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Global Overlay Network : PlanetLab Claudio E.Righetti 6 October, 2005 (some slides taken from Larry Peterson)

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Presentation on theme: "Global Overlay Network : PlanetLab Claudio E.Righetti 6 October, 2005 (some slides taken from Larry Peterson)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Overlay Network : PlanetLab Claudio E.Righetti 6 October, 2005 (some slides taken from Larry Peterson)

2 “PlanetLab: An Overlay Testbed for Broad-Coverage Services “ Bavier, Bowman, Chun, Culler, Peterson, Roscoe, Wawrzoniak. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review. Volume 33 Number 3 : July 2003 “ Overcoming the Internet Impasse through Virtualization “ Anderson, Peterson, Shenker, Turner. IEEE Computer. April 2005 “Towards a Comprehensive PlanetLab Architecture”, Larry Peterson, Andy Bavier, Marc Fiuczynski, Steve Muir, and Timothy Roscoe, June 2005

3 Overview 1.What is PlanetLab? 2.Architecture 1.Local: Nodes 2.Global: Network 3.Details 1.Virtual Machines 2.Maintenance

4 What Is PlanetLab? Geographically distributed overlay network Testbed for broad-coverage network services

5 PlanetLab Goal “…to support seamless migration of an application from an early prototype, through multiple design iterations, to a popular service that continues to evolve.”

6 Priorities Diversity of Network –Geographic –Links Edge-sites, co-location and routing centers, homes (DSL, cable-modem) Flexibility –Allow experimenters maximal control over PlanetLab nodes –Securely and fairly

7 Architecture Overview Slice : horizontal cut of global PlanetLab resources Service : set of distributed and cooperating programs delivering some higher-level functionality Each service runs in a slice of PlanetLab

8 Services Run in Slices PlanetLab Nodes

9 Services Run in Slices PlanetLab Nodes Virtual Machines Service / Slice A

10 Services Run in Slices PlanetLab Nodes Virtual Machines Service / Slice A Service / Slice B

11 Services Run in Slices PlanetLab Nodes Virtual Machines Service / Slice A Service / Slice B Service / Slice C

12 “… to view slice as a network of Virtual Machines, with a set of local resources bound to each VM.”

13 Virtual Machine Monitor ( VMM) Multiple VMs run on each PlanetLab node VMM arbitrates the nodes’s resources among them

14 PlanetLab Architecture Node-level –Several virtual machines on each node, each running a different service Resources distributed fairly Services are isolated from each other Network-level –Node managers, agents, brokers, and service managers provide interface and maintain PlanetLab

15 Per-Node View Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) Node Mgr Local Admin VM 1 VM 2 VM n …

16 Node Architecture Goals Provide a virtual machine for each service running on a node Isolate virtual machines Allow maximal control over virtual machines Fair allocation of resources –Network, CPU, memory, disk

17 PlanetLab’s design philosophy Application Programming Interface used by tipical services Protection Interface implemented by the VMM PlanetLab node virtualization mechanisms are characterized by the these two interfaces are drawn

18 One Extreme: Software Runtimes (e.g., Java Virtual Machine, MS CLR) Very High level API Depend on OS to provide protection and resource allocation Not flexible

19 Other Extreme: Complete Virtual Machine (e.g., VMware) Very Low level API (hardware) –Maximum flexibility Excellent protection High CPU/Memory overhead –Cannot share common resources among virtual machines OS, common filesystem High-end commercial server, 10s VM

20 Mainstream Operating System API and protection at same level (system calls) Simple implementation (e.g., Slice = process group) Efficient use of resources (shared memory, common OS) Bad protection and isolation Maximum Control and Security?

