Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Economics 211 Principles of Microeconomics Dr. Greg Delemeester Summer 2011.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Economics 211 Principles of Microeconomics Dr. Greg Delemeester Summer 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Economics 211 Principles of Microeconomics Dr. Greg Delemeester Summer 2011

2 Economics  Making choices under conditions of scarcity What stocks should I buy for my portfolio? How many Whoppers should I eat? How many hours should I study for biology? How many cars should I steal?  Making choices under conditions of scarcity What stocks should I buy for my portfolio? How many Whoppers should I eat? How many hours should I study for biology? How many cars should I steal?

3  What Do Schoolteachers and Sumo Wrestlers Have in Common?  How Is the Ku Klux Klan Like a Group of Real-Estate Agents?  Why Do Drug Dealers Still Live with Their Moms?  Where Have All the Criminals Gone?  What Makes a Perfect Parent?  Would a Roshanda by Any Other Name Smell as Sweet?  Increasing Residual Wage Inequality: Composition Effects, Noisy Data, or Rising Demand for Skill?  Medium-Term Business Cycles  Can Information Heterogeneity Explain the Exchange Rate Determination Puzzle?  Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes  An Efficient Dynamic Auction for Heterogeneous Commodities  Asymmetric Contests with Conditional Investments

4 “Billy, you’ve been a fine son, but it’s time for a change. I found a child overseas who can do it cheaper.”

5 Economic Fundamentals  Self Interest Rationality Purposeful behavior Incentives matter

6

7 Best Undergrad College Degrees by Salary MajorStarting Median SalaryMid-Career Median Salary Petroleum Engineering$93,000$157,000 Physics$50,700$99,600 Economics$48,800$97,800 Finance$47,500$91,500 MIS$50,900$90,300 Math$46,400$88,300 Chemistry$42,400$83,700 Political Science$40,100$81,700 Accounting$44,500$77,500 Marketing$38,600$77,300 History$38,500$73,000 Management$41,100$70,600 English$37,800$67,500 Journalism$35,800$66,600 Psychology$35,300$62,500 Graphic Design$35,400$56,800 Source:

8 Economic Fundamentals  Self Interest Rationality Purposeful behavior Incentives matter  TANSTAAFL Scarcity  Choices  Opportunity costs There Ain’t No Such Thing As A Free Lunch There Ain’t No Such Thing As A Free Lunch Trade-offs!

9 Soak Up the Sun (2002)

10 William installs custom sound systems in cars. If he installs 7 per day, his total costs are $300. If he installs 8 per day, his total costs are $400. William will install only 8 sound systems per day if the 8th customer is willing to pay at least: a)$50 b)$100 c)$300 d)$400 a)$50 b)$100 c)$300 d)$400

11 Space Mountain (Problem Set 1, #9) You have waited 30 minutes in a line for the Space Mountain ride at Disneyworld. You see a sign that says, "From this point on your wait is 45 minutes." You must decide whether to continue in line or to move elsewhere. On what basis do you make the decision? Do the 30 minutes you've already stood in line come into play? Marginal Analysis ignores sunk costs!

12 Economic Fundamentals  Unintended Consequences CAFE (fuel economy) standards  27.5 MPG fleet average  Objective: Save energy + clean environment  Lighter + smaller cars = more dangerous cars ?  National Academy of Sciences: 1300 to 2600 extra highway deaths each year  Modes of Analysis Positive Analysis Normative Analysis

13

14 Economic Model of Crime  Decision Rule If MB > MC  steal another car  Assumptions Resale value on car = $40,000 Income = $20,000 Jail term = 5 years Probability of Arrest = 20% Probability of Conviction = 90% MB = $40,000 MC = (5)($20,000)(.20)(.90)= $18,000 Steal the car!

15  Policy Implications [How to deter crime?] Increase jail sentence Increase probability of arrest Increase probability of conviction Increase income Economic Model of Crime

16 Which of the following will cause property crime to increase? a)An increase in jail terms. b)A decrease in personal incomes. c)An increase in the probability of arrest. d)A decrease in the expected benefit. a)An increase in jail terms. b)A decrease in personal incomes. c)An increase in the probability of arrest. d)A decrease in the expected benefit.

