จำหน่าย Distribution Channel Management Gap Analysis Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "การจัดการช่องทางการจัด จำหน่าย Distribution Channel Management Gap Analysis Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 การจัดการช่องทางการจัด จำหน่าย Distribution Channel Management Gap Analysis Chapter 5

2 CHANNEL DESIGN: DEMAND, SUPPLY, AND CHENNEL EFFICIENCY The arrows above show flows of activity in the channel (e.g. physical possession flows from producers to wholesalers to retailers to consumers). DEMAND SUPPLY Consumers Industrial and Household Service Output Demand (SOD) - Bulk-breaking - Spatial convenience - Delivery and waiting time - Assortment and variety - Customer service - Information provision Retailers Category Selectivity Wholesalers Producers Degree of Selectivity -Intensive distribution -Exclusive distribution Channel Flows. Channel Flows. Channel Flows. CHANNEL EFFICIENCY C 02 C 03 C 04 C 05 CHANNEL GAPS

3 Chapter 4 Outlines Understand that the sources of channel gaps are channel bound, which can be either environmental or managerial in nature. Be able to define a channel gap as either a shortfall or an oversupply of service outputs demanded (a demand-side channel gap) or as an overly high total cost of running the channel (a supply-side channel gap). Be familiar with the different types of channel gaps both on the demand side and the supply side. Be able to identify strategies for closing the various types of channel gaps. Be able to use the gap analysis template to summarize the knowledge about channel gaps in a given channel situation and suggest means of closing the gaps. Learning Objectives

4 FIGURE 5-1: THE GAP ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK SOURCES OF GAPS Environmental Bounds: Local legal constraints Local physical, retailing infrastructure Managerial Bounds: Constraint due to lack of knowledge Constraint due to optimization at a higher level TYPES OF GAPS Demand-Side Gaps: SOS < SOD SOS > SOD Which service outputs? Supply-Side Gaps: Flow cost is too high Which flow(s)? CLOSING GAPS Demand-Side Gaps: Offer tiered service levels Expand/contract provision of service outputs Change segment(s) targeted Supply-Side Gaps: Change flow responsibilities of current channel members Invest in new low-cost distribution technologies Bring in new channel members

5 FIGURE 5-6: TYPES OF GAPS

6 Closing Channel Gaps Once the gaps are identified, it is then up to the managers to try to close them. The recommended solution depends on the diagnosis of the problem; different types of gaps require different solutions. Closing demand-side gaps Closing supply-side gaps

7 Closing Channel Gaps The three main methods of closing demand-side gaps exists: Expanding or retracting the level of service outputs provided to the target market. Offering multiple, tiered service outputs level to appeal different segment. Altering the list of segments targeted.

8 Closing Channel Gaps Closing supply-side gaps-- Channel gaps on the supply side can be managed in multiple means: Changing the roles of current channel members Investing in new distributions technologies to reduce costs Bringing in new distribution function specialists to improve the functioning of the channel

9 FIGURE 5-2: ONLINE BILLING AND PAYMENT: GAP ANALYSIS BOUNDSGAPSCLOSING THE GAPS Environmental: Technology infrastructure:  takes time to fully develop  initially endowed benefits more on billers than on payers  is not universally available  is characterized by high fixed set-up costs, but low marginal implementation costs and thus is not attractive unless significant scale is achieved Demand-side:  Assortment/variety (one- stop bill payment site not available)  Waiting time too long (some e-bills took 5 days to pay)  Information provision poor (thus e-bill payment viewed as risky) Supply-side:  Clear lowering of many channel flow costs  But consumer (as a channel member) bears more perceived risk, with no compensating price cut  Cost cuts initially much more available to biller than to payer (asymmetric cost efficiencies that hamper adoption) Relax environmental bounds:  Build software applications to generate back-office benefits for B2B players  Presentment technology eventually developed to improve assortment/variety for consumer payers Increase promotional efforts  generate information for consumers Add new specialist channel members New specialists develop new technology to provide integrated benefits to consumers and B2B payers

10 FIGURE 5-8: DEMAND-SIDE GAP ANALYSIS TEMPLATE SERVICE OUTPUT LEVEL DEMANDED (SOD) VERSUS SERVICE OUTPUT LEVEL SUPPLIED (SOS) SEGMENT NAME/ DESCRIPTOR BULK BREAKING SPATIAL CONVENIENCE DELIVERY/ WAITING TIME ASSORTMENT / VARIETY CUSTOMER SERVICE INFORMATIO N PROVISION MAJOR CHANNEL FOR THIS SEGMENT Notes and directions for using this template:  Enter names and/or descriptions for each segment.  Enter whether SOS>SOD, SOS { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/4263048/14/slides/slide_9.jpg", "name": "FIGURE 5-8: DEMAND-SIDE GAP ANALYSIS TEMPLATE SERVICE OUTPUT LEVEL DEMANDED (SOD) VERSUS SERVICE OUTPUT LEVEL SUPPLIED (SOS) SEGMENT NAME/ DESCRIPTOR BULK BREAKING SPATIAL CONVENIENCE DELIVERY/ WAITING TIME ASSORTMENT / VARIETY CUSTOMER SERVICE INFORMATIO N PROVISION MAJOR CHANNEL FOR THIS SEGMENT 1.", "description": "2. 3. 4. 5. Notes and directions for using this template:  Enter names and/or descriptions for each segment.  Enter whether SOS>SOD, SOS

