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© FAB and AHDB 2013 Bread as a source of nutrients.

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1 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Bread as a source of nutrients

2 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Learning Objectives To learn about the nutrients provided by bread, including their function in the body. To review the differences in the nutrient content of types of bread. To understand why nutrients are added to white and brown flour. To examine the contribution of bread to nutrient intakes in the UK.

3 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Nutrients in bread Bread provides several important nutrients and makes an important contribution to the UK diet. The main macronutrient provided by bread is carbohydrate, but it also provides some protein and a little fat. Bread also provides fibre.

4 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Nutrients in bread Bread provides vitamins and minerals, and other substances with a beneficial effect on health (called ‘phytochemicals’). The nutrient content of bread will mainly depend on the type of grain and flour used.

5 © FAB and AHDB 2013 What do you think? Is bread a…  low  medium  high  very high …energy food? ANSWER: One gram of bread provides around 9.2kJ (2.2 kcal), which makes bread a ‘medium energy’ food.

6 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Energy content of bread Energy densityKcal/gkJ/g Very low0 – 0.60 – 2.5 Low0.6 – – 6.3 Medium1.5 – – 16.7 High4.0 – – 37.7 Energy density is the amount of energy (kJ/kcal) provided per gram of food. 1g bread = 9.2kJ (2.2 kcal)

7 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Energy content of bread One medium slice of bread (40g) provides around kJ ( kcal). This is around 3-3.5% of daily energy requirements for 15 year old boys, and 3.5-4% for 15 year old girls. Adding spreads that are high in fat will significantly increase the energy content – it is better to add toppings with a low energy and fat content. AgeMaleFemale 13 years10.1 MJ (2400 kcal) 9.3 MJ (2200 kcal) 15 years11.8 MJ (2800 kcal) 10.0 MJ (2400 kcal) 17 years12.9 MJ (3100 kcal) 10.3 MJ (2450 kcal) Adults (>18 years) 10.9 MJ (2600 kcal) 8.7 MJ (2050 kcal) Estimated Average Requirements for energy* *For people who are moderately active; people who are very active are likely to need more, people who are inactive are likely to need less Source: SACN, 2011

8 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Macronutrients and fibre Carbohydrate Carbohydrate is the main macronutrient in bread and is present mainly in the form of starch.  Bread contains around g of carbohydrate per 100g.  Carbohydrates contribute around 77-84% of the total energy content of bread g 77-84%

9 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Macronutrients and fibre Carbohydrate The main function of carbohydrate is to provide energy. At least 50% of our energy intake should come from carbohydrate.

10 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Macronutrients and fibre Protein Bread also provides some protein.  Bread contains around 8-10g of protein per 100g.  Protein contributes around % of the total energy content of bread. Protein is needed for growth and repair of body tissues g 15-16%

11 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Macronutrients and fibre Fibre Fibre is important for gut health. Not eating enough fibre can lead to digestive problems, such as constipation. Fibre also bulks up meals without providing much energy and can make us feel more satiated. This means that fibre can help with appetite control, weight maintenance and weight loss.

12 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Macronutrients and fibre Fibre Most of the fibre in bread is provided by the bran, the outer layer of the grain. Wholemeal, wheat germ, brown and granary bread provide more fibre than white bread, but all types of bread contain some fibre.

13 © FAB and AHDB 2013 What proportion of the recommended daily fibre intake do 2 slices of wholemeal bread provide?  5%  10%  15%  20% ANSWER: Two slices of bread provide 20% of the recommended daily intake.

14 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Macronutrients and fibre Fibre The recommended intake for fibre for adults is 18g a day. Two slices of wholemeal bread provide around 20% of the recommended fibre intake (3.6g). Most people in the UK do not consume enough fibre, and so eating bread, particularly wholemeal bread, can make a valuable contribution to the diet.