17 Guns Sold (Millions) Gun-Related Murders (Thousands) [What’s the Headline?] Correlation is not causation.

18 Applications (#3, Problem Set 1) A few years ago, Tina ranked three available options as follows: 1st Choice: pay $21,000 tuition and finish a Master's degree in fine arts at the Ohio State University. 2nd Choice: earn $19,000 working part-time managing a small local theater and spend her spare time pursuing her theater hobby as a volunteer director of small-theater plays. 3rd Choice: earn $44,000 working full-time reviewing yellow page advertisements for Verizon.

19 a)$19,000 b)$21,000 c)$65,000 d)$84,000 What is the minimum value of Tina’s opportunity cost for pursuing her first choice? 1st Choice: pay $21,000 tuition and finish a Master's degree in fine arts at the Ohio State University. 2nd Choice: earn $19,000 working part- time managing a small local theater and spend her spare time pursuing her theater hobby as a volunteer director of small-theater plays. 3rd Choice: earn $44,000 working full- time reviewing yellow page advertisements for Verizon.

20 (#4, Problem Set 1) The acres of grass surrounding the Taj Mahal in Agra, India, are often cut by young women who slice off handfuls with short kitchen blades. Is this a low- or high-cost way to keep a lawn mowed?

21 Maximizing the Net Benefits from Pizza

22 How many pizzas should Stephanie purchase? a)One b)Two c)Three d)Four e)Five f)Six a)One b)Two c)Three d)Four e)Five f)Six

23 Rational Behavior: Continue an activity until MB = MC MC MB TB TC

24 Production Possibilities Frontier  Shows tradeoffs facing an economy that produces two goods  Assumptions Resources are fixed  Land  Labor  Human Capital  Capital Technology is fixed Beer Cars A B C D E Unattainable Inefficient

25 Assume a concave production possibility frontier. Suppose that the society decides to increase the production of beer by 20,000 kegs, and that as a result the output of cars falls by If a further increase of 20,000 kegs of beer is sought, we can expect that the output of cars will: a)fall by b)fall by less than c)fall by more than d)increase by less than a)fall by b)fall by less than c)fall by more than d)increase by less than 1000.

26 Beer Cars A B C D Δ Beer - Δ Cars Slope of PPF = - Δ Cars / Δ Beer Concave PPF implies “law of increasing opportunity cost” (measures the Opportunity Cost)

27  Shifts in the PPF are due to: Change in resources Change in technology  Shifts in the PPF are due to: Change in resources Change in technology PPF and Economic Growth Economic Growth requires an expanding PPF

28  Examples Cars v. Beer: more efficient brewing process Houses v. Computers: immigration Coffee v. Clothing: Haiti earthquake Food v. Electronics: China’s Cultural Revolution Production Possibilities Frontier

29 Consider the PPF depicted below. A reduction in the amount of unemployment could be described as the movement from: a)A to B b)B to D c)D to C d)B to E a)A to B b)B to D c)D to C d)B to E

30  All societies must answer basic questions: What will be produced? How will it be produced? For whom will it be produced?  Allocation Mechanisms Tradition Plan Market Choices, choices, choices…

31 Gains From Trade  Trade implies mutually beneficial exchanges Not a zero-sum game!  Comparative Advantage David Ricardo Lowest opportunity cost producer Specialization and trade can allow individuals (and countries) to expand their consumption beyond their PPF constraints  Trade implies mutually beneficial exchanges Not a zero-sum game!  Comparative Advantage David Ricardo Lowest opportunity cost producer Specialization and trade can allow individuals (and countries) to expand their consumption beyond their PPF constraints

32 Pizza Cars ∆C = 50 ∆C = 25 ∆P = -200 ∆P = -300 Country A Country B Opportunity cost of 1 Car is 4 PizzasOpportunity cost of 1 Car is 12 Pizzas slope = ∆P/ ∆ C = -200/50 = - 4/1 slope = ∆P/ ∆ C = -300/25 = - 12/1 Country A has the comparative advantage in producing cars.

