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MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES Software Defined Networks and OpenFlow Courtesy of: AT&T.

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Presentation on theme: "MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES Software Defined Networks and OpenFlow Courtesy of: AT&T."— Presentation transcript:

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2 MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES Software Defined Networks and OpenFlow Courtesy of: AT&T Tech Talks

3 2 MODULE OVERVIEW  Motivation  What is OpenFlow  Deployments  Conclusion

4 Million of lines of source code 5400 RFCsBarrier to entry 500M gates 10Gbytes RAM BloatedPower Hungry We have lost our way Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware Operating System Operating System App Routing, management, mobility management, access control, VPNs, …

5 Software Control Router Hardware Datapath Authentication, Security, Access Control HELLO MPLS NAT IPV6 anycast multicast Mobile IP L3 VPN L2 VPN VLAN OSPF-TE RSVP-TE HELLO Firewa ll Multi layer multi region iBGP, eBGP IPSec Many complex functions packed into the infrastructure OSPF, BGP, multicast, differentiated services, Traffic Engineering, NAT, firewalls, MPLS, redundant layers, … An industry with a “mainframe-mentality”

6 Deployment IdeaStandardize Wait 10 years Process of innovation made worse by captive standards process Driven by vendors Consumers largely locked out Layer by layer innovation

7 New Generation Providers already Buying into It In a nutshell Driven by cost and control Started in data centers…. What New Generation Providers have been Doing Within the Datacenters Buy bare metal switches/routers Write their own control/management applications on a common platform 6

8 Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware Ap p Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware Ap p Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware Ap p Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware Ap p Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware Operating System Operating System Operating System Operating System Operating System Operating System Operating System Operating System Operating System Operating System Ap p Network Operating System App Change is happening in non-traditional markets

9 App Simple Packet Forwarding Hardware App Simple Packet Forwarding Hardware Network Operating System 1. Open interface to hardware 3. Well-defined open API 2. At least one good operating system Extensible, possibly open-source The “Software-defined Network”

10 Windows (OS) Windows (OS) Linux Mac OS x86 (Computer) Windows (OS) App Linux Mac OS Mac OS Virtualization layer App Controller 1 App Controller 2 Virtualization or “Slicing” App OpenFlow Controller 1 NOX (Network OS) Controller 2 Network OS Trend Computer IndustryNetwork Industry Simple common stable hardware substrate below+ programmability + strong isolation model + competition above = Result : faster innovation

11 What is OpenFlow?

12 Short Story: OpenFlow is an API Control how packets are forwarded Implementable on COTS hardware Make deployed networks programmable –not just configurable Makes innovation easier Result: –Increased control: custom forwarding –Reduced cost: API  increased competition

13 Ethernet Switch/Router

14 Data Path (Hardware) Control Path Control Path (Software)

15 Data Path (Hardware) Control Path OpenFlow OpenFlow Controller OpenFlow Protocol (SSL/TCP)

16 Controller PC Hardware Layer Software Layer Flow Table MAC src MAC dst IP Src IP Dst TCP sport TCP dport Action OpenFlow Firmware ** ***port 1 port 4port 3 port 2 port OpenFlow Flow Table Abstraction

17 OpenFlow Basics Flow Table Entries Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport RuleActionStats 1.Forward packet to port(s) 2.Encapsulate and forward to controller 3.Drop packet 4.Send to normal processing pipeline 5.Modify Fields + mask what fields to match Packet + byte counters

18 Examples Switching * Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Action * 00:1f:.. *******port6 Flow Switching port3 Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Action 00:20..00:1f..0800vlan port6 Firewall * Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Forward ********22drop

19 Examples Routing * Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Action ***** ***port6 VLAN Switching * Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Action ** vlan1 ***** port6, port7, port9 00:1f..