15 © FAB and AHDB 2013 What proportion of the recommended intake of dietary fibre do the following provide? Breakfast: 2 slices of wholemeal toast = g fibre Lunch: 2 slices malted grain bread from a sandwich = g fibre Dinner: 1 small white bread roll with dinner (40g) = g fibre Total fibre from bread: g = % of recommended 18g/day

16 © FAB and AHDB 2013 What proportion of the recommended intake of dietary fibre do the following provide? Breakfast: 2 slices of wholemeal toast = 4.0 g fibre Lunch: 2 slices malted grain bread from a sandwich = 2.6 g fibre Dinner: 1 small white bread roll with dinner (40g) = 0.8 g fibre Total fibre from bread: 7.4 g = 41 % of recommended 18g/day

17 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Micronutrients - Vitamins Folate: Folate is needed for the formation of healthy red blood cells. It is also needed for the development of the nervous system, specifically to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in unborn babies. Thiamin (vitamin B 1 ) and Niacin (vitamin B 3 ): Are needed for the release of energy from food and for the normal function of the nervous system, muscles and skin.

18 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Micronutrients - Minerals Calcium: Calcium is needed for the formation and maintenance of strong bones and teeth, and the normal functioning of nerves and muscles. In the UK more than 18% of girls and 7% of boys aged years have low calcium intakes. Iron: Iron is needed for transport of oxygen in red blood cells and for the functioning of enzyme systems. Low iron intakes are particularly common in young women.

19 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Micronutrients - Minerals Magnesium: Magnesium helps release and utilise energy from foods, and is involved in bone metabolism. Zinc: Zinc is required for various enzymes. Low zinc intakes have been observed in adolescents.

20 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Micronutrients - Minerals Selenium: Protects against oxidative damage, and is important for immune system and reproductive function. In the UK a substantial proportion of year-olds have low selenium intakes.

21 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Micronutrients - Minerals Sodium (Salt) Bread also contains sodium (salt), at varying levels. This is because salt is added during the bread making process as it plays an important functional role. Over the last decade, much work has been done to lower the salt content of bread. The content has been reduced by 23% since 2004, and is likely to have fallen by 40% since reformulation first began in the 1980s/1990s. Changes in salt levels of bread since s/ 90s -23% -40% O’Connor, 2012.

22 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Phytochemicals – for extra benefits Bread, as well as other plant foods, provides phytochemicals. These are plant components that are not nutrients, but are still beneficial for health. Exactly how these plant components affect our health, and to what extent, is currently being researched.

23 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Phytochemicals – for extra benefits The highest amounts of phytochemicals are found in the outer layers of the grain. This means that wholemeal bread will contain more phytochemicals than white bread.

24 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Nutrients added to white and brown flour Some of the micronutrients in bread are located in the bran (the outer layer). This means that when removing the bran during milling, for example when producing white and brown flour, some of the micronutrients are lost. During and after World War II, to counteract nutrient deficiencies within the population caused by food shortages, it became mandatory in the UK to add some of these nutrients back to flour.

25 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Nutrients added to white and brown flour Bread was eaten by most people and was therefore an effective vehicle for nutrient fortification. Iron, thiamin and niacin were added to restore levels that are naturally present in the whole grain. Calcium was added for fortification purposes as dairy products were limited due to rationing during that time.

26 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Nutrients added to white and brown flour Today, in the UK, some people have suboptimal intakes of these nutrients, and therefore the addition of these nutrients to flour remains mandatory. A group of experts recently concluded that if the nutrients were no longer added, this would have a negative impact on UK vitamin and mineral intake levels, in particular amongst those in the most vulnerable population groups (e.g. the elderly). SACN, 2012

27 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Nutrient content of different bread types The next slide shows a table of the nutrient contents of different types of bread. What differences and similarities do you notice?

28 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Nutrient content of different bread types (per 100g) White bread Brown bread Wholemeal bread Multi grain bread Energy (kJ) Energy (kcal) Fibre (g) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Magnesium (mg) Zinc (mg) Selenium (µg)6476 Thiamin (mg) Niacin (mg) Folate (µg)

29 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Myth or Fact? “Modern bread is less nutritious than traditionally produced bread.” MYTH

30 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Modern vs. traditional bread There is a misconception that modern bread is less nutritious than more traditional bread. But this is not true. There is no difference in nutrient content between bread made the modern or traditional way. The nutrient content of bread mainly depends on the type of flour used and the addition of nutrients during milling.