11 FIGURE 5-9: SUPPLY-SIDE GAP ANALYSIS TEMPLATE (to be used in conjunction with Demand-Side Gap Analysis Template, Figure 5-8) CHANNEL [targeting which segment(s)?] CHANNEL MEMBERS AND FLOWS THEY PERFORM ENVIRONMENTAL/ MANAGERIAL BOUNDS SUPPLY-SIDE GAPS [affecting which flow(s)?] PLANNED TECHNIQUES FOR CLOSING GAPS DO/DID ACTIONS CREATE OTHER GAPS? Notes:  Record routes to market in the channel system. List should include all channels recorded in Figure 5-4 above. Note the segment or segments targeted through each channel.  Summarize channel members and key flows they perform (ideally, link this to the Efficiency Template analysis in Chapter 3).  Note any environmental or managerial bounds facing this channel.  Note all supply-side gaps in this channel, by flow or flows affected.  If known, record techniques currently in use or planned for use to close gaps (or note that no action is planned, and why).  Analyze whether proposed/actual actions have created or will create other gaps.

12 FIGURE 5-10: DEMAND-SIDE GAP ANALYSIS TEMPLATE: CDW EXAMPLE SERVICE OUTPUT LEVEL DEMANDED (SOD: L/M/H) VERSUS SERVICE OUTPUT LEVEL SUPPLIED BY CDW (SOS) SEGMENT NAME/ D ESCRIPTOR BULK BREAKING SPATIAL CONVENIENCE DELIVERY/ WAITING TIME ASST/ VARIETY CUSTOMER SERVICE INFORMATION PROVISION MAJOR CHANNEL FOR THIS SEGMENT 1. Small business buyer H (SOS=SOD) Original equipment: M (SOS=SOD) Post-sale service: H (SOS=SOD) Original equipment: M (SOS>SOD) Post-sale service: H (SOS=SOD) M (SOS>SOD)H (SOS=SOD)H (both pre-sale and post-sale) (SOS=SOD) Value-added reseller like CDW, or retailer 2. Large business buyer L (SOS>SOD) Original equipment: H (SOS=SOD) Post-sale service: L (SOS>SOD) Original equipment: M (SOS>SOD) Post-sale service: L (SOS>SOD) M/H (SOS=SOD) M (SOS>SOD)L (SOS>SOD)Manufacturer direct, or large reseller like CDW 3. Gov’t/ education L (SOS>SOD) Original equipment: H (SOS=SOD) Post-sale service: H (SOS=SOD) Original equipment: M (SOS>SOD) Post-sale service: M (SOS>SOD) M/H (SOS=SOD) H (SOS=SOD)H (both pre-sale and post-sale) (SOS=SOD) Manufacturer direct, or reseller; 23 percent from small business (VARs)

13 FIGURE 5-11: SUPPLY-SIDE GAP ANALYSIS TEMPLATE: CDW EXAMPLE (to be used in conjunction with Demand-Side Gap Analysis Template, Figure 5-10) CHANNEL [targeting which segment(s)?] CHANNEL MEMBERS AND FLOWS THEY PERFORM* ENVIRONMENTAL (E) / MANAGERIAL (M) BOUNDS SUPPLY-SIDE GAPS [affecting which flow(s)?] PLANNED TECHNIQUES FOR CLOSING GAPS DO/DID ACTIONS CREATE OTHER GAPS? 1. CDW direct to buyer (  small business buyer) Manufacturer; CDW; Sm. Bus. Buyer (M): no screening of recruits for expected longevity with firm Promotion [sales force training/turnover] Better screening of new recruits No Buying from CDW closes gaps for customer in Risking 2. CDW direct to buyer (  large business buyer, government) Manufacturer; CDW, CDW-G; Lg. Bus. Buyer or Government Buyer (E): government requires 23 percent of purchases from small vendors (M): no screening of recruits for expected longevity with firm Promotion [sales force training/turnover] Negotiation [cannot close 23% of deals with government] Better screening of new recruits; Rely on consortium channel structure (below) No 3. CDW + small business VAR consortium member (  government) Manufacturer; CDW-G; Small VAR; consortium partner Government Buyer (E): government requires 23 percent of purchases from small vendors; (M): VAR’s small business size (M): no screening of recruits for expected longevity with firm Promotion [sales force training/turnover]; (Negotiation: only a gap for a small VAR not in the CDW alliance) Better screening of new recruits; Negotiation gap above is closed through consortium with small VARs No Note: all channel members perform all flows to some extent. Key channel flows of interest are promotion, negotiation, and risking.


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