20 OpenFlowSwitch.org Controller OpenFlow Switch PC OpenFlow Usage Dedicated OpenFlow Network OpenFlow Switch OpenFlow Switch OpenFlow Protocol Aaron’s code RuleActionStatistics RuleActionStatisticsRuleActionStatistics

21 Network Design Decisions Forwarding logic (of course) Centralized vs. distributed control Fine vs. coarse grained rules Reactive vs. Proactive rule creation Likely more: open research area

22 Centralized vs Distributed Control Centralized Control OpenFlow Switch OpenFlow Switch OpenFlow Switch Controller Distributed Control OpenFlow Switch OpenFlow Switch OpenFlow Switch Controller

23 Flow Routing vs. Aggregation Both models are possible with OpenFlow Flow-Based Every flow is individually set up by controller Exact-match flow entries Flow table contains one entry per flow Good for fine grain control, e.g. campus networks Aggregated One flow entry covers large groups of flows Wildcard flow entries Flow table contains one entry per category of flows Good for large number of flows, e.g. backbone

24 Reactive vs. Proactive Both models are possible with OpenFlow Reactive First packet of flow triggers controller to insert flow entries Efficient use of flow table Every flow incurs small additional flow setup time If control connection lost, switch has limited utility Proactive Controller pre-populates flow table in switch Zero additional flow setup time Loss of control connection does not disrupt traffic Essentially requires aggregated (wildcard) rules

25 OpenFlow Application: Network Slicing Divide the production network into logical slices o each slice/service controls its own packet forwarding o users pick which slice controls their traffic: opt-in o existing production services run in their own slice  e.g., Spanning tree, OSPF/BGP Enforce strong isolation between slices o actions in one slice do not affect another Allows the (logical) testbed to mirror the production network o real hardware, performance, topologies, scale, users o Prototype implementation: FlowVisor

26 Add a Slicing Layer Between Planes Data Plane Rules Excepts Slice 1 Controller Slice 2 Controller Control/Data Protocol Slice Policies Slice 3 Controller

27 Network Slicing Architecture A network slice is a collection of sliced switches/routers Data plane is unmodified –Packets forwarded with no performance penalty –Slicing with existing ASIC Transparent slicing layer –each slice believes it owns the data path –enforces isolation between slices i.e., rewrites, drops rules to adhere to slice police –forwards exceptions to correct slice(s)

28 Slicing Policies The policy specifies resource limits for each slice: –Link bandwidth –Maximum number of forwarding rules –Topology –Fraction of switch/router CPU –FlowSpace: which packets does the slice control?

29 FlowSpace: Maps Packets to Slices

30 Real User Traffic: Opt-In Allow users to Opt-In to services in real-time o Users can delegate control of individual flows to Slices o Add new FlowSpace to each slice's policy Example: o "Slice 1 will handle my HTTP traffic" o "Slice 2 will handle my VoIP traffic" o "Slice 3 will handle everything else" Creates incentives for building high-quality services

31 FlowVisor Implemented on OpenFlow Custom Control Plane Stub Control Plane Data Plane OpenFlow Protocol Switch/ Router Server Network Switch/ Router Servers OpenFlow Firmware Data Path OpenFlow Controller Switch/ Router Switch/ Router OpenFlow Firmware Data Path OpenFlow Controller OpenFlow Controller OpenFlow Controller FlowVisor OpenFlow

32 FlowVisor Message Handling OpenFlow Firmware Data Path Alice Controller Bob Controller Cathy Controller FlowVisor OpenFlow Packet Exception Policy Check: Is this rule allowed? Policy Check: Who controls this packet? Full Line Rate Forwarding Rule Packet

33 OpenFlow Deployments

34 OpenFlow has been prototyped on…. Ethernet switches – HP, Cisco, NEC, Quanta, + more underway IP routers – Cisco, Juniper, NEC Switching chips – Broadcom, Marvell Transport switches – Ciena, Fujitsu WiFi APs and WiMAX Basestations Most (all?) hardware switches now based on Open vSwitch…

35 Deployment: Stanford Our real, production network o 15 switches, 35 APs o 25+ users o 1+ year of use Same physical network hosts 7 different Stanford demos

36 Deployments: GENI

37 (Public) Industry Interest Google has been a main proponent of new OpenFlow 1.1 WAN features –ECMP, MPLS-label matching –MPLS LDP-OpenFlow speaking router: NANOG50 NEC has announced commercial products –Initially for datacenters, talking to providers Ericsson –“MPLS Openflow and the Split Router Architecture: A Research Approach“ at MPLS2010

38 Conclusions Current networks are complicated OpenFlow is an API – Interesting apps include network slicing OpenFlow has potential for Service Providers – Custom control for Traffic Engineering – Combined Packet/Circuit switched networks

39 Q A &

40 Assignment #6 – Write Notes on the terms highlighted in Red in slides 36 and 37 – Write a summary of the paper “MPLS Openflow and the Split Router Architecture: A Research Approach“ at MPLS2010


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