31 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Contribution of bread to UK nutrient intakes Bread makes an important contribution to the nutrient content of the UK diet. The next slide shows the proportion of specific nutrients that people in the UK get from bread. These are average population values, and the actual contribution of bread will, of course, depend on the amount each individual eats and the other food choices made.

32 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Contribution of bread to UK nutrient intakes +Macronutrients Carbohydrate16-20%Dietary fibre20% Protein9-11% *Vitamins*Minerals Thiamin14%Calcium19% Folate11%Iron15% Niacin11%Magnesium13% Zinc11% Potassium5% Selenium5% * NDNS (2000/2001) + NDNS (2010/2011)

33 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Contribution of bread to UK nutrient intakes On average, 2 ½ slices of bread are consumed each day. In the 1940s people ate on average 7 slices of bread per day, so the contribution of bread to nutrient intakes would have been higher.

34 © FAB and AHDB 2013 How lower bread intake can impact on nutrient intake Changing anything in our diet will alter nutrient intake, although this will always depend on what a certain food is replaced with (if at all). Bread is a starchy food and therefore the basis for meals, for example as toast for breakfast, or as a sandwich for lunch.

35 © FAB and AHDB 2013 How lower bread intake can impact on nutrient intake If bread is replaced by another starchy food, for example breakfast cereal in the morning or a jacket potato for lunch, then the nutrient intakes will be less affected than if bread is simply avoided and not replaced by other starchy foods. If bread is avoided, this can have a substantial impact on nutrient intakes, including dietary fibre.

36 © FAB and AHDB 2013 How lower bread intake can impact on nutrient intake Intakes of some of the micronutrients present in bread are already low in some groups within the UK (e.g. iron, calcium, magnesium, selenium and folate). Avoiding bread and starchy foods, or any other major food group, increases the risk of inadequate nutrient intakes, which can affect health.

37 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Summary Bread provides a number of nutrients that are important for health. Bread is an important contributor to fibre and nutrients, such as calcium and iron, in the UK diet. Certain nutrients are added to white and brown flour during milling to restore levels lost when removing the bran or for fortification purposes, to increase the population’s intake of specific nutrients Wholemeal bread is higher in fibre than white or brown bread so a good choice for many of us.

38 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Summary The nutrient content of bread mainly depends on the type of flour used (white, wholemeal or brown), and not the method used for bread making. Bread also provides phytochemicals, which are beneficial for health. Avoiding bread along with other starchy foods in the diet can increase the risk of insufficient nutrient and fibre intakes.

39 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Quiz Time to test your knowledge! Home END

40 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 1 What proportion of our daily energy intake should be provided by carbohydrate? A. 30% B. 40% C. 50% or more

41 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! Next question Next question

42 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again Next question Next question

43 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 2 What is the recommended daily fibre intake for adults? A. 18g B. 20g C. 22g

44 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! Next question Next question

45 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again Next question Next question

46 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 3 Which of these nutrients must be restored during the bread making process in UK law? A. Thiamin B. Sodium C. Potassium

47 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! Next question Next question

48 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again Next question Next question

49 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 4 Which type of bread provides the most fibre? A. Granary bread A. Granary bread B. Brown bread B. Brown bread C. Wholemeal bread C. Wholemeal bread

50 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! Next question Next question

51 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again Next question Next question

52 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 5 Which macronutrient is provided in the largest amount by bread? C. Fat A. Protein B. Carbohydrate

53 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! Next question Next question

54 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again Next question Next question

55 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 6 A lack of fibre in the diet can lead to which of the following? A.TirednessTiredness A.TirednessTiredness B. Anaemia C. Digestive problems C. Digestive problems

56 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! Next question Next question

57 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again Next question Next question

58 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 7 What is the energy density of bread? A.LowLow A.LowLow B. Medium C. High

59 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! Next question Next question

60 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again Next question Next question

61 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Question 8 How much of the daily fibre requirements do two slices of wholemeal bread provide? A.5%5% A.5%5% B. 15% C. 20%

62 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Correct! End of quiz

63 © FAB and AHDB 2013 Incorrect Try again End of quiz End of quiz

64 © FAB and AHDB 2013 © FAB and AHDB


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