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AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT 06830 |T: 203.742.3600 | F: 203.742.3100 | www.aqr.com Measuring Systemic.

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Presentation on theme: "AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT 06830 |T: 203.742.3600 | F: 203.742.3100 | www.aqr.com Measuring Systemic."— Presentation transcript:

1 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Measuring Systemic Risk Viral Acharya, Lasse Heje Pedersen, Thomas Philippon, and Matthew Richardson New York University Stern School of Business NBER, CEPR 1

2 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Motivation  Systemic risk can be defined as: joint distress of several financial institutions with externalities that disrupt the real economy  The challenge is: to use economic theory to find a measure of systemic risk that is useful in managing it and asses its empirical success 2

3 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Two approaches to regulation  Traditional approach: Firm-level risk management Goal: Limit risk of collapse of each bank seen in isolation Requirement: Detailed knowledge of activities inside the firm  We advocate: Systemic approach Goal: Limit risk of collapse of the system Requirement: Understand risks and externalities across firms 3

4 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Our results: insights from economic theory  Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic crisis can measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES): SES = expected capital shortfall, conditional on a future crisis  A financial institution’s SES increases in: its own leverage and risk the system’s leverage and risk the tail dependence between the institution and the system the severity of the externality from a systemic crisis  Managing systemic risk: Incentives can be aligned by imposing a tax or mandatory insurance based SES adjusted for the cost of capital

5 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Our results: empirical implementation  Empirical methodology: we provide a very simple of estimating SES  Institutions’ ex-ante SESs predict their losses during the subprime crisis with more explanatory power than measures of idiosyncratic risk  SES in the cross-section: higher for securities dealers and brokers – every year higher for larger institutions that tend to be more levered  SES in the time series: higher during periods of macroeconomic stress, especially for securities dealers and brokers

6 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Related literature  Incentive to take correlated risk Acharya (2001, 2009), Acharya and Yorulmazer (2007)  Externalities Liquidity spirals (Brunnermeier and Pedersen (2009), Pedersen (2009)) Bank runs (Diamond and Dybvig (1983), Allen and Gale) Debt market freezes (Acharya, Gale, and Yorulmazer (08), He and Xiong (2009)) Tightening risk management (Garleanu and Pedersen (2007))  Contingent claims analysis Lehar (2005), Gray, Merton, and Bodie (2008), Gray and Jobst (2009)  Statistical measures: Huang, Zhou, and Zhu (2009), Adrian and Brunnermeier (2009)  Other proposals Kashyap, Rajan, and Stein (2008), Wall (1989), Doherty and Harrington (1997), Flannery (2005), squam lake, NYU book (chapter 13), …

7 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Outline of the rest of the talk  Theory Managing risk within and across banks Economic model of systemic risk  Empirics Methodology Findings  Implemention Practical considerations and policy issues  Conclusion

8 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Managing risk within and across banks  Standard measures of risk within banks: Value at risk: Pr ( R ≤ - VaR ) = α Expected shortfall: ES = - E( R | R ≤ - VaR )  Banks consists of several units i=1,…, I of size y i : Return of bank is: R= ∑ i y i r i Expected shortfall: ES = - ∑ i y i E( r i | R ≤ - VaR )  Risk contribution of unit i: Marginal expected shortfall (MES)  We can re-interpret this as each bank’s contributions to the risk of overall banking system: The loss of bank i when overall banking is in trouble  Question: what is the economic rationale for looking at these measures?

9 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Economic model  “Banks” b=1,…,B choose at time 0 initial capital w 0 exposures x=(x 1,…,x S ) to all assets, which yield returns r =(r 1,…,r S )  to maximize their objective function  given cost of raising capital c tax t b the evolution of capital

10 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Economic model, continued  Regulator cares about aggregate outcome, including externality, proportional to e – times the aggregate bank capital shortfall below cutoff insured default losses with the government cost of capital c g

11 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Efficient tax of systemic risk contribution Proposition 1. The regulator can achieve an efficient outcome with the tax: t= DES+SES, where DES is a bank’s expected default loss and SES is its systemic expected shortfall: A bank’s systemic expected shortfall is larger if the externality is more severe (e) the bank takes a larger exposure (x s ) in an asset s that experiences loses when other banks are in trouble the bank raises less capital initially (w 0 ) other banks are riskier the bank’s cost of capital c is lower.

12 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | The importance of MES and leverage  Proposition 2. With ŵ b =z a b, where z is the target capital ratio, the systemic expected shortfall in percent of a bank’s initial capital, SES % can be written as It increases in the bank’s MES and its leverage l b = 1 – w 0 b / a b

13 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | The importance of comovement  Proposition 3. If the payoffs are jointly Normal, then the percent systemic expected shortfall is: which increases in the bank’s volatility σ b its correlation to the aggregate system ρ b the bank’s leverage l b the system volatility σ the system leverage L and decreases in the expected returns of the bank μ b and the system μ

14 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Empirical methodology  MES: Very simple non-parametric estimation: – find the 5% worst days for the market – compute each institution’s return on these days Parametric  SES, scaled: 60/1.4 scales to consider a crisis with a 60% drop, rather than the 1.4% drop over the ex ante estimation period  Data: CRSP and COMPUSTAT

15 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Descriptive statistics

16 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Predicting contribution to systemic crisis

17 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Predicting systemic risk: SES

18 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Predicting systemic risk: MES

19 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Predicting systemic risk: market beta

20 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Predicting systemic risk: ES

21 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Types of institutions

22 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Institution-type fixed effects

23 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Determinants of systemic risk within institution types

24 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Time-series determinants of systemic risk

25 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Time-series determinants of systemic risk

26 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Robustness

27 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Robustness: different estimation period

28 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | 28 Implementation: Our proposal  SES signals institutions likely to contribute to aggregate crises  Three approaches to limit systemic risk 1.Systemic Capital Requirement Capital requirement proportional to estimated systemic risk 2.Systemic Fees (FDIC-style) Fees proportional to estimated systemic risk Create systemic fund 3.Private/public systemic insurance

29 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | 29 Our systemic insurance proposal  Compulsory insurance against own losses during crisis Payment goes to systemic fund, not the bank itself Insurance from government, prices from the market – Say 5 cents from private; 95 cents from the government – Analogy to terrorism reinsurance by the government (TRIA, 2002)  Advantages of private/public proposal A market-based estimate of the contribution to crises and externalities Private sector has incentives to be forward looking Gives bank an incentive to be less systemic and more transparent: – to lower their insurance payments

30 AQR Capital Management, LLC|Two Greenwich Plaza, Third Floor | Greenwich, CT |T: | F: | Conclusion  Economic model of systemic risk gives rise to SES  Systemic expected shortfall (SES) Measures each financial institution’s contribution to systemic crisis Increases in: leverage, risk, comovement, tail dependence An SES tax/insurance incentivizes banks to contribute less to crisis  Empirically Ex ante SES predicts ex post crisis loses We analyze its cross-sectional and time series properties


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