33 Pizza Cars Country A Pizza Cars Country B No TradeWith Trade PizzaCarsPizzaCars A B World Production

34  Problem Set 1: #14 Go to college Tuition$27,000 Food + Rent$ 8,000 Parties$ 4,000 Books$ 900 Car$ 4,600 Don’t go to college Job$24,000 Food + Rent$ 8,000 Parties$ 4,000 Car$ 4,600 Opportunity cost of going to college = $27,000+ $900+ $24,000= $51,900 Sue Student

35 Problem Set 1: #13

36 Output per hourOpportunity cost of … CountryTons of Steel Bushels of Wheat 1 ton of steel 1 bushel of wheat US660 South Korea36 USSouth Korea SteelWheatSteelWheat Production change-6+60 Trade Consumption change 10 W 2 W 1/10 S 1/2 S US switches 1 hour of labor from steel to wheat SK switches 4 hours of labor from wheat to steel Trade: 50 W for 10 S Problem Set 1: #21

37 Assume that Robinson and Crusoe live on a desert island. With a day’s labor, Robinson can produce 6 fish or 4 coconuts; Crusoe can produce 3 fish or 1 coconut. Robinson’s opportunity cost of producing 1 coconut is ____, and he should specialize in the production of ____. a)1/4 fish; coconuts b)1.5 fish; coconuts c)3 fish; fish d)6 fish; coconuts a)1/4 fish; coconuts b)1.5 fish; coconuts c)3 fish; fish d)6 fish; coconuts

38 Corner offices in high-rise office buildings usually cost more to rent than other offices. This best illustrates the economic principle of: a)Scarce resources b)Marginal analysis c)Equilibrium d)Opportunity costs a)Scarce resources b)Marginal analysis c)Equilibrium d)Opportunity costs

39 a)Zero—the ticket is free. b)$15 c)$55 d)$40 a)Zero—the ticket is free. b)$15 c)$55 d)$40 A friend comes up to you and offers to give you a free ticket to the local professional team's baseball game that night. You decide to attend the game. It takes five hours to go to the game and costs you $15 for transportation. If you had not attended the game, you would have worked at your part-time job for $8 an hour. What is the cost of you attending the game?

40 a)10 million cups of tea b)5 million scones c)10 million scones d)The answer is impossible to determine from the information given. a)10 million cups of tea b)5 million scones c)10 million scones d)The answer is impossible to determine from the information given. In the accompanying figure, Tealand is currently producing at point C on its production possibilities frontier. What is the opportunity cost in Tealand of increasing the production of tea from 20 million cups to 30 million cups?

41 a)International trade will increase the average income of Americans. b)Higher expenditures on health care will reduce infant mortality rates. c)We ought to reduce our dependence on oil imports in order to increase our national security. d)Increased defense spending will lead to higher budget deficits. a)International trade will increase the average income of Americans. b)Higher expenditures on health care will reduce infant mortality rates. c)We ought to reduce our dependence on oil imports in order to increase our national security. d)Increased defense spending will lead to higher budget deficits. Which of the following is a normative statement?

42 a)you will be better off if you eat one more slice. b)the total cost of eating the pizza will be more than the total benefit of eating the pizza. c)you will be worse off if you eat one more slice. d)you will be no better off and no worse off from eating one more slice. a)you will be better off if you eat one more slice. b)the total cost of eating the pizza will be more than the total benefit of eating the pizza. c)you will be worse off if you eat one more slice. d)you will be no better off and no worse off from eating one more slice. While eating pizza, you discover that the marginal benefit of eating one more slice is greater than the marginal cost of that slice. You then conclude:

43 Which of the graphs below shows the impact of scientists developing a more powerful fertilizer? a)Figure A b)Figure B c)Figure C d)Figure D a)Figure A b)Figure B c)Figure C d)Figure D

44 If they spend all night writing computer programs, Derek can write 10 programs while Tian can write 5. If they spend all night making sunglasses, Derek can make 6 while Tian can make 4. From this information we know that: a)Tian’s opportunity cost of writing programs is less than that of Derek. b)Derek’s opportunity cost of writing programs and of making sunglasses is less than that of Tian. c)Tian’s opportunity cost of writing programs and of making sunglasses is less than that of Derek. d)Derek’s opportunity cost of writing programs is less than that of Tian. a)Tian’s opportunity cost of writing programs is less than that of Derek. b)Derek’s opportunity cost of writing programs and of making sunglasses is less than that of Tian. c)Tian’s opportunity cost of writing programs and of making sunglasses is less than that of Derek. d)Derek’s opportunity cost of writing programs is less than that of Tian.

45

46 “I’d like to introduce you to Marty Thorndecker. He’s an economist but he’s really very nice.” Greg Delemeester


Download ppt "Economics 211 Principles of Microeconomics Dr. Greg Delemeester Summer 2011."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google