21 PlanetLab Virtualization: VServers Kernel patch to mainstream OS (Linux) Gives appearance of separate kernel for each virtual machine –Root privileges restricted to activities that do not affect other vservers Some modification: resource control (e.g., File handles, port numbers) and protection facilities added

22 PlanetLab Network Architecture Node manger (one per node) –Create slices for service managers When service managers provide valid tickets –Allocate resources for vservers Resource Monitor (one per node) –Track node’s available resources –Tell agents about available resources

23 PlanetLab Network Architecture Agent (centralized) –Track nodes’ free resources –Advertise resources to resource brokers –Issue tickets to resource brokers Tickets may be redeemed with node managers to obtain the resource

24 PlanetLab Network Architecture Resource Broker (per service) –Obtain tickets from agents on behalf of service managers Service Manager (per service) –Obtain tickets from broker –Redeem tickets with node managers to acquire resources –If resources can be acquired, start service

25 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker

26 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker Resource Monitor

27 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker Resource Monitor

28 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker Resource Monitor ticket

29 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket Resource Monitor

30 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket Resource Monitor ticket

31 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket

32 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket

33 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket

34 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket

35 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket Node Manager

36 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket

37 Obtaining a Slice Agent Service Manager Broker ticket

38 PlanetLab Today

39 PlanetLab Today Global distributed systems infrastructure –platform for long-running services –testbed for network experiments 583 nodes around the world –30 countries –250+ institutions (universities, research labs, gov’t) Standard PC servers –150–200 users per server –30–40 active per hour, 5–10 at any given time –memory, CPU both heavily over-utilised

40 Node Software Linux Fedora Core 2 –kernel being upgraded to FC4 –always up-to-date with security-related patches VServer patches provide security –each user gets own VM (‘slice’) –limited root capabilities CKRM/VServer patches provide resource mgmt –proportional share CPU scheduling –hierarchical token bucket controls network Tx bandwidth –physical memory limits –disk quotas

41 Issues Multiple VM Types –Linux vservers, Xen domains Federation –EU, Japan, China Resource Allocation –Policy, markets Infrastructure Services –Delegation Need to define the PlanetLab Architecture

42 Key Architectural Ideas Distributed virtualization –slice = set of virtual machines Unbundled management –infrastructure services run in their own slice Chain of responsibility –account for behavior of third-party software –manage trust relationships

43 N x N Trust Relationships Princeton Berkeley Washington MIT Brown CMU NYU ETH Harvard HP Labs Intel NEC Labs Purdue UCSD SICS Cambridge Cornell … princeton_codeen nyu_d cornell_beehive att_mcash cmu_esm harvard_ice hplabs_donutlab idsl_psepr irb_phi paris6_landmarks mit_dht mcgill_card huji_ender arizona_stork ucb_bamboo ucsd_share umd_scriptroute … Trusted Intermediary (PLC)

44 Principals Node Owners –host one or more nodes (retain ultimate control) –selects an MA and approves of one or more SAs Service Providers (Developers) –implements and deploys network services –responsible for the service’s behavior Management Authority (MA) –installs an maintains software on nodes –creates VMs and monitors their behavior Slice Authority (SA) –registers service providers –creates slices and binds them to responsible provider

45 Trust Relationships (1) Owner trusts MA to map network activity to responsible slice MA Owner Provider SA (2) Owner trusts SA to map slice to responsible providers (3) Provider trusts SA to create VMs on its behalf 3 (4) Provider trusts MA to provide working VMs & not falsely accuse it 4 (5) SA trusts provider to deploy responsible services (6) MA trusts owner to keep nodes physically secure

46 Architectural Elements MA NM + VMM node database Node Owner VM SCS SA slice database VM Service Provider

47 Narrow Waist Name space for slices Node Manager Interface rspec = < vm_type = linux_vserver, cpu_share = 32, mem_limit - 128MB, disk_quota = 5GB, base_rate = 1Kbps, burst_rate = 100Mbps, sustained_rate = 1.5Mbps >

48 Node Boot/Install Process NodePLC Boot Server 1. Boots from BootCD (Linux loaded) 2. Hardware initialized 3. Read network config. from floppy 7. Node key read into memory from floppy 4. Contact PLC (MA) 6. Execute boot mgr Boot Manager 8. Invoke Boot API 10. State = “install”, run installer 11. Update node state via Boot API 13. Chain-boot node (no restart) 14. Node booted 9. Verify node key, send current node state 12. Verify node key, change state to “boot” 5. Send boot manager

