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" The Impact of Criminal Justice Policies and Practices on Minorities" 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "" The Impact of Criminal Justice Policies and Practices on Minorities" 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 " The Impact of Criminal Justice Policies and Practices on Minorities" 2009

2 Multitude of deficiencies and challenges during incarceration and reentry. Offender Population Medical Needs Criminal History Education Substance Abuse Mental Health

3   High incidence of co-occurring substance abuse and mental health issues.   National research indicates that 80% of offenders either have an addiction to alcohol/drugs or alcohol/drugs were involved in the commission of their crime.   Intense medical detoxification from drugs and alcohol required. Substance Abuse

4   49% of females and 60% of males enter the DOC with less than a 9th grade reading level.   40% of females and 56% of males enter the DOC with less than a 6 th grade math level. Education

5 Mental Health Mental Health   66% of females and 24% of males are open mental health cases.   50% of females and 18% of males are on psychotropic medication ($5M/yr).

6 Medical Needs Medical Needs   Infectious diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C are disproportionately higher among the offender population.   Lifestyle choices including drug and alcohol abuse result in advanced aging of the population with associated medical problems.   The ‘graying’ of the DOC population results in approximately 50% of offenders enrolled in one or more chronic disease clinics, i.e. diabetes, hypertension, and asthma.

7 Criminal History   59% have at least one prior county incarceration, averaging almost two (1.9) prior county incarcerations.   26% have at least one prior state incarceration, averaging less than one (.38) prior state incarceration.   31% have at least one prior juvenile conviction, averaging almost two (1.8) prior juvenile convictions.   13% are sex offenders.

8 Massachusetts Inmate Population by Race

9 Mass Imprisonment David Garland (2001, 1) defines mass imprisonment: …a rate of imprisonment…that is markedly above the historical and comparative norm for societies of this type…

10 Mass Imprisonment David Garland (2001, 1) defines mass imprisonment: …a rate of imprisonment…that is markedly above the historical and comparative norm for societies of this type… [imprisonment] ceases to be the incarceration of individual offenders and becomes the systematic imprisonment of whole groups of the population.

11 Incarceration in Western Europe, 2001

12 Incarceration in Western Europe and the US, 2001

13 US Imprisonment Rate,

14 US Imprisonment Rate,

15 US Imprisonment Rate, 2007 In 2007: *1.5M in Prison *780,000 in Jail

16 On Parole and Probation In 2007: *1.5M in Prison *780,000 in Jail *800,000 on Parole *4.2M on Probation

17 Incarceration by Race and Education All

18 All Men

19 Incarceration by Race and Education All Men

20 Men’s Risk of Imprisonment by AllNon-CollegeDropoutsAllNon-College WHITESBLACKS Dropouts

21 AllNon-CollegeDropoutsAllNon-College WHITESBLACKS Dropouts

22 Imprisonment and the Life Course White and Black men born experiencing a life event by 2009 (percent). White and Black men born experiencing a life event by 2009 (percent). Whites Blacks Marriage68%47% Bachelor’s Degree34%17% Military Service10%9%

23 Imprisonment and the Life Course White and Black men born experiencing a life event by 2009 (percent). White and Black men born experiencing a life event by 2009 (percent). Whites Blacks Marriage68%47% Bachelor’s Degree34%17% Military Service10%9% Imprisonment5%27%

24 What are the Implications for Inequality? Inequality created by incarceration is:  Invisible  Cumulative  Intergenerational

25 Invisible Inequality  Inequality created by incarceration is invisible, because incarceration is concentrated and segregative, it is hidden from mainstream society  Important for sociology: Incarceration is often overlooked in social accounting and inequality is underestimated

26 Employment Rate, Black Male Dropouts, (Current Population Survey)

27 Employment Rate, Black Male Dropouts, (Current Population Survey)

28 Cumulative Inequality  Inequality created by incarceration diminishes the economic status of those whose employment and wage rates are already very low  Panel data estimates show that incarceration reduces earnings by about 40%  Experimental evidence indicates employment is reduced by a third to a half.

29 Intergenerational Inequality  Large prison populations means large numbers of children with parents in prison  Stigma of incarceration for children, new research showing behavioral problems, particularly for boys

30 Children with Incarcerated Parents 1980 and 2007

31 Children with Incarcerated Parents 1980 and 2007 by Race 2007: More than 4 in 10 fathers in prison were black Almost 5 in 10 mothers in prison were white 760, , ,000

32 Children with Incarcerated Parents in Prisons The number of children under age 18 with a mother in prison more than doubled since million

33 The Next Steps  State budgets are overburdened by correctional spending… political will for retrenching mass imprisonment  What is the problem? High imprisonment rates? NO  Chronic idleness, addiction and mental health problems of men with little schooling  Criminal justice reforms by themselves will be insufficient and will fail

34 A National Prisoner Reentry Plan  Transitional jobs for all parolees needing work (200,000 per year)  More drug treatment, housing and education  No more re-imprisonment for technical parole violators  Supervision shifts from prison to the community and replaces criminal justice oversight with social policy  $8.5 billion cost, $10 billion benefit in reduced crime and correctional costs

35 Mass Incarceration Redux  When incarceration rates are high and concentrated…  And incarceration has large and enduring effects on inequality (invisible, cumulative and intergenerational)…  Mass incarceration has produced a new social group separated from full membership in society


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