49 PlanetFlow Logs every outbound IP flow on every node –accesses ulogd via Proper –retrieves packet headers, timestamps, context ids (batched) –used to audit traffic Aggregated and archived at PLC

50 Chain of Responsibility Join Request PI submits Consortium paperwork and requests to join PI Activated PLC verifies PI, activates account, enables site (logged) User Activated Users create accounts with keys, PI activates accounts (logged) Nodes Added to Slices Users add nodes to their slice (logged) Slice Traffic Logged Experiments run on nodes and generate traffic (logged by Netflow) Traffic Logs Centrally Stored PLC periodically pulls traffic logs from nodes Slice Created PI creates slice and assigns users to it (logged) Network Activity Slice Responsible Users & PI

51 Slice Creation PLC (SA) VMM NMVM PI SliceCreate( ) SliceUsersAdd( ) User SliceNodesAdd( ) SliceAttributeSet( ) SliceInstantiate( ) SliceGetAll( ) slices.xml VM …

52 Slice Creation PLC (SA) VMM NMVM PI SliceCreate( ) SliceUsersAdd( ) User SliceAttributeSet( ) SliceGetTicket( ) VM … (distribute ticket to slice creation service) SliverCreate(ticket)

53 Brokerage Service PLC (SA) VMM NMVM PI SliceCreate( ) SliceUsersAdd( ) Broker SliceAttributeSet( ) SliceGetTicket( ) VM … (distribute ticket to brokerage service) rcap = PoolCreate(ticket)

54 Brokerage Service (cont) PLC (SA) VMM NMVM … (broker contacts relevant nodes) PoolSplit(rcap, slice, rspec) VM User BuyResources( ) Broker

55 VIRTUAL MACHINES

56 PlanetLab Virtual Machines: VServers Extend the idea of chroot(2) –New vserver created by system call –Descendent processes inherit vserver –Unique filesystem, SYSV IPC, UID/GID space –Limited root privilege Can’t control host node –Irreversible

57 Scalability Reduce disk footprint using copy-on-write –Immutable flag provides file-level CoW –Vservers share 508MB basic filesystem Each additional vserver takes 29MB Increase limits on kernel resources (e.g., file descriptors) –Is the kernel designed to handle this? (inefficient data structures?)

58 Protected Raw Sockets Services may need low-level network access –Cannot allow them access to other services’ packets Provide “protected” raw sockets –TCP/UDP bound to local port –Incoming packets delivered only to service with corresponding port registered –Outgoing packets scanned to prevent spoofing ICMP also supported –16-bit identifier placed in ICMP header

59 Resource Limits Node-wide cap on outgoing network bandwidth –Protect the world from PlanetLab services Isolation between vservers: two approaches –Fairness: each of N vservers gets 1/N of the resources during contention –Guarantees: each slice reserves certain amount of resources (e.g., 1Mbps bandwidth, 10Mcps CPU) Left-over resources distributed fairly

60 Linux and CPU Resource Management The scheduler in Linux provides fairness by process, not by vserver –Vserver with many processes hogs CPU No current way for scheduler to provide guaranteed slices of CPU time

61 MANAGEMENT SERVICES

62 PlanetLab Network Management 1.PlanetLab Nodes boot a small Linux OS from CD, run on RAM disk 2.Contacts a bootserver 3.Bootserver sends a (signed) startup script Boot normally or Write new filesystem or Start sshd for remote PlanetLab Admin login Nodes can be remotely power-cycled

63 Dynamic Slice Creation 1.Node Manager verifies tickets from service manager 2.Creates a new vserver 3.Creates an account on the node and on the vserver

64 User Logs in to PlanetLab Node /bin/vsh immediately: 1.Switches to the account’s associated vserver 2.Chroot()s to the associated root directory 3.Relinquishes true root privileges 4.Switch UID/GID to account on vserver –Transition to vserver is transparent: it appears the user just logged into the PlanetLab